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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory system SNPs moderate the association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Low birth weight is associated with increased risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); however, the etiological underpinnings of this relationship remain unclear. This study investigated if genetic variants in angiogenic, dopaminergic, neurotrophic, kynurenine, and cytokine-related biological pathways moderate the relationship between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity. A total of 398 youth from two multi-site, family-based studies of ADHD were included in the analysis. The sample consisted of 360 ADHD probands, 21 affected siblings, and 17 unaffected siblings. A set of 164 SNPs from 31 candidate genes, representing five biological pathways, were included in our analyses. Birth weight and gestational age data were collected from a state birth registry, medical records, and parent report. Generalized Estimating Equations tested for main effects and interactions between individual SNPs and birth weight centile in predicting ADHD symptom severity. SNPs within neurotrophic (NTRK3) and cytokine genes (CNTFR) were associated with ADHD inattentive symptom severity. There was no main effect of birth weight centile on ADHD symptom severity. SNPs within angiogenic (NRP1 & NRP2), neurotrophic (NTRK1 & NTRK3), cytokine (IL16 & S100B), and kynurenine (CCBL1 & CCBL2) genes moderate the association between birth weight centile and ADHD symptom severity. The SNP main effects and SNP?×?birth weight centile interactions remained significant after adjusting for multiple testing. Genetic variability in angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory systems may moderate the association between restricted prenatal growth, a proxy for an adverse prenatal environment, and risk to develop ADHD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Multilevel analysis of ADHD, anxiety and depression symptoms aggregation in families.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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A strong genetic role in the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been demonstrated by several studies using different methodologies. Shortcomings of genetic studies often include the lack of golden standard practices for diagnosis for ADHD, the use of categorical instead of a dimensional approach, and the disregard for assortative mating phenomenon in parents. The current study aimed to overcome these shortcomings and analyze data through a novel statistical approach, using multilevel analyses with Bayesian procedures and a specific mathematical model, which takes into account data with an elevated number of zero responses (expected in samples with few or no ADHD symptoms). Correlations of parental clinical variables (ADHD, anxiety and depression) to offspring psychopathology may vary according to gender and type of symptoms. We aimed to investigate how those variables interact within each other. One hundred families, comprising a proband child or adolescent with ADHD or a typically developing child or adolescent were included and all family members (both biological parents, the proband child or adolescent and their sibling) were examined through semi-structured interviews using DSM-IV criteria. Results indicated that: (a) maternal clinical variables (ADHD, anxiety and depression) were more correlated with offspring variables than paternal ones; (b) maternal inattention (but not hyperactivity) was correlated with both inattention and hyperactivity in the offspring; (c) maternal anxiety was correlated with offspring inattention; on the other hand, maternal inattention was correlated with anxiety in the offspring. Although a family study design limits the possibility of revealing causality and cannot disentangle genetic and environmental factors, our findings suggest that ADHD, anxiety and depression are variables that correlate in families and should be addressed together. Maternal variables significantly correlated with offspring variables, but the paternal variables did not.
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Neurocognitive predictors of substance use disorders and nicotine dependence in ADHD probands, their unaffected siblings, and controls: a 4-year prospective follow-up.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for substance use disorders (SUDs) and nicotine dependence (ND). Neurocognitive deficits may predict the increased risk of developing SUDs and nicotine dependence.
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When self-report diverges from performance: the usage of BIS-11 along with neuropsychological tests.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Impulsivity has been fractionated into multiple independent, but correlated, components. Personality and neuropsychological studies have consistently shown its multidimensional nature. Each theoretical approach uses different techniques such as self-report questionnaires and neuropsychological tests to assess impulsivity, respectively. Our main objective was to investigate if there is evidence of convergent validity for impulsivity as assessed by both types of measures. We administered the Barratt Impulsivity Scale 11 and two neuropsychological tests (Iowa Gambling Task and Continuous Performance Task) to 266 participants to measure inhibition control and non-planning impulsivity dimensions. Results from an exploratory factorial analysis and group comparison indicated there was little evidence of convergent validity between the two types of measures. These findings are discussed in terms of impulsivity as a multi-factorial construct as well as the specific instruments used for assessment. Implications for psychological theory and impulsivity assessment were also proposed.
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Quantitative linkage for autism spectrum disorders symptoms in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: significant locus on chromosome 7q11.
J Autism Dev Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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We studied 261 ADHD probands and 354 of their siblings to assess quantitative trait loci associated with autism spectrum disorder symptoms (as measured by the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ)) using a genome-wide linkage approach, followed by locus-wide association analysis. A genome-wide significant locus for the CSBQ subscale addressing social interaction was found on chromosome 7q11, with suggestive signals supporting this locus on three other CSBQ subscales. We identified two other suggestive loci for the CSBQ total scale and individual subscales on chromosomes 4q35 and 7p12. Fine-mapping the significantly linked locus resulted in interesting candidate genes, although their association was not significant after permutation testing.
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Abnormal striatal BOLD responses to reward anticipation and reward delivery in ADHD.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Altered reward processing has been proposed to contribute to the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The neurobiological mechanism underlying this alteration remains unclear. We hypothesize that the transfer of dopamine release from reward to reward-predicting cues, as normally observed in animal studies, may be deficient in ADHD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate striatal responses to reward-predicting cues and reward delivery in a classical conditioning paradigm. Data from 14 high-functioning and stimulant-naïve young adults with elevated lifetime symptoms of ADHD (8 males, 6 females) and 15 well-matched controls (8 males, 7 females) were included in the analyses. During reward anticipation, increased blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the right ventral and left dorsal striatum were observed in controls, but not in the ADHD group. The opposite pattern was observed in response to reward delivery; the ADHD group demonstrated significantly greater BOLD responses in the ventral striatum bilaterally and the left dorsal striatum relative to controls. In the ADHD group, the number of current hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms was inversely related to ventral striatal responses during reward anticipation and positively associated with responses to reward. The BOLD response patterns observed in the striatum are consistent with impaired predictive dopamine signaling in ADHD, which may explain altered reward-contingent behaviors and symptoms of ADHD.
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Influence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on binge eating behaviors and psychiatric comorbidity profile of obese women.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Previous studies have reported higher prevalence rates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) both in eating disorders (ED) and in obese patients. We compared the psychiatric comorbidity profile of obese ADHD women with non-ADHD obese women and how ADHD symptoms impact in binge eating behaviors.
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Polygenic transmission and complex neuro developmental network for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: genome-wide association study of both common and rare variants.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
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Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex polygenic disorder. This study aimed to discover common and rare DNA variants associated with ADHD in a large homogeneous Han Chinese ADHD case-control sample. The sample comprised 1,040 cases and 963 controls. All cases met DSM-IV ADHD diagnostic criteria. We used the Affymetrix6.0 array to assay both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variants (CNVs). Genome-wide association analyses were performed using PLINK. SNP-heritability and SNP-genetic correlations with ADHD in Caucasians were estimated with genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA). Pathway analyses were performed using the Interval enRICHment Test (INRICH), the Disease Association Protein-Protein Link Evaluator (DAPPLE), and the Genomic Regions Enrichment of Annotations Tool (GREAT). We did not find genome-wide significance for single SNPs but did find an increased burden of large, rare CNVs in the ADHD sample (P = 0.038). SNP-heritability was estimated to be 0.42 (standard error, 0.13, P = 0.0017) and the SNP-genetic correlation with European Ancestry ADHD samples was 0.39 (SE 0.15, P = 0.0072). The INRICH, DAPPLE, and GREAT analyses implicated several gene ontology cellular components, including neuron projections and synaptic components, which are consistent with a neurodevelopmental pathophysiology for ADHD. This study suggested the genetic architecture of ADHD comprises both common and rare variants. Some common causal variants are likely to be shared between Han Chinese and Caucasians. Complex neurodevelopmental networks may underlie ADHDs etiology.
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Candidate genetic pathways for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show association to hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in children with ADHD.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Because multiple genes with small effect sizes are assumed to play a role in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) etiology, considering multiple variants within the same analysis likely increases the total explained phenotypic variance, thereby boosting the power of genetic studies. This study investigated whether pathway-based analysis could bring scientists closer to unraveling the biology of ADHD.
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Substance use disorders in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a 4-year follow-up study.
Addiction
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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To examine the relationship between a childhood diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with or without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD) and the development of later alcohol/drug use disorder [psychoactive substance use disorder (PSUD)] and nicotine dependence in a large European sample of ADHD probands, their siblings and healthy control subjects. PARTICIPANTS, DESIGN AND SETTING: Subjects (n?=?1017) were participants in the Belgian, Dutch and German part of the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study. IMAGE families were identified through ADHD probands aged 5-17 years attending out-patient clinics, and control subjects from the same geographic areas. After a follow-up period (mean: 4.4 years) this subsample was re-assessed at a mean age of 16.4 years.
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Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs.
, S Hong Lee, Stephan Ripke, Benjamin M Neale, Stephen V Faraone, Shaun M Purcell, Roy H Perlis, Bryan J Mowry, Anita Thapar, Michael E Goddard, John S Witte, Devin Absher, Ingrid Agartz, Huda Akil, Farooq Amin, Ole A Andreassen, Adebayo Anjorin, Richard Anney, Verneri Anttila, Dan E Arking, Philip Asherson, Maria H Azevedo, Lena Backlund, Judith A Badner, Anthony J Bailey, Tobias Banaschewski, Jack D Barchas, Michael R Barnes, Thomas B Barrett, Nicholas Bass, Agatino Battaglia, Michael Bauer, Mònica Bayés, Frank Bellivier, Sarah E Bergen, Wade Berrettini, Catalina Betancur, Thomas Bettecken, Joseph Biederman, Elisabeth B Binder, Donald W Black, Douglas H R Blackwood, Cinnamon S Bloss, Michael Boehnke, Dorret I Boomsma, Gerome Breen, René Breuer, Richard Bruggeman, Paul Cormican, Nancy G Buccola, Jan K Buitelaar, William E Bunney, Joseph D Buxbaum, William F Byerley, Enda M Byrne, Sian Caesar, Wiepke Cahn, Rita M Cantor, Miguel Casas, Aravinda Chakravarti, Kimberly Chambert, Khalid Choudhury, Sven Cichon, C Robert Cloninger, David A Collier, Edwin H Cook, Hilary Coon, Bru Cormand, Aiden Corvin, William H Coryell, David W Craig, Ian W Craig, Jennifer Crosbie, Michael L Cuccaro, David Curtis, Darina Czamara, Susmita Datta, Geraldine Dawson, Richard Day, Eco J De Geus, Franziska Degenhardt, Srdjan Djurovic, Gary J Donohoe, Alysa E Doyle, Jubao Duan, Frank Dudbridge, Eftichia Duketis, Richard P Ebstein, Howard J Edenberg, Josephine Elia, Sean Ennis, Bruno Etain, Ayman Fanous, Anne E Farmer, I Nicol Ferrier, Matthew Flickinger, Eric Fombonne, Tatiana Foroud, Josef Frank, Barbara Franke, Christine Fraser, Robert Freedman, Nelson B Freimer, Christine M Freitag, Marion Friedl, Louise Frisén, Louise Gallagher, Pablo V Gejman, Lyudmila Georgieva, Elliot S Gershon, Daniel H Geschwind, Ina Giegling, Michael Gill, Scott D Gordon, Katherine Gordon-Smith, Elaine K Green, Tiffany A Greenwood, Dorothy E Grice, Magdalena Gross, Detelina Grozeva, Weihua Guan, Hugh Gurling, Lieuwe de Haan, Jonathan L Haines, Hakon Hakonarson, Joachim Hallmayer, Steven P Hamilton, Marian L Hamshere, Thomas F Hansen, Annette M Hartmann, Martin Hautzinger, Andrew C Heath, Anjali K Henders, Stefan Herms, Ian B Hickie, Maria Hipolito, Susanne Hoefels, Peter A Holmans, Florian Holsboer, Witte J Hoogendijk, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Christina M Hultman, Vanessa Hus, Andrés Ingason, Marcus Ising, Stéphane Jamain, Edward G Jones, Ian Jones, Lisa Jones, Jung-Ying Tzeng, Anna K Kähler, René S Kahn, Radhika Kandaswamy, Matthew C Keller, James L Kennedy, Elaine Kenny, Lindsey Kent, Yunjung Kim, George K Kirov, Sabine M Klauck, Lambertus Klei, James A Knowles, Martin A Kohli, Daniel L Koller, Bettina Konte, Ania Korszun, Lydia Krabbendam, Robert Krasucki, Jonna Kuntsi, Phoenix Kwan, Mikael Landén, Niklas Långström, Mark Lathrop, Jacob Lawrence, William B Lawson, Marion Leboyer, David H Ledbetter, Phil H Lee, Todd Lencz, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Douglas F Levinson, Cathryn M Lewis, Jun Li, Paul Lichtenstein, Jeffrey A Lieberman, Dan-Yu Lin, Don H Linszen, Chunyu Liu, Falk W Lohoff, Sandra K Loo, Catherine Lord, Jennifer K Lowe, Susanne Lucae, Donald J MacIntyre, Pamela A F Madden, Elena Maestrini, Patrik K E Magnusson, Pamela B Mahon, Wolfgang Maier, Anil K Malhotra, Shrikant M Mane, Christa L Martin, Nicholas G Martin, Manuel Mattheisen, Keith Matthews, Morten Mattingsdal, Steven A McCarroll, Kevin A McGhee, James J McGough, Patrick J McGrath, Peter McGuffin, Melvin G McInnis, Andrew McIntosh, Rebecca McKinney, Alan W McLean, Francis J McMahon, William M McMahon, Andrew McQuillin, Helena Medeiros, Sarah E Medland, Sandra Meier, Ingrid Melle, Fan Meng, Jobst Meyer, Christel M Middeldorp, Lefkos Middleton, Vihra Milanova, Ana Miranda, Anthony P Monaco, Grant W Montgomery, Jennifer L Moran, Daniel Moreno-De-Luca, Gunnar Morken, Derek W Morris, Eric M Morrow, Valentina Moskvina, Pierandrea Muglia, Thomas W Mühleisen, Walter J Muir, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Michael Murtha, Richard M Myers, Inez Myin-Germeys, Michael C Neale, Stan F Nelson, Caroline M Nievergelt, Ivan Nikolov, Vishwajit Nimgaonkar, Willem A Nolen, Markus M Nöthen, John I Nurnberger, Evaristus A Nwulia, Dale R Nyholt, Colm O'Dushlaine, Robert D Oades, Ann Olincy, Guiomar Oliveira, Line Olsen, Roel A Ophoff, Urban Osby, Michael J Owen, Aarno Palotie, Jeremy R Parr, Andrew D Paterson, Carlos N Pato, Michele T Pato, Brenda W Penninx, Michele L Pergadia, Margaret A Pericak-Vance, Benjamin S Pickard, Jonathan Pimm, Joseph Piven, Danielle Posthuma, James B Potash, Fritz Poustka, Peter Propping, Vinay Puri, Digby J Quested, Emma M Quinn, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Henrik B Rasmussen, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Karola Rehnström, Andreas Reif, Marta Ribasés, John P Rice, Marcella Rietschel, Kathryn Roeder, Herbert Roeyers, Lizzy Rossin, Aribert Rothenberger, Guy Rouleau, Douglas Ruderfer, Dan Rujescu, Alan R Sanders, Stephan J Sanders, Susan L Santangelo, Joseph A Sergeant, Russell Schachar, Martin Schalling, Alan F Schatzberg, William A Scheftner, Gerard D Schellenberg, Stephen W Scherer, Nicholas J Schork, Thomas G Schulze, Johannes Schumacher, Markus Schwarz, Edward Scolnick, Laura J Scott, Jianxin Shi, Paul D Shilling, Stanley I Shyn, Jeremy M Silverman, Susan L Slager, Susan L Smalley, Johannes H Smit, Erin N Smith, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke, David St Clair, Matthew State, Michael Steffens, Hans-Christoph Steinhausen, John S Strauss, Jana Strohmaier, T Scott Stroup, James S Sutcliffe, Peter Szatmari, Szabocls Szelinger, Srinivasa Thirumalai, Robert C Thompson, Alexandre A Todorov, Federica Tozzi, Jens Treutlein, Manfred Uhr, Edwin J C G van den Oord, Gerard van Grootheest, Jim van Os, Astrid M Vicente, Veronica J Vieland, John B Vincent, Peter M Visscher, Christopher A Walsh, Thomas H Wassink, Stanley J Watson, Myrna M Weissman, Thomas Werge, Thomas F Wienker, Ellen M Wijsman, Gonneke Willemsen, Nigel Williams, A Jeremy Willsey, Stephanie H Witt, Wei Xu, Allan H Young, Timothy W Yu, Stanley Zammit, Peter P Zandi, Peng Zhang, Frans G Zitman, Sebastian Zöllner, Bernie Devlin, John R Kelsoe, Pamela Sklar, Mark J Daly, Michael C O'Donovan, Nicholas Craddock, Patrick F Sullivan, Jordan W Smoller, Kenneth S Kendler, Naomi R Wray.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2013
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Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We apply univariate and bivariate methods for the estimation of genetic variation within and covariation between disorders. SNPs explained 17-29% of the variance in liability. The genetic correlation calculated using common SNPs was high between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (0.68 ± 0.04 s.e.), moderate between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (0.43 ± 0.06 s.e.), bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (0.47 ± 0.06 s.e.), and ADHD and major depressive disorder (0.32 ± 0.07 s.e.), low between schizophrenia and ASD (0.16 ± 0.06 s.e.) and non-significant for other pairs of disorders as well as between psychiatric disorders and the negative control of Crohns disease. This empirical evidence of shared genetic etiology for psychiatric disorders can inform nosology and encourages the investigation of common pathophysiologies for related disorders.
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A behavioral neuroenergetics theory of ADHD.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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Energetic insufficiency in neurons due to inadequate lactate supply is implicated in several neuropathologies, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). By formalizing the mechanism and implications of such constraints on function, the behavioral Neuroenergetics Theory (NeT) predicts the results of many neuropsychological tasks involving individuals with ADHD and kindred dysfunctions, and entails many novel predictions. The associated diffusion model predicts that response times will follow a mixture of Wald distributions from the attentive state, and ex-Wald distributions after attentional lapses. It is inferred from the model that ADHD participants can bring only 75-85% of the neurocognitive energy to bear on tasks, and allocate only about 85% of the cognitive resources of comparison groups. Parameters derived from the model in specific tasks predict performance in other tasks, and in clinical conditions often associated with ADHD. The primary action of therapeutic stimulants is to increase norepinephrine in active regions of the brain. This activates glial adrenoceptors, increasing the release of lactate from astrocytes to fuel depleted neurons. The theory is aligned with other approaches and integrated with more general theories of ADHD. Therapeutic implications are explored.
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Nonpharmacological interventions for ADHD: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of dietary and psychological treatments.
Am J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Nonpharmacological treatments are available for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although their efficacy remains uncertain. The authors undertook meta-analyses of the efficacy of dietary (restricted elimination diets, artificial food color exclusions, and free fatty acid supplementation) and psychological (cognitive training, neurofeedback, and behavioral interventions) ADHD treatments.
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Practitioner review: current best practice in the management of adverse events during treatment with ADHD medications in children and adolescents.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Medication is an important element of therapeutic strategies for ADHD. While medications for ADHD are generally well-tolerated, there are common, although less severe, as well as rare but severe adverse events AEs during treatment with ADHD drugs. The aim of this review is to provide evidence- and expert-based guidance concerning the management of (AEs) with medications for ADHD.
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The dopamine receptor D4 7-repeat allele influences neurocognitive functioning, but this effect is moderated by age and ADHD status: an exploratory study.
World J. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
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Evidence suggests the involvement of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) in the pathogenesis of ADHD, but the exact mechanism is not well understood. Earlier reports on the effects of DRD4 polymorphisms on neurocognitive and neuroimaging measures are inconsistent. This study investigated the functional consequences of the 7-repeat allele of DRD4 on neurocognitive endophenotypes of ADHD in the Dutch subsample of the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics study.
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The hierarchical factor model of ADHD: invariant across age and national groupings?
J Child Psychol Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
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To examine the factor structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a clinical sample of 1,373 children and adolescents with ADHD and their 1,772 unselected siblings recruited from different countries across a large age range. Hierarchical and correlated factor analytic models were compared separately in the ADHD and sibling samples, across three different instruments and across parent and teacher informants. Specific consideration was given to factorial invariance analyses across different ages and different countries in the ADHD sample.
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RD, ADHD, and their comorbidity from a dual route perspective.
Child Neuropsychol
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2011
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In order to achieve further insight into the comorbidity of reading disorder (RD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), lexical processing and rapid naming were studied in RD and ADHD. The Dual Route Cascaded model postulates that lexical processing contains two parallel processes: lexical route processing and sublexical route processing. An orthographic decision task and a phonological decision task were used to measure lexical and sublexical route processing, respectively. In addition, a rapid naming task was used to compare 27 children with RD, 18 children with ADHD, 20 children with ADHD+RD, and 29 controls. RD and ADHD shared impairments in accuracy of orthographic and phonological decision making as well as in rapid naming, which suggest that RD and ADHD may be overlapping disorders that share deficits in both lexical route and sublexical route processing. RD was dissociated from ADHD by being slower in both orthographical and phonological decision making that indicates unique deficits in RD on lexical and sublexical speed.
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Cardiovascular considerations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications: a report of the European Network on Hyperactivity Disorders work group, European Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Guidelines Group on attention deficit hyperact
Cardiol Young
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2011
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Regulatory decisions regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder drug licensing and labelling, along with recent statements from professional associations, raise questions of practice regarding the evaluation and treatment of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To address these issues for the European community, the European Network for Hyperkinetic Disorders, through its European Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Guidelines Group, organised a meeting between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder specialists, paediatric cardiovascular specialists, and representatives of the major market authorisation holders for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications. This manuscript represents their consensus on cardiovascular aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications. Although sudden death has been identified in multiple young individuals on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medication causing regulatory concern, when analysed for exposure using currently available data, sudden death does not appear to exceed that of the general population. There is no current evidence to suggest an incremental benefit to electrocardiography assessment of the general attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patient. Congenital heart disease patients have an increased prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and can benefit from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder therapies, including medication. The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder specialist is the appropriate individual to evaluate benefit and risk and recommend therapy in all patients, although discussion with a heart specialist is reasonable for congenital heart disease patients. For attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients with suspected heart disease or risk factor/s for sudden death, assessment by a heart specialist is recommended, as would also be the case for a non-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patient. The identification of risk factors for sudden death should not automatically exclude the use of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medication.
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Genome-wide copy number variation study associates metabotropic glutamate receptor gene networks with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, heritable neuropsychiatric disorder of unknown etiology. We performed a whole-genome copy number variation (CNV) study on 1,013 cases with ADHD and 4,105 healthy children of European ancestry using 550,000 SNPs. We evaluated statistically significant findings in multiple independent cohorts, with a total of 2,493 cases with ADHD and 9,222 controls of European ancestry, using matched platforms. CNVs affecting metabotropic glutamate receptor genes were enriched across all cohorts (P = 2.1 × 10(-9)). We saw GRM5 (encoding glutamate receptor, metabotropic 5) deletions in ten cases and one control (P = 1.36 × 10(-6)). We saw GRM7 deletions in six cases, and we saw GRM8 deletions in eight cases and no controls. GRM1 was duplicated in eight cases. We experimentally validated the observed variants using quantitative RT-PCR. A gene network analysis showed that genes interacting with the genes in the GRM family are enriched for CNVs in ?10% of the cases (P = 4.38 × 10(-10)) after correction for occurrence in the controls. We identified rare recurrent CNVs affecting glutamatergic neurotransmission genes that were overrepresented in multiple ADHD cohorts.
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International variation in treatment procedures for ADHD: social context and recent trends.
Psychiatr Serv
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Scientific and clinical interest in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasing worldwide. This article presents data from a cross-national workshop and survey related to questions of variability in diagnostic and, particularly, treatment procedures.
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The impact of study design and diagnostic approach in a large multi-centre ADHD study: Part 2: Dimensional measures of psychopathology and intelligence.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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The International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) project with 11 participating centres from 7 European countries and Israel has collected a large behavioural and genetic database for present and future research. Behavioural data were collected from 1068 probands with ADHD and 1446 unselected siblings. The aim was to describe and analyse questionnaire data and IQ measures from all probands and siblings. In particular, to investigate the influence of age, gender, family status (proband vs. sibling), informant, and centres on sample homogeneity in psychopathological measures.
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The impact of study design and diagnostic approach in a large multi-centre ADHD study. Part 1: ADHD symptom patterns.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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The International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) project with 11 participating centres from 7 European countries and Israel has collected a large behavioural and genetic database for present and future research. Behavioural data were collected from 1068 probands with the combined type of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-CT) and 1446 unselected siblings. The aim was to analyse the IMAGE sample with respect to demographic features (gender, age, family status, and recruiting centres) and psychopathological characteristics (diagnostic subtype, symptom frequencies, age at symptom detection, and comorbidities). A particular focus was on the effects of the study design and the diagnostic procedure on the homogeneity of the sample in terms of symptom-based behavioural data, and potential consequences for further analyses based on these data.
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Genome-wide association study of motor coordination problems in ADHD identifies genes for brain and muscle function.
World J. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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Motor coordination problems are frequent in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We performed a genome-wide association study to identify genes contributing to motor coordination problems, hypothesizing that the presence of such problems in children with ADHD may identify a sample of reduced genetic heterogeneity.
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Pre-attentive processing in children with early and continuously-treated PKU. Effects of concurrent Phe level and lifetime dietary control.
J. Inherit. Metab. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Sixty-four children, aged 7 to 14 years, with early-treated PKU, were compared with control children on visual evoked potential (VEP) amplitudes and latencies and auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) amplitudes. It was further investigated whether indices of dietary control would be associated with these evoked potentials parameters. There were no significant differences between controls and children with PKU in VEP- and MMN-indices. However, higher lifetime Phe levels were, in varying degree and stronger than concurrent Phe level, related to increased N75 amplitudes, suggesting abnormalities in attention, and longer P110 latencies, indicating a reduction in speed of neural processing, possibly due to deficits in myelination or reduced dopamine levels in brain and retina. Similarly, higher lifetime Phe levels and Index of Dietary Control (IDC) were associated with decreased MMN amplitudes, suggesting a reduced ability to respond to stimulus change and poorer triggering of the frontally mediated attention switch. In summary, the present study in children with PKU investigated bottom-up information processing, i.e., triggered by external events, a fundamental prerequisite for the individuals responsiveness to the outside world. Results provide evidence that quality of dietary control may affect the optimal development of these pre-attentive processes, and suggest the existence of windows of vulnerability to Phe exposure.
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A functional variant of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) moderates impulsive choice in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder boys and siblings.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Impulsive drive for immediate reward (IDIR) and delay aversion are dissociable elements of the preference for immediate over delayed rewards seen in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that IDIR would be associated with dopamine regulating genes and delay aversion would be associated with serotonin-regulating genes.
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ERPs associated with monitoring and evaluation of monetary reward and punishment in children with ADHD.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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Several models of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) propose abnormalities in the response to behavioural contingencies. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), the present study investigated the monitoring and subsequent evaluation of performance feedback resulting in either reward or punishment in children with ADHD (N = 18) and normal controls (N = 18) aged 8 to 12 years.
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Auditory conflict processing in ADHD.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2010
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Impaired cognitive control has been implicated as an important developmental pathway to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive control is crucial to suppress interference resulting from conflicting information and can be measured by Stroop-like tasks. This study was conducted to gain insight into conflict processing in children with ADHD.
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Separation of cognitive impairments in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into 2 familial factors.
Arch. Gen. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2010
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with widespread cognitive impairments, but it is not known whether the apparent multiple impairments share etiological roots or separate etiological pathways exist. A better understanding of the etiological pathways is important for the development of targeted interventions and for identification of suitable intermediate phenotypes for molecular genetic investigations.
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The ATXN1 and TRIM31 genes are related to intelligence in an ADHD background: evidence from a large collaborative study totaling 4,963 subjects.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2010
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Intelligence is a highly heritable trait for which it has proven difficult to identify the actual genes. In the past decade, five whole-genome linkage scans have suggested genomic regions important to human intelligence; however, so far none of the responsible genes or variants in those regions have been identified. Apart from these regions, a handful of candidate genes have been identified, although most of these are in need of replication. The recent growth in publicly available data sets that contain both whole genome association data and a wealth of phenotypic data, serves as an excellent resource for fine mapping and candidate gene replication. We used the publicly available data of 947 families participating in the International Multi-Centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study to conduct an in silico fine mapping study of previously associated genomic locations, and to attempt replication of previously reported candidate genes for intelligence. Although this sample was ascertained for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), intelligence quotient (IQ) scores were distributed normally. We tested 667 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 15 previously reported candidate genes for intelligence and 29451 SNPs in five genomic loci previously identified through whole genome linkage and association analyses. Significant SNPs were tested in four independent samples (4,357 subjects), one ascertained for ADHD, and three population-based samples. Associations between intelligence and SNPs in the ATXN1 and TRIM31 genes and in three genomic locations showed replicated association, but only in the samples ascertained for ADHD, suggesting that these genetic variants become particularly relevant to IQ on the background of a psychiatric disorder.
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Perinatal risk factors interacting with catechol O-methyltransferase and the serotonin transporter gene predict ASD symptoms in children with ADHD.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2010
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Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Given the previously found familiality of ASD symptoms in children with ADHD, addressing these symptoms may be useful for genetic association studies, especially for candidate gene findings that have not been consistently replicated for ADHD.
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Case-control genome-wide association study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus additional genomewide association studies (GWAS) are needed.
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Eunethydis: a statement of the ethical principles governing the relationship between the European group for ADHD guidelines, and its members, with commercial for-profit organisations.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2010
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The Eunethydis ADHD Guidelines group set out here the ethical principles governing the relationship between the group and industry. The principles set out here are provided to ensure that this is both done and seen to be done. The impetus for these guidelines comes from within the Group and is linked to the recognition for the need for an open and transparent basis for Group-industry relations, especially in the light of the present concern that the pharmaceutical industry may be exerting a growing influence on the actions of researchers and clinicians in the ADHD field.
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Impaired decision making in oppositional defiant disorder related to altered psychophysiological responses to reinforcement.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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When making decisions, children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are thought to focus on reward and ignore penalty. This is suggested to be associated with a state of low psychophysiological arousal.
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To act or not to act, thats the problem: primarily inhibition difficulties in adult ADHD.
Neuropsychology
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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Forty-nine carefully diagnosed adults with persistent attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), who had never been medicated for their ADHD, were compared with 49 normal control adults matched for age and gender on a large battery of tests in five domains of executive functioning (inhibition, fluency, planning, working memory, and set shifting) and several other neuropsychological functions to control for nonexecutive test demands. After stringent controls for nonexecutive function demands and IQ, adults with ADHD showed problems in inhibition and set shifting but not in any of the other executive functioning domains tested. We argue that adult ADHD may be mainly a disorder of inhibition.
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Event-related potential correlates of selective processing in early- and continuously-treated children with phenylketonuria: effects of concurrent phenylalanine level and dietary control.
Mol. Genet. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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This study focused on important characteristics of attentional (selective) processing in children with early-treated phenylketonuria (PKU). Seven to 14-year-old children with PKU were allocated to high phenylalanine (Phe) and low Phe groups and compared with control children on amplitudes and latencies of early and late event-related potential (ERP) components elicited during a selective processing task. These components are thought to measure early sensory processes (stimulus encoding/perception) and later selection processes (target detection). The effects of concurrent Phe level and dietary control on brain activity and behavioural performance were studied. Results showed that children with PKU with high Phe levels were less accurate and made more false alarms than controls and children with PKU with low Phe levels. Both children with PKU and controls displayed the expected early fronto-central selection negativity and a late positive peak over posterior sites associated with sensory aspects of the selective attention task. However, in contrast with controls, children with PKU showed an absence of condition differences for selection positivity over anterior sites associated with target detection. Negative and positive selection potentials over fronto-central sites were dependent on concurrent and historical Phe levels, whereas sensory potentials depended more strongly on historical Phe levels. It is concluded that both sensory and selection aspects of attention are affected by Phe levels. The relative predictive strength of historical Phe levels suggests that high Phe levels during sensitive periods for brain maturation may have long-lasting influences on selective attention.
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Emotional lability in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): clinical correlates and familial prevalence.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence, severity and clinical correlates of emotional lability (EL) in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to examine factors contributing to EL and familiality of EL in youth with ADHD.
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Differential effects of atomoxetine on executive functioning and lexical decision in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and reading disorder.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2009
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The effects of a promising pharmacological treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), atomoxetine, were studied on executive functions in both ADHD and reading disorder (RD) because earlier research demonstrated an overlap in executive functioning deficits in both disorders. In addition, the effects of atomoxetine were explored on lexical decision.
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Pragmatics fragmented: the factor structure of the Dutch childrens communication checklist (CCC).
Int J Lang Commun Disord
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2009
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A number of disorders are associated with pragmatic difficulties. Instruments that can make subdivisions within the larger construct of pragmatics could be important tools for disentangling profiles of pragmatic difficulty in different disorders. The deficits underlying the observed pragmatic difficulties may be different for different disorders.
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Interference control in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
J Abnorm Child Psychol
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2009
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The view that Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with a diminished ability to control interference is controversial and based exclusively on results of (verbal)-visual interference tasks, primarily the Stroop Color Word task. The present study compares medication-naïve children with ADHD (n = 35 and n = 51 in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively) with normal controls (n = 26 and n = 32, respectively) on two interference tasks to assess interference control in both the auditory and the visual modality: an Auditory Stroop task and a Simon task. Both groups showed reliable but equal degrees of interference on both tasks, suggesting that children with ADHD do not differ from normal controls in their ability to control interference in either modality.
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Does reward frequency or magnitude drive reinforcement-learning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2009
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Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show an impaired ability to use feedback in the context of learning. A stimulus-response learning task was used to investigate whether (1) children with ADHD displayed flatter learning curves, (2) reinforcement-learning in ADHD was sensitive to either reward frequency, magnitude, or both, and (3) altered sensitivity to reward was specific to ADHD or would co-occur in a group of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Performance of 23 boys with ADHD was compared with that of 30 normal controls (NCs) and 21 boys with ASD, all aged 8-12. Rewards were delivered contingent on performance and varied both in frequency (low, high) and magnitude (small, large). The findings showed that, although learning rates were comparable across groups, both clinical groups committed more errors than NCs. In contrast to the NC boys, boys with ADHD were unaffected by frequency and magnitude of reward. The NC group and, to some extent, the ASD group showed improved performance, when rewards were delivered infrequently versus frequently. Children with ADHD as well as children with ASD displayed difficulties in stimulus-response coupling that were independent of motivational modulations. Possibly, these deficits are related to abnormal reinforcement expectancy.
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The quality of life of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2009
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Quality of life (QoL) describes an individuals subjective perception of their position in life as evidenced by their physical, psychological, and social functioning. QoL has become an increasingly important measure of outcome in child mental health clinical work and research. Here we provide a systematic review of QoL studies in children and young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and address three main questions. (1) What is the impact of ADHD on QoL? (2) What are the relationships between ADHD symptoms, functional impairment and the mediators and moderators of QoL in ADHD? (3) Does the treatment of ADHD impact on QoL? Databases were systematically searched to identify research studies describing QoL in ADHD. Thirty six relevant articles were identified. Robust negative effects on QoL are reported by the parents of children with ADHD across a broad range of psycho-social, achievement and self evaluation domains. Children with ADHD rate their own QoL less negatively than their parents and do not always seeing themselves as functioning less well than healthy controls. ADHD has a comparable overall impact on QoL compared to other mental health conditions and severe physical disorders. Increased symptom level and impairment predicts poorer QoL. The presence of comorbid conditions or psychosocial stressors helps explain these effects. There is emerging evidence that QoL improves with effective treatment. In conclusion, ADHD seriously compromises QoL especially when seen from a parents perspective. QoL outcomes should be included as a matter of course in future treatment studies.
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Inhibition, reinforcement sensitivity and temporal information processing in ADHD and ADHD+ODD: evidence of a separate entity?
J Abnorm Child Psychol
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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This study compared children with ADHD-only, ADHD+ODD and normal controls (age 8-12) on three key neurocognitive functions: response inhibition, reinforcement sensitivity, and temporal information processing. The goal was twofold: (a) to investigate neurocognitive impairments in children with ADHD-only and children with ADHD+ODD, and (b) to test whether ADHD+ODD is a more severe from of ADHD in terms of neurocognitive performance. In Experiment 1, inhibition abilities were measured using the Stop Task. In Experiment 2, reinforcement sensitivity and temporal information processing abilities were measured using a Timing Task with both a reward and penalty condition. Compared to controls, children with ADHD-only demonstrated impaired inhibitory control, showed more time underestimations, and showed performance deterioration in the face of reward and penalty. Children with ADHD+ODD performed in-between children with ADHD-only and controls in terms of inhibitory controls and the tendency to underestimate time, but were more impaired than controls and children with ADHD-only in terms of timing variability. In the face of reward and penalty children with ADHD+ODD improved their performance compared to a neutral condition, in contrast to children with ADHD-only. In the face of reward, the performance improvement in the ADHD+ODD group was disproportionally larger than that of controls. Taken together the findings suggest that, in terms of neurocognitive functioning, comorbid ADHD+ODD is a substantial different entity than ADHD-only.
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How distinctive are ADHD and RD? Results of a double dissociation study.
J Abnorm Child Psychol
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
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The nature of the comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Reading Disability (RD) was examined using a double dissociation design. Children were between 8 and 12 years of age and entered into four groups: ADHD only (n = 24), ADHD+RD (n = 29), RD only (n = 41) and normal controls (n = 26). In total, 120 children participated in the study; 38 girls and 82 boys. Both ADHD and RD were associated with impairments in inhibition and lexical decision, although inhibition and lexical decision were more severely impaired in RD than in ADHD. Visuospatial working memory deficits were specific to children with only ADHD. It is concluded that there was overlap on lexical decision and to a lesser extent on inhibition between ADHD and RD. In ADHD, impairments were dependent on IQ, which suggest that the overlap in lexical decision and inhibition is different in origin for ADHD and RD. The ADHD only group was specifically characterized by deficits in visuospatial working memory. Hence, no double dissociation between ADHD and RD was found on executive functioning and lexical decision.
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Undertreatment of Motor Problems in Children with ADHD.
Child Adolesc Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2009
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BACKGROUND: Motor problems occur in 30% to 50% of children with ADHD, and have a severe impact on daily life. In clinical practice there seems to be little attention for this comorbidity with the possible consequence that these motor problems go undertreated. METHOD: Clinical interview and questionnaire survey of treatment by physiotherapy and factors predicting treatment of motor problems in 235 children with ADHD and 108 controls. RESULTS: Half of motor-affected children had received physiotherapy. Treated children had more severe motor problems, and less frequently presented with comorbid anxiety and conduct disorder. Treated and untreated children were similar in age, and rated similarly on ADHD inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive scales and parental socio-economic status. CONCLUSION: Currently, undertreatment of motor problems in ADHD occurs. Behavioural factors play a role in referral and intervention.
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Dopamine and serotonin transporter genotypes moderate sensitivity to maternal expressed emotion: the case of conduct and emotional problems in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2009
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Mothers positive emotions expressed about their children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with a reduced likelihood of comorbid conduct problems (CP). We examined whether this association with CP, and one with emotional problems (EMO), is moderated by variants within three genes, previously reported to be associated with ADHD and to moderate the impact of environmental risks on conduct and/or emotional problems; the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3/DAT1), the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) and the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4/5HTT).
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Autism symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a familial trait which correlates with conduct, oppositional defiant, language and motor disorders.
J Autism Dev Disord
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
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It is hypothesised that autism symptoms are present in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are familial and index subtypes of ADHD. Autism symptoms were compared in 821 ADHD probands, 1050 siblings and 149 controls. Shared familiality of autism symptoms and ADHD was calculated using DeFries-Fulker analysis. Autism symptoms were higher in probands than siblings or controls, and higher in male siblings than male controls. Autism symptoms were familial, partly shared with familiality of ADHD in males. Latent class analysis using SCQ-score yielded five classes; Class 1(31%) had few autism symptoms and low comorbidity; Classes 2-4 were intermediate; Class 5(7%) had high autism symptoms and comorbidity. Thus autism symptoms in ADHD represent a familial trait associated with increased neurodevelopmental and oppositional/conduct disorders.
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Comorbid problems in ADHD: degree of association, shared endophenotypes, and formation of distinct subtypes. Implications for a future DSM.
J Abnorm Child Psychol
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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We aimed to assess which comorbid problems (oppositional defiant behaviors, anxiety, autistic traits, motor coordination problems, and reading problems) were most associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); to determine whether these comorbid problems shared executive and motor problems on an endophenotype level with ADHD; and to determine whether executive functioning (EF)-and motor-endophenotypes supported the hypothesis that ADHD with comorbid problems is a qualitatively different phenotype than ADHD without comorbid problems. An EF-and a motor-endophenotype were formed based on nine neuropsychological tasks administered to 816 children from ADHD-and control-families. Additional data on comorbid problems were gathered using questionnaires. Results indicated that oppositional defiant behaviors appeared the most important comorbid problems of ADHD, followed by autistic traits, and than followed by motor coordination problems, anxiety, and reading problems. Both the EF-and motor-endophenotype were correlated and cross-correlated in siblings to autistic traits, motor coordination problems and reading problems, suggesting ADHD and these comorbid problems may possibly share familial/genetic EF and motor deficits. No such results were found for oppositional defiant behaviors and anxiety. ADHD in co-occurrence with comorbid problems may not be best seen as a distinct subtype of ADHD, but further research is warranted.
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Changes in neuropsychological functioning following temporal lobectomy in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2009
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This study was conducted to evaluate the changes in neuropsychological functioning in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) after temporal lobe resection.
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ADHD and poor motor performance from a family genetic perspective.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently accompanied by motor problems (MPs). We investigated a possible shared etiology between the two traits in the Dutch sample of the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics study comprising 275 children with ADHD and their affected or unaffected sibling and 146 unrelated control children.
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Effects of maternal and paternal smoking on attentional control in children with and without ADHD.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2009
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Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but data on its adverse effects on cognitive functioning are sparse and inconsistent. Since the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy may be due to correlated genetic risk factors rather than being a pure environmental effect, we examined the effect of prenatal exposure to smoking on attentional control, taking into account the effects of both maternal and paternal smoking, and examined whether these effects were genetically mediated by parental genotypes. We further examined whether the effect of prenatal exposure to smoking on attentional control interacted with genotypes of the child. Participants were 79 children with ADHD, ascertained for the International Multi-centre ADHD Gene project (IMAGE), and 105 normal controls. Attentional control was assessed by a visual continuous performance task. Three genetic risk factors for ADHD (DRD4 7-repeat allele of the exon 3 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), DAT1 10/10 genotype of the VNTR located in the 3 untranslated region, and the DAT1 6/6 genotype of the intron 8 VNTR) were included in the analyses. Paternal smoking had a negative effect on attentional control in children with ADHD and this effect appeared to be mediated by genetic risk factors. The prenatal smoking effect did not interact with genotypes of the child. Maternal smoking had no main effect on attentional control, which may be due to lower smoking rates. This study suggests that the effects of paternal smoking on attentional control in children with ADHD should be considered a proxy for ADHD and/or smoking risk genes. Future studies should examine if the results can be generalized to other cognitive domains.
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Comorbid anxiety and neurocognitive dysfunctions in children with ADHD.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry
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Previous research established that children with ADHD and comorbid anxiety have a later age of ADHD onset, show less off-task and hyperactive behavior, and have more school problems than children with ADHD alone. Comorbid anxiety appears to ameliorate behavioral inhibition deficits, worsen working memory problems, and lengthen reaction times in ADHD. This study investigated the effect of comorbid anxiety on a broad range of neurocognitive functions and includes child-, parent- and teacher reports of anxiety. The sample consisted of 509 children in the age range 5-19 years, including 238 children with a diagnosis of ADHD combined subtype and 271 normal control children. Children were tested on a broad battery of neurocognitive tasks that proved highly sensitive to ADHD in previous work. Linear Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to estimate the effect of comorbid anxiety on the neurocognitive functions. Child reported anxiety was associated with slower motor speed and response speed and better behavioral inhibition. Teacher reported anxiety was related to worse time production. Parent reported anxiety was not significantly associated with any of the neurocognitive functions. Compared to parent and teacher reports of anxiety, child reported comorbid anxiety shows foremost the largest associations with the neurocognitive dysfunctions observed in children with ADHD. This stresses the importance of including child self-reported anxiety assessments in clinical and research practice.
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ADHD Rate in Obese Women With Binge Eating and Bulimic Behaviors From a Weight-Loss Clinic.
J Atten Disord
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Objective: Few studies have demonstrated a possible association between ADHD and obesity in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ADHD in a sample of obese women seeking treatment, and its relations with binge eating and bulimic behaviors. Method: We performed a cross-sectional studyin a clinical sample of one hundred fifty-five women, with a mean age of 38.9 (10.7) years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 39.2 (5.29). Participants were evaluated with semistructured interviews and completed self-report psychiatric rating scales. Results: The rate of ADHD in the sample was of 28.3%. The presence of ADHD was significantly correlated with more severe binge eating, bulimic behaviors, and depressive symptomatology. Conclusion: Similar to previous studies, a higher than expected rate of ADHD was observed among obese women. ADHD in obese individuals may be a risk factor for greater severity of disordered eating patterns.
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Neuropsychological correlates of emotional lability in children with ADHD.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry
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BACKGROUNd: Emotional lability (EL) is commonly seen in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The reasons for this association remain currently unknown. To address this question, we examined the relationship between ADHD and EL symptoms, and performance on a range of neuropsychological tasks to clarify whether EL symptoms are predicted by particular cognitive and/or motivational dysfunctions and whether these associations are mediated by the presence of ADHD symptoms.
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Developmental trajectories of neural mechanisms supporting conflict and error processing in middle childhood.
Dev Neuropsychol
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To study age-related changes in cognitive control, event-related potentials (ERPs) of children aged 6-9 years, 10-12 years, and young adults were recorded during a Flanker task. Younger children were more susceptible to conflict than older ones and adults. The N2 in incongruent trials was smaller in younger than older children, who did not differ from adults. The error-related negativity (ERN) following errors, however, was larger in adults than in children, but did not differ between younger and older children. Delayed development of neural responses to error processing relative to conflict monitoring may indicate dissociable maturational time tables of subdivisions of the anterior cingulate cortex.
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Aetiology for the covariation between combined type ADHD and reading difficulties in a family study: the role of IQ.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry
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Twin studies using both clinical and population-based samples suggest that the frequent co-occurrence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading ability/disability (RD) is largely driven by shared genetic influences. While both disorders are associated with lower IQ, recent twin data suggest that the shared genetic variability between reading difficulties and ADHD inattention symptoms is largely independent from genetic influences contributing to general cognitive ability. The current study aimed to extend the previous findings that were based on rating scale measures in a population sample by examining the generalisability of the findings to a clinical population, and by measuring reading difficulties both with a rating scale and with an objective task. This study investigated the familial relationships between ADHD, reading difficulties and IQ in a sample of individuals diagnosed with ADHD combined type, their siblings and control sibling pairs.
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Neuropsychological intra-individual variability explains unique genetic variance of ADHD and shows suggestive linkage to chromosomes 12, 13, and 17.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorder that is usually accompanied by neuropsychological impairments. The use of heritable, psychometrically robust traits that show association with the disorder of interest can increase the power of gene-finding studies. Due to the robust association of intra-individual variability with ADHD on a phenotypic and genetic level, intra-individual variability is a prime candidate for such an attempt. We aimed to combine intra-individual variability measures across tasks into one more heritable measure, to examine the relatedness to other cognitive factors, and to explore the genetic underpinnings through quantitative trait linkage analysis. Intra-individual variability measures from seven tasks were available for 238 ADHD families (350 ADHD-affected and 195 non-affected children) and 147 control families (271 children). Intra-individual variability measures from seven different tasks shared common variance and could be used to construct an aggregated measure. This aggregated measure was largely independent from other cognitive factors related to ADHD and showed suggestive linkage to chromosomes 12q24.3 (LOD = 2.93), 13q22.2 (LOD = 2.36), and 17p13.3 (LOD = 2.00). A common intra-individual variability construct can be extracted from very diverse neuropsychological tasks; this construct taps into unique genetic aspects of ADHD and may relate to loci conferring risk for ADHD (12q24.3 and 17p13.3) and possibly autism (12q24.3). Given that joining of data across sites boosts the power for genetic analyses, our findings are promising in showing that intra-individual variability measures are viable candidates for across site analyses where different tasks have been used.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.