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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Ideal cardiovascular health: associations with biomarkers and subclinical disease and impact on incidence of cardiovascular disease in the framingham offspring study.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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The American Heart Association Cardiovascular Health score (CVH score) is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence, but the mechanisms underlying this association warrant exploration.
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Biomarkers of cardiovascular stress and subclinical atherosclerosis in the community.
Clin. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Biomarkers of cardiovascular stress have been associated with incident cardiovascular outcomes. Their relations with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis, as assessed by carotid intima-media thickness, have not been well described.
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What do carotid intima-media thickness and plaque add to the prediction of stroke and cardiovascular disease risk in older adults? The cardiovascular health study.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of ultrasound carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measurements and risk categories of plaque help predict incident stroke and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in older adults.
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Individual-level concentrations of fine particulate matter chemical components and subclinical atherosclerosis: a cross-sectional analysis based on 2 advanced exposure prediction models in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Long-term exposure to outdoor particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) has been associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The chemical composition of PM2.5 that may be most responsible for producing these associations has not been identified. We assessed cross-sectional associations between long-term concentrations of PM2.5 and 4 of its chemical components (sulfur, silicon, elemental carbon, and organic carbon (OC)) and subclinical atherosclerosis, measured as carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and coronary artery calcium, between 2000 and 2002 among 5,488 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants residing in 6 US metropolitan areas. Long-term concentrations of PM2.5 components at participants' homes were predicted using both city-specific spatiotemporal models and a national spatial model. The estimated differences in CIMT associated with interquartile-range increases in sulfur, silicon, and OC predictions from the spatiotemporal model were 0.022 mm (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.014, 0.031), 0.006 mm (95% CI: 0.000, 0.012), and 0.026 mm (95% CI: 0.019, 0.034), respectively. Findings were generally similar using the national spatial model predictions but were often sensitive to adjustment for city. We did not find strong evidence of associations with coronary artery calcium. Long-term concentrations of sulfur and OC, and possibly silicon, were associated with CIMT using 2 distinct exposure prediction modeling approaches.
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Mediation of cardiovascular risk factor effects through subclinical vascular disease: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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It is unclear to what extent subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as coronary artery calcium (CAC), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) are mediators of the known associations between traditional cardiovascular risk factors and incident CVD events. We assessed the portion of the effects of risk factors on incident CVD events that are mediated through CAC, CIMT, and FMD.
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Systemic inflammation and cardiovascular risk factors predict rapid progression of atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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To estimate atherosclerosis progression and identify influencing factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
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Association of parity with carotid diameter and distensibility: multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Pregnancy and childbirth are associated with hemodynamic changes and vascular remodeling. It is not known whether parity is associated with later adverse vascular properties such as larger arterial diameter, wall thickness, and lower distensibility. We used baseline data from 3283 women free of cardiovascular disease aged 45 to 84 years enrolled in the population-based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants self-reported parity status. Ultrasound-derived carotid artery lumen diameters and brachial artery blood pressures were measured at peak-systole and end-diastole. Common carotid intima-media thickness was also measured. Regression models to determine the association of carotid distensibility coefficient, lumen diameter, and carotid intima-media thickness with parity were adjusted for age, race, height, weight, diabetes mellitus, current smoking, blood pressure medication use, and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The prevalence of nulliparity was 18%. In adjusted models, carotid distensibility coefficient was 0.09×10?5 Pa?1 lower (P=0.009) in parous versus nulliparous women. Among parous women, there was a nonlinear association with the greatest carotid distensibility coefficient seen in women with 2 live births and significantly lower distensibility seen in primiparas (P=0.04) or with higher parity >2 (P=0.005). No such pattern of association with parity was found for lumen diameter or carotid intima-media thickness. Parity is associated with lower carotid artery distensibility, suggesting arterial remodeling that lasts beyond childbirth. These long-term effects on the vasculature may explain the association of parity with cardiovascular events later in life.
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Healthy lifestyle change and subclinical atherosclerosis in young adults: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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The benefits of healthy habits are well established, but it is unclear whether making health behavior changes as an adult can still alter coronary artery disease risk.
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Fibroblast growth factor-23 and cardiovascular disease in the general population: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
Circ Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) is a phosphate regulatory hormone that directly stimulates left ventricular hypertrophy in experimental models. The role of FGF-23 in cardiovascular disease development in the general population is unclear. We tested associations of FGF-23 with major subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease outcomes in a large prospective cohort.
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Incident stroke is associated with common carotid artery diameter and not common carotid artery intima-media thickness.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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The common carotid artery interadventitial diameter is measured on ultrasound images as the distance between the media-adventitia interfaces of the near and far walls. It is associated with common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and left ventricular mass and might therefore also have an association with incident stroke.
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Common carotid intima-media thickness measurements do not improve cardiovascular risk prediction in individuals with elevated blood pressure: the USE-IMT collaboration.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a marker of cardiovascular risk. It is unclear whether measurement of mean common CIMT improves 10-year risk prediction of first-time myocardial infarction or stroke in individuals with elevated blood pressure. We performed an analysis among individuals with elevated blood pressure (i.e., a systolic blood pressure ?140 mm Hg and a diastolic blood pressure ? 90 mm Hg) in USE-IMT, a large ongoing individual participant data meta-analysis. We refitted the risk factors of the Framingham Risk Score on asymptomatic individuals (baseline model) and expanded this model with mean common CIMT (CIMT model) measurements. From both models, 10-year risks to develop a myocardial infarction or stroke were estimated. In individuals with elevated blood pressure, we compared discrimination and calibration of the 2 models and calculated the net reclassification improvement (NRI). We included 17 254 individuals with elevated blood pressure from 16 studies. During a median follow-up of 9.9 years, 2014 first-time myocardial infarctions or strokes occurred. The C-statistics of the baseline and CIMT models were similar (0.73). NRI with the addition of mean common CIMT was small and not significant (1.4%; 95% confidence intervals, -1.1 to 3.7). In those at intermediate risk (n=5008, 10-year absolute risk of 10% to 20%), the NRI was 5.6% (95% confidence intervals, 1.6-10.4). There is no added value of measurement of mean common CIMT in individuals with elevated blood pressure for improving cardiovascular risk prediction. For those at intermediate risk, the addition of mean common CIMT to an existing cardiovascular risk score is small but statistically significant.
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Carotid artery plaque morphology and composition in relation to incident cardiovascular events: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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To determine if carotid plaque morphology and composition with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used to identify asymptomatic subjects at risk for cardiovascular events.
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Childhood family psychosocial environment and carotid intima media thickness: the CARDIA study.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Little is known about whether the childhood family psychosocial environment (characterized by cold, unaffectionate interactions, conflict, aggression, neglect and/or low nurturance) affects coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Objectives were to evaluate associations of childhood family psychosocial environment with carotid intima media thickness (IMT), a subclinical measure of atherosclerosis. The study population included 2659 CARDIA study participants, aged 37-52 years. Childhood family psychosocial environment was measured using a risky family questionnaire via self-report. Carotid IMT was calculated using the average of 20 measurements of mean common carotid, bulb and internal carotid IMT, assessed using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound images. Utilizing linear regression analyses adjusted for age, a 1-unit (range 0-21) increase in risky family score was associated with 0.0036 (95% CI: 0.0006,0.0066 mm) and 0.0020 (95% CI: 0.0002,0.0038) mm increase in mean IMT in white males and females, respectively. Formal mediation analyses and covariate adjustments suggested childhood socioeconomic position and smoking may be important mechanisms in white males and females, as well as education and depressive symptomatology in white males. No associations were found in black participants. Formal statistical tests for interaction between risky family score and sex, and between risky family score and race/ethnicity, demonstrated borderline evidence of interactions for both sex (p = 0.12) and race/ethnicity (p = 0.14) with risky family score for associations with mean IMT. In conclusion, childhood family psychosocial environment was positively associated with IMT in white participants, with little evidence of association in black participants. Mechanisms in white participants may include potential negative impacts of socioeconomic constraints on parenting quality, potentially influencing offspring's cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. smoking), socioeconomic position (e.g. education), and/or psychosocial functioning (e.g. depression), which may in turn lead to atherosclerotic processes. Borderline racial/ethnic differences in findings should be replicated, but add to literature exploring race/ethnicity-specific associations of parenting approaches with health outcomes.
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Association of exhaled carbon monoxide with subclinical cardiovascular disease and their conjoint impact on the incidence of cardiovascular outcomes.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Whereas endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) is cytoprotective at physiologic levels, excess CO concentrations are associated with cardiometabolic risk and may represent an important marker of progression from subclinical to clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD).
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Relationship of change in traditional cardiometabolic risk factors to change in coronary artery calcification among individuals with detectable subclinical atherosclerosis: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Data describing relationships between change in risk factors and coronary artery calcification (CAC) are lacking and could inform optimal cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment strategies. This study aimed to examine how change in traditional cardiometabolic risk factors related to change in CAC among individuals with detectable subclinical atherosclerosis.
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Associations of common carotid intima-media thickness with coronary heart disease risk factors and events vary with distance from the carotid bulb.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Common carotid artery (CCA) intima-media thickness (IMT) can be measured using ultrasound near to or below the carotid bulb. This might affect associations of IMT with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors and events.
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Plasma and serum L-selectin and clinical and subclinical cardiovascular disease: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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L-selectin has been suggested to play a role in atherosclerosis. Previous studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and serum or plasma L-selectin are inconsistent. The association of serum L-selectin (sL-selectin) with carotid intima-media thickness, coronary artery calcium, ankle-brachial index (subclinical CVD), and incident CVD was assessed in 2403 participants in the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Regression analysis and the Tobit model were used to study subclinical disease; Cox proportional hazards regression, for incident CVD. Mean age was 63 ± 10 years and 47% were male. Mean sL-selectin was significantly different across ethnicities. Within each race/ethnicity, sL-selectin was associated with age and sex; among non-Hispanic whites and African Americans, it was associated with smoking status and current alcohol use. sL-selectin levels did not predict subclinical or clinical CVD after correction for multiple comparisons. Conditional logistic regression models were used to study the association of plasma L-selectin and CVD in 154 incident CVD cases, and 306 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched control subjects. The median follow-up time was 8.5 years. L-selectin levels in plasma were significantly lower than in serum and the overall concordance was low. Plasma levels were not associated with CVD. In conclusion, in this large, multiethnic population, soluble L-selectin levels did not predict clinical or subclinical CVD.
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Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, a novel cardiovascular inflammatory marker, in HIV-infected patients.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an emerging biomarker of cardiovascular disease. This study was conducted to describe the distribution of Lp-PLA2 in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults and to determine associations between Lp-PLA2, cardiometabolic risk factors, and subclinical atherosclerosis in this population.
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Progression of carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery calcium over 6 years in an HIV-infected cohort.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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To evaluate changes in cardiovascular disease risk surrogate markers in a longitudinal cohort of HIV-infected adults over 6 years.
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Genetics of coronary artery calcification among African Americans, a meta-analysis.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the major cause of death in the United States. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) scores are independent predictors of CHD. African Americans (AA) have higher rates of CHD but are less well-studied in genomic studies. We assembled the largest AA data resource currently available with measured CAC to identify associated genetic variants.
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Association of resting heart rate with carotid and aortic arterial stiffness: multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Resting heart rate is an easily measured, noninvasive vital sign that is associated with cardiovascular disease events. The pathophysiology of this association is not known. We investigated the relationship between resting heart rate and stiffness of the carotid (a peripheral artery) and the aorta (a central artery) in an asymptomatic multi-ethnic population. Resting heart rate was recorded at baseline in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Distensibility was used as a measure of arterial elasticity, with a lower distensibility indicating an increase in arterial stiffness. Carotid distensibility was measured in 6484 participants (98% of participants) using B-mode ultrasound, and aortic distensibility was measured in 3512 participants (53% of participants) using cardiac MRI. Heart rate was divided into quintiles and we used progressively adjusted models that included terms for physical activity and atrioventricular nodal blocking agents. Mean resting heart rate of participants (mean age, 62 years; 47% men) was 63 bpm (SD, 9.6 bpm). In unadjusted and fully adjusted models, carotid distensibility and aortic distensibility decreased monotonically with increasing resting heart rate (P for trend <0.001 and 0.009, respectively). The relationship was stronger for carotid versus aortic distensibility. Similar results were seen using the resting heart rate taken at the time of MRI scanning. Our results suggest that a higher resting heart rate is associated with an increased arterial stiffness independent of atrioventricular nodal blocker use and physical activity level, with a stronger association for a peripheral (carotid) compared with a central (aorta) artery.
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Comparison of factors associated with carotid intima-media thickness in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study (HNR).
J Am Soc Echocardiogr
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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The measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a valid method to quantify levels of atherosclerosis. The present study was conducted to compare the strengths of associations between CIMT and cardiovascular risk factors in two different populations.
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The value of carotid artery plaque and intima-media thickness for incident cardiovascular disease: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Carotid artery plaques are associated with coronary artery atherosclerotic lesions. We evaluated various ultrasound definitions of carotid artery plaque as predictors of future cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) events.
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Fine particulate air pollution and the progression of carotid intima-medial thickness: a prospective cohort study from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis and air pollution.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been linked to cardiovascular disease, possibly via accelerated atherosclerosis. We examined associations between the progression of the intima-medial thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery, as an indicator of atherosclerosis, and long-term PM2.5 concentrations in participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
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Associations of aortic distensibility and arterial elasticity with long-term visit-to-visit blood pressure variability: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Although higher visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of blood pressure (BP) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, the physiological basis for VVV of BP is incompletely understood.
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Carotid artery plaque and progression of coronary artery calcium: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Carotid and coronary atherosclerosis are associated with each other in imaging and autopsy studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether carotid artery plaque seen on carotid ultrasound can predict incident coronary artery calcification (CAC).
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Genome-wide association analysis of blood-pressure traits in African-ancestry individuals reveals common associated genes in African and non-African populations.
Nora Franceschini, Ervin Fox, Zhaogong Zhang, Todd L Edwards, Michael A Nalls, Yun Ju Sung, Bamidele O Tayo, Yan V Sun, Omri Gottesman, Adebawole Adeyemo, Andrew D Johnson, J Hunter Young, Ken Rice, Qing Duan, Fang Chen, Yun Li, Hua Tang, Myriam Fornage, Keith L Keene, Jeanette S Andrews, Jennifer A Smith, Jessica D Faul, Zhang Guangfa, Wei Guo, Yu Liu, Sarah S Murray, Solomon K Musani, Sathanur Srinivasan, Digna R Velez Edwards, Heming Wang, Lewis C Becker, Pascal Bovet, Murielle Bochud, Ulrich Broeckel, Michel Burnier, Cara Carty, Daniel I Chasman, Georg Ehret, Wei-Min Chen, Guanjie Chen, Wei Chen, Jingzhong Ding, Albert W Dreisbach, Michele K Evans, Xiuqing Guo, Melissa E Garcia, Rich Jensen, Margaux F Keller, Guillaume Lettre, Vaneet Lotay, Lisa W Martin, Jason H Moore, Alanna C Morrison, Thomas H Mosley, Adesola Ogunniyi, Walter Palmas, George Papanicolaou, Alan Penman, Joseph F Polak, Paul M Ridker, Babatunde Salako, Andrew B Singleton, Daniel Shriner, Kent D Taylor, Ramachandran Vasan, Kerri Wiggins, Scott M Williams, Lisa R Yanek, Wei Zhao, Alan B Zonderman, Diane M Becker, Gerald Berenson, Eric Boerwinkle, Erwin Bottinger, Mary Cushman, Charles Eaton, Fredrik Nyberg, Gerardo Heiss, Joel N Hirschhron, Virginia J Howard, Konrad J Karczewsk, Matthew B Lanktree, Kiang Liu, Yongmei Liu, Ruth Loos, Karen Margolis, Michael Snyder, , Bruce M Psaty, Nicholas J Schork, David R Weir, Charles N Rotimi, Michèle M Sale, Tamara Harris, Sharon L R Kardia, Steven C Hunt, Donna Arnett, Susan Redline, Richard S Cooper, Neil J Risch, D C Rao, Jerome I Rotter, Aravinda Chakravarti, Alex P Reiner, Daniel Levy, Brendan J Keating, Xiaofeng Zhu.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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High blood pressure (BP) is more prevalent and contributes to more severe manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in African Americans than in any other United States ethnic group. Several small African-ancestry (AA) BP genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been published, but their findings have failed to replicate to date. We report on a large AA BP GWAS meta-analysis that includes 29,378 individuals from 19 discovery cohorts and subsequent replication in additional samples of AA (n = 10,386), European ancestry (EA) (n = 69,395), and East Asian ancestry (n = 19,601). Five loci (EVX1-HOXA, ULK4, RSPO3, PLEKHG1, and SOX6) reached genome-wide significance (p < 1.0 × 10(-8)) for either systolic or diastolic BP in a transethnic meta-analysis after correction for multiple testing. Three of these BP loci (EVX1-HOXA, RSPO3, and PLEKHG1) lack previous associations with BP. We also identified one independent signal in a known BP locus (SOX6) and provide evidence for fine mapping in four additional validated BP loci. We also demonstrate that validated EA BP GWAS loci, considered jointly, show significant effects in AA samples. Consequently, these findings suggest that BP loci might have universal effects across studied populations, demonstrating that multiethnic samples are an essential component in identifying, fine mapping, and understanding their trait variability.
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Relation of leptin to left ventricular hypertrophy (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Increasing adiposity increases the risk for left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Adipokines are hormone-like substances from adipose tissue that influence several metabolic pathways relevant to LV hypertrophy. Data were obtained from participants enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the heart and who also had fasting venous blood assayed for 4 distinct adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor-?, and resistin). One-thousand four hundred sixty four MESA participants had complete data. The mean age was 61.5 years, the mean body mass index was 27.6 kg/m², and 49% were women. With adjustment for age, gender, race, height, and weight, multivariate linear regression modeling revealed that a 1-SD increment in leptin was significantly associated with smaller LV mass (ß: -4.66% predicted, p <0.01), LV volume (-5.87% predicted, p <0.01), stroke volume (-3.23 ml, p <0.01), and cardiac output (-120 ml/min, p = 0.01) as well as a lower odds ratio for the presence of LV hypertrophy (odds ratio 0.65, p <0.01), but a higher ejection fraction (0.44%, p = 0.05). Additional adjustment for the traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, insulin resistance, physical activity, education, income, inflammatory biomarkers, other selected adipokines, and pericardial fat did not materially change the magnitude or significance of the associations. The associations between the other adipokines and LV structure and function were inconsistent and largely nonsignificant. In conclusion, the results indicate that higher levels of leptin are associated with more favorable values of several measures of LV structure and function.
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Pulse pressure and subclinical cardiovascular disease in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Brachial pulse pressure (PP) has been found to be associated with markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease, including carotid intima-media thickness and left-ventricular mass index (LVMI), but it is unclear whether these associations are independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and of the steady, nonpulsatile component of blood pressure (BP). Moreover, it is unknown whether these associations are modified by gender, age, or race/ethnicity.
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Competing cardiovascular outcomes associated with subclinical atherosclerosis (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
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Subclinical atherosclerosis measured by coronary artery calcium (CAC) is associated with increased risk for multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes and non-CVD death simultaneously. The aim of this study was to determine the competing risks of specific CVD events and non-CVD death associated with varying burdens of subclinical atherosclerosis. A total of 3,095 men and 3,486 women from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), aged 45 to 84 years, from 4 ethnic groups were included. Participants were stratified by CAC score (0, 1 to 99, and ?100). Competing Cox models were used to determine competing cumulative incidences and hazard ratios within a group (e.g., those with CAC scores ?100) and hazard ratios for specific events between groups (e.g., CAC score ?100 vs 0). Risks were compared for specific CVD events and also against non-CVD death. In women, during a mean follow-up period of 7.1 years, the hazard ratios for any CVD event compared with a non-CVD death occurring first for CAC score 0 and CAC score ?100 were 1.40 (95% confidence interval 0.97 to 2.04) and 3.07 (95% confidence interval 2.02 to 4.67), respectively. Coronary heart disease was the most common first CVD event type at all levels of CAC, and coronary heart disease rates were 9.5% versus 1.6% (hazard ratio 6.24, 95% confidence interval 3.99 to 9.75) for women with CAC scores ?100 compared with CAC scores of 0. Similar results were observed in men. In conclusion, at all levels of CAC, coronary heart disease was the most common first CVD event, and this analysis represents a novel approach to understanding the temporal sequence of cardiovascular events associated with atherosclerosis.
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Particulate matter components and subclinical atherosclerosis: common approaches to estimating exposure in a Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cross-sectional study.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Concentrations of outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have been associated with cardiovascular disease. PM2.5 chemical composition may be responsible for effects of exposure to PM2.5.
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Loci influencing blood pressure identified using a cardiovascular gene-centric array.
Santhi K Ganesh, Vinicius Tragante, Wei Guo, Yiran Guo, Matthew B Lanktree, Erin N Smith, Toby Johnson, Berta Almoguera Castillo, John Barnard, Jens Baumert, Yen-Pei Christy Chang, Clara C Elbers, Martin Farrall, Mary E Fischer, Nora Franceschini, Tom R Gaunt, Johannes M I H Gho, Christian Gieger, Yan Gong, Aaron Isaacs, Marcus E Kleber, Irene Mateo Leach, Caitrin W McDonough, Matthijs F L Meijs, Olle Mellander, Cliona M Molony, Ilja M Nolte, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Tom S Price, Ramakrishnan Rajagopalan, Jonathan Shaffer, Sonia Shah, Haiqing Shen, Nicole Soranzo, Peter J van der Most, Erik P A van Iperen, Jessica van Setten, Jessic A Van Setten, Judith M Vonk, Li Zhang, Amber L Beitelshees, Gerald S Berenson, Deepak L Bhatt, Jolanda M A Boer, Eric Boerwinkle, Ben Burkley, Amber Burt, Aravinda Chakravarti, Wei Chen, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff, Sean P Curtis, Albert Dreisbach, David Duggan, Georg B Ehret, Richard R Fabsitz, Myriam Fornage, Ervin Fox, Clement E Furlong, Ron T Gansevoort, Marten H Hofker, G Kees Hovingh, Susan A Kirkland, Kandice Kottke-Marchant, Abdullah Kutlar, Andrea Z LaCroix, Taimour Y Langaee, Yun R Li, Honghuang Lin, Kiang Liu, Steffi Maiwald, Rainer Malik, , Gurunathan Murugesan, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Jeffery R O'Connell, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Willem H Ouwehand, Walter Palmas, Brenda W Penninx, Carl J Pepine, Mary Pettinger, Joseph F Polak, Vasan S Ramachandran, Jane Ranchalis, Susan Redline, Paul M Ridker, Lynda M Rose, Hubert Scharnag, Nicholas J Schork, Daichi Shimbo, Alan R Shuldiner, Sathanur R Srinivasan, Ronald P Stolk, Herman A Taylor, Barbara Thorand, Mieke D Trip, Cornelia M van Duijn, W Monique Verschuren, Cisca Wijmenga, Bernhard R Winkelmann, Sharon Wyatt, J Hunter Young, Bernhard O Boehm, Mark J Caulfield, Daniel I Chasman, Karina W Davidson, Pieter A Doevendans, Garret A FitzGerald, John G Gums, Hakon Hakonarson, Hans L Hillege, Thomas Illig, Gail P Jarvik, Julie A Johnson, John J P Kastelein, Wolfgang Koenig, Winfried März, Braxton D Mitchell, Sarah S Murray, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Daniel J Rader, Muredach P Reilly, Alex P Reiner, Eric E Schadt, Roy L Silverstein, Harold Snieder, Alice V Stanton, André G Uitterlinden, Pim van der Harst, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Nilesh J Samani, Andrew D Johnson, Patricia B Munroe, Paul I W de Bakker, Xiaofeng Zhu, Daniel Levy, Brendan J Keating, Folkert W Asselbergs.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable determinant of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To investigate genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP), we genotyped ?50 000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that capture variation in ?2100 candidate genes for cardiovascular phenotypes in 61 619 individuals of European ancestry from cohort studies in the USA and Europe. We identified novel associations between rs347591 and SBP (chromosome 3p25.3, in an intron of HRH1) and between rs2169137 and DBP (chromosome1q32.1 in an intron of MDM4) and between rs2014408 and SBP (chromosome 11p15 in an intron of SOX6), previously reported to be associated with MAP. We also confirmed 10 previously known loci associated with SBP, DBP, MAP or PP (ADRB1, ATP2B1, SH2B3/ATXN2, CSK, CYP17A1, FURIN, HFE, LSP1, MTHFR, SOX6) at array-wide significance (P < 2.4 × 10(-6)). We then replicated these associations in an independent set of 65 886 individuals of European ancestry. The findings from expression QTL (eQTL) analysis showed associations of SNPs in the MDM4 region with MDM4 expression. We did not find any evidence of association of the two novel SNPs in MDM4 and HRH1 with sequelae of high BP including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or stroke. In summary, we identified two novel loci associated with BP and confirmed multiple previously reported associations. Our findings extend our understanding of genes involved in BP regulation, some of which may eventually provide new targets for therapeutic intervention.
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Longitudinal predictors of progression of carotid atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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To explore predictors of change in measures of carotid atherosclerosis among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients without known cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline.
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Common carotid artery intima-media thickness progression as a predictor of stroke in multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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Carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) is a marker of cardiovascular disease associated with incident stroke. We studied whether IMT rate of change is associated with stroke.
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HIV infection and progression of carotid and coronary atherosclerosis: the CARE study.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Progression of carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) are increasingly used as surrogates for vascular risk. We assessed the predictors of c-IMT and CAC progression in a large longitudinal cohort of HIV-infected adults.
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Carotid-wall intima-media thickness and cardiovascular events.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2011
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Intima-media thickness of the walls of the common carotid artery and internal carotid artery may add to the Framingham risk score for predicting cardiovascular events.
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Inter-reader differences in common carotid artery intima-media thickness: implications for cardiovascular risk assessment and vascular age determination.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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Far wall common carotid artery intima-media thickness, a surrogate measure of atherosclerosis, requires the tracing of two carotid wall interfaces on ultrasound images: the lumen-intima and media-adventitia. Vascular age is derived from intima-media thickness measurements. We studied how tracing the wall interfaces affects intima-media thickness measurements and estimates of vascular age.
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Association of small artery elasticity with incident cardiovascular disease in older adults: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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Functional biomarkers like large artery elasticity (LAE) and small artery elasticity (SAE) may predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) events beyond blood pressure. The authors examined the prognostic value of LAE and SAE for clinical CVD events among 6,235 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants who were initially aged 45-84 years and without symptomatic CVD. LAE and SAE were derived from diastolic pulse contour analysis. During a median 5.8 years of follow-up between 2000 and 2008, 454 adjudicated CVD events occurred, including 256 cases of coronary heart disease (CHD), 93 strokes, and 126 heart failures (multiple diagnoses were possible). After adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, sex, clinic, height, heart rate, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, use of antihypertensive and cholesterol-lowering medications, smoking, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, diabetes, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, the hazard ratio for any CVD per standard-deviation increase in SAE was 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.83; P < 0.0001). The lowest (stiffest) SAE quartile had a hazard ratio of 2.28 (95% confidence interval: 1.55, 3.36) versus the highest (most elastic) quartile. The net reclassification index, conditional on base risk, was 0.11. SAE was significantly associated with future CHD, stroke, and heart failure. After adjustment, LAE was not significantly related to CVD. In asymptomatic participants free of overt CVD, lower SAE added prognostic information for CVD, CHD, stroke, and heart failure events.
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Association of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) and endothelial function in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
Vasc Med
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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Mechanisms underlying the role of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) in atherosclerotic development are not completely understood. We evaluated the relationship of Lp-PLA(2) with endothelial dysfunction, an early manifestation of atherosclerosis, in a cohort without known clinical cardiovascular disease. A total of 2809 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis underwent plasma Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity measurement and brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation testing. In adjusted linear regression models, higher Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity levels were not associated with lower endothelial function (-0.04%, p = 0.51 and -0.09%, p = 0.10, respectively). Among individuals with subclinical atherosclerosis based on ankle-brachial index (ABI) or carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity were not associated with lower endothelial function (-0.03%, p = 0.88 and -0.31%, p = 0.16 for ABI < 1.00; 0.01%, p = 0.94 and -0.15%, p = 0.20 for abnormal carotid IMT). In summary, Lp-PLA(2) is not associated with endothelial dysfunction, suggesting its role in atherosclerosis development is primarily related to other factors.
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Sex differences in subclinical atherosclerosis by race/ethnicity in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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Sex differences in cardiovascular disease mortality are more pronounced among non-Hispanic whites than other racial/ethnic groups, but it is unknown whether this variation is present in the earlier subclinical stages of disease. The authors examined racial/ethnic variation in sex differences in coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid intimal media thickness at baseline in 2000-2002 among participants (n = 6,726) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis using binomial and linear regression. Models adjusted for risk factors in several stages: age, traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, behavioral risk factors, psychosocial factors, and adult socioeconomic position. Women had a lower prevalence of any CAC and smaller amounts of CAC when present than men in all racial/ethnic groups. Sex differences in the prevalence of CAC were more pronounced in non-Hispanic whites than in African Americans and Chinese Americans after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, and further adjustment for behavioral factors, psychosocial factors, and socioeconomic position did not modify these results (for race/sex, P(interaction) = 0.047). Similar patterns were observed for amount of CAC among adults with CAC. Racial/ethnic variation in sex differences for carotid intimal media thickness was less pronounced. In conclusion, coronary artery calcification is differentially patterned by sex across racial/ethnic groups.
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Associations of edge-detected and manual-traced common carotid intima-media thickness measurements with Framingham risk factors: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a marker of cardiovascular disease derived from ultrasound images of the carotid artery. In most outcome studies, human readers identify and trace the key IMT interfaces. We evaluate an alternate approach using automated edge detection.
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Combined admixture mapping and association analysis identifies a novel blood pressure genetic locus on 5p13: contributions from the CARe consortium.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Admixture mapping based on recently admixed populations is a powerful method to detect disease variants with substantial allele frequency differences in ancestral populations. We performed admixture mapping analysis for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), followed by trait-marker association analysis, in 6303 unrelated African-American participants of the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) consortium. We identified five genomic regions (P< 0.001) harboring genetic variants contributing to inter-individual BP variation. In follow-up association analyses, correcting for all tests performed in this study, three loci were significantly associated with SBP and one significantly associated with DBP (P< 10(-5)). Further analyses suggested that six independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contributed to the phenotypic variation observed in the admixture mapping analysis. These six SNPs were examined for replication in multiple, large, independent studies of African-Americans [Womens Health Initiative (WHI), Maywood, Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) and Howard University Family Study (HUFS)] as well as one native African sample (Nigerian study), with a total replication sample size of 11 882. Meta-analysis of the replication set identified a novel variant (rs7726475) on chromosome 5 between the SUB1 and NPR3 genes, as being associated with SBP and DBP (P< 0.0015 for both); in meta-analyses combining the CARe samples with the replication data, we observed P-values of 4.45 × 10(-7) for SBP and 7.52 × 10(-7) for DBP for rs7726475 that were significant after accounting for all the tests performed. Our study highlights that admixture mapping analysis can help identify genetic variants missed by genome-wide association studies because of drastically reduced number of tests in the whole genome.
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Usefulness of baseline obesity to predict development of a high ankle brachial index (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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An abnormally high ankle-brachial index (ABI) is associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The relation of obesity to incident high ABI has not been characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that increased obesity-quantified by body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio-is positively associated with a high ABI (?1.3) and with mean ABI increases over a 4-year follow-up. Prevalence and incidence ratios for a high ABI were obtained for 6,540 and 5,045 participants, respectively, in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), using log-binomial regression models adjusted for demographic, cardiovascular, and inflammatory and novel risk factors. Linear regression was used to analyze mean ABI change. The prevalence and incidence of a high ABI were significantly higher for the highest compared to the lowest quartile of every baseline measure of obesity, with weight and body mass index demonstrating the highest incidence ratios (2.7 and 2.4, respectively). All prevalence and incidence ratios were positive and graded across obesity quartiles and were persistent in the subpopulation without diabetes. In those with normal baseline ABI values, 1 MESA standard deviation increase in every baseline measure of obesity was associated with significant increases in mean ABI values. In conclusion, independent, positive, and graded associations of increasing obesity with prevalent and incident high ABI and with mean increases in ABI values over time were found. Weight and body mass index seemed to be at least as strongly, if not more strongly, associated with a high ABI than were measures of abdominal obesity.
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Reduced kidney function and preclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected individuals: the study of fat redistribution and metabolic change in HIV infection (FRAM).
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
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Reduced kidney function and albuminuria are associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in HIV-infected individuals. We investigated whether reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria are associated with subclinical vascular disease, as assessed by carotid intima-medial thickness (cIMT).
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Framingham risk score and early markers of atherosclerosis in a cohort of adults infected with HIV.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2011
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The utility of the Framingham risk score among individuals infected with HIV is poorly understood. We examined the association of Framingham risk scores with surrogate markers of atherosclerosis in a carefully characterized cohort of adults infected with HIV.
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Associations of cardiovascular risk factors, carotid intima-media thickness and left ventricular mass with inter-adventitial diameters of the common carotid artery: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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Common carotid artery inter-adventitial diameter (IAD) and intima-media thickness (IMT) are measurable by ultrasound. IAD may be associated with left ventricular mass (LV mass) while IMT is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. It is not clear if IAD is associated with LV mass after accounting for IMT and traditional cardiovascular risk factors.
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Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies from the CHARGE consortium identifies common variants associated with carotid intima media thickness and plaque.
Joshua C Bis, Maryam Kavousi, Nora Franceschini, Aaron Isaacs, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Ulf Schminke, Wendy S Post, Albert V Smith, L Adrienne Cupples, Hugh S Markus, Reinhold Schmidt, Jennifer E Huffman, Terho Lehtimäki, Jens Baumert, Thomas Münzel, Susan R Heckbert, Abbas Dehghan, Kari North, Ben Oostra, Steve Bevan, Eva-Maria Stoegerer, Caroline Hayward, Olli Raitakari, Christa Meisinger, Arne Schillert, Serena Sanna, Henry Völzke, Yu-Ching Cheng, Bolli Thorsson, Caroline S Fox, Kenneth Rice, Fernando Rivadeneira, Vijay Nambi, Eran Halperin, Katja E Petrovic, Leena Peltonen, H Erich Wichmann, Renate B Schnabel, Marcus Dörr, Afshin Parsa, Thor Aspelund, Serkalem Demissie, Sekar Kathiresan, Muredach P Reilly, Kent Taylor, André Uitterlinden, David J Couper, Matthias Sitzer, Mika Kähönen, Thomas Illig, Philipp S Wild, Marco Orrù, Jan Lüdemann, Alan R Shuldiner, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Charles C White, Jerome I Rotter, Albert Hofman, Jochen Seissler, Tanja Zeller, Gianluca Usala, Florian Ernst, Lenore J Launer, Ralph B D'Agostino, Daniel H O'Leary, Christie Ballantyne, Joachim Thiery, Andreas Ziegler, Edward G Lakatta, Ravi Kumar Chilukoti, Tamara B Harris, Philip A Wolf, Bruce M Psaty, Joseph F Polak, Xia Li, Wolfgang Rathmann, Manuela Uda, Eric Boerwinkle, Norman Klopp, Helena Schmidt, James F Wilson, Jorma Viikari, Wolfgang Koenig, Stefan Blankenberg, Anne B Newman, Jacqueline Witteman, Gerardo Heiss, Cornelia van Duijn, Angelo Scuteri, Georg Homuth, Braxton D Mitchell, Vilmundur Gudnason, Christopher J O'Donnell, .
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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Carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and plaque determined by ultrasonography are established measures of subclinical atherosclerosis that each predicts future cardiovascular disease events. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 31,211 participants of European ancestry from nine large studies in the setting of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. We then sought additional evidence to support our findings among 11,273 individuals using data from seven additional studies. In the combined meta-analysis, we identified three genomic regions associated with common carotid intima media thickness and two different regions associated with the presence of carotid plaque (P < 5 × 10(-8)). The associated SNPs mapped in or near genes related to cellular signaling, lipid metabolism and blood pressure homeostasis, and two of the regions were associated with coronary artery disease (P < 0.006) in the Coronary Artery Disease Genome-Wide Replication and Meta-Analysis (CARDIoGRAM) consortium. Our findings may provide new insight into pathways leading to subclinical atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular events.
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Progression of carotid artery intima-media thickness during 12 years in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) study.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2011
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This study investigated the long-term effects of intensive diabetic treatment on the progression of atherosclerosis, measured as common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT).
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Kidney stones and subclinical atherosclerosis in young adults: the CARDIA study.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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Recent reports suggest that nephrolithiasis and atherosclerosis share a number of risk factors. To our knowledge there has been no previous examination of the relationship between kidney stones and subclinical atherosclerotic disease. We studied the relationship between nephrolithiasis, and carotid wall thickness and carotid stenosis assessed by B-mode ultrasound in the general community using data from the CARDIA study.
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Long-term exposure to airborne particles and arterial stiffness: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Increased arterial stiffness could represent an intermediate subclinical outcome in the mechanistic pathway underlying associations between average long-term pollution exposure and cardiovascular events.
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Predictors of coronary heart disease events among asymptomatic persons with low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Our aim was to identify risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) events among asymptomatic persons with low (? 130 mg/dl) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).
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Associations of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) with risk factors and prevalent cardiovascular disease: comparison of mean common carotid artery IMT with maximum internal carotid artery IMT.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2010
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The goal of this study was to compare internal carotid artery (ICA) intima-media thickness (IMT) with common carotid artery (CCA) IMT as global markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
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Cardiovascular imaging for assessing cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic men versus women: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA).
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2010
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Coronary artery calcium (CAC), carotid intima-media thickness, and left ventricular (LV) mass and geometry offer the potential to characterize incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in clinically asymptomatic individuals. The objective of the study was to compare these cardiovascular imaging measures for their overall and sex-specific ability to predict CVD.
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Associations of occupation, job control and job demands with intima-media thickness: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2010
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Occupation has been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality, but few studies have investigated occupation in relation to early atherosclerotic disease. This study examined associations between various occupational characteristics and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in a multi-ethnic sample.
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Associations of antiretroviral drug use and HIV-specific risk factors with carotid intima-media thickness.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2010
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Previous research has demonstrated an increase in carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in HIV-infected individuals compared to controls. However, the reason for this increased level of subclinical vascular disease is unknown.
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Segment-specific association between plasma homocysteine level and carotid artery intima-media thickness in the Framingham Offspring Study.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2010
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Elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) level is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The relationship between tHcy and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) at the internal carotid artery (ICA)/bulb-IMT and common carotid artery (CCA)-IMT had not been systematically studied, however. Because the ICA/bulb segment is more prone to plaque formation than the CCA segment, differential associations with tHcy at these sites might suggest mechanisms of tHcy action. We examined the cross-sectional segment-specific relationships of tHcy to ICA/bulb-IMT and CCA-IMT in 2499 participants from the Framingham Offspring Study who were free of cardiovascular disease. In multivariate linear regression analysis, ICA/bulb-IMT was significantly higher in the fourth tHcy quartile category compared with the other quartile categories, in both the age- and sex-adjusted and the multivariate-adjusted models (P for trend <.0001 and <.01, respectively). We observed a significant age-by-tHcy interaction for ICA/bulb-IMT (P=.03) and thus stratified the analyses by median age (58 years). A significant positive trend between tHcy and ICA/bulb-IMT was seen in individuals age ?58 years (P for trend <.01), but not in younger individuals (P for trend=.24) in multivariate-adjusted models. For CCA-IMT, no significant trends were observed in any of the analyses. The segment-specific association between elevated tHcy level and ICA/bulb-IMT suggests an association between tHcy and plaque formation.
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Markers of atherosclerosis and inflammation and mortality in patients with HIV infection.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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HIV-infected patients are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, which may be mediated in part by inflammation. Surrogate marker studies suggest an increased prevalence of vascular abnormalities in HIV infection. We examined the association of all-cause mortality in HIV-infected patients with carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP).
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Endothelial dysfunction and the risk of hypertension: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2010
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Hypertension is associated with impaired endothelial function in cross-sectional studies. However, few longitudinal data exist on whether endothelial dysfunction precedes the development of hypertension. We examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between endothelial-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and hypertension prevalence and incidence in 3500 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, an ethnically diverse, community-based cohort study. At baseline, the prevalence ratios (95% CI) of hypertension from the highest to the lowest quartile of FMD were 1.00 (referent), 1.26 (1.12 to 1.40), 1.35 (1.21 to 1.52), and 1.68 (1.50 to 1.87; linear trend P<0.001). This association remained (P=0.017) after adjustment for demographics (age, sex, and ethnicity), Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis site, and other risk factors. Of the 1869 participants without hypertension at baseline, 584 (31.3%) developed hypertension over a median follow-up of 4.8 years. The unadjusted relative risks (95% CI) of incident hypertension from the highest to the lowest quartile of FMD were 1.00 (referent), 1.38 (1.14 to 1.67), 1.44 (1.19 to 1.74), and 1.64 (1.36 to 1.97; linear trend P<0.001). However, after adjustment for demographics and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis site, the relationship between FMD and incident hypertension was attenuated and not statistically significant: 1.00 (referent), 1.26 (1.04 to 1.52), 1.19 (0.98 to 1.44), and 1.18 (0.97 to 1.44). The longitudinal results also did not appreciably change after adjustment for additional risk factors and baseline blood pressure levels. In this sample, reduced FMD was not an independent predictor of hypertension incidence, suggesting that impaired endothelial function does not play a major role in the development of hypertension.
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Micronutrient concentrations and subclinical atherosclerosis in adults with HIV.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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Extremes in micronutrient intakes are common in HIV-infected patients in developed countries and may affect the progression of atherosclerosis in this population.
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Effect of inter-reader variability on outcomes in studies using carotid intima media thickness quantified by carotid ultrasonography.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2010
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Systematic differences between readers or equipment in imaging studies are not uncommon; failure to account for such differences when using Carotid Ultrasonography may introduce bias into associations between carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and outcomes. We demonstrate the impact of this source of systematic measurement error (SME) using data on 5,521 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and 661 participants from the Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM). Participants were between 37 and 78 years old. Two outcomes were considered: (1) the effect of HIV infection on cIMT (between study) and (2) the association of cIMT with cardiovascular events (within study). All estimates were adjusted for demographics (age, gender, and ethnicity) and for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors (smoking, blood pressure, diabetes and cholesterol). When comparing the FRAM and MESA cohorts to estimate the association of HIV infection on common cIMT, accounting for machine and reader variability (between study variability) reduced the difference associated with HIV infection from +0.080 mm (95% Confidence Interval (CI):0.065-0.095) to +0.037 mm (95% CI:0.003 to 0.072) while internal cIMT declined from +0.254 mm (95% CI:0.205-0.303) to +0.192 mm (95% CI:0.076-0.308). Attenuation of the association between cIMT and cardiovascular endpoints occurred when within study reader variability was not accounted for. The effect of SME due to use of multiple readers or machines is most important when comparisons are made between two different study populations. Within-cohort measurement error dilutes the association with events.
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Association between carotid intima-media thickness and pericardial fat in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a subclinical marker of atherosclerosis and a strong predictor of stroke. Pericardial fat (PF), the fat depot around the heart, has been associated with several atherosclerosis risk factors. We sought to examine the association between carotid IMT and PF, and to examine whether such an association is independent from common atherosclerosis risk factors including measures of overall adiposity.
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Individual progression of carotid intima media thickness as a surrogate for vascular risk (PROG-IMT): Rationale and design of a meta-analysis project.
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
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Carotid intima media thickness (IMT) progression is increasingly used as a surrogate for vascular risk. This use is supported by data from a few clinical trials investigating statins, but established criteria of surrogacy are only partially fulfilled. To provide a valid basis for the use of IMT progression as a study end point, we are performing a 3-step meta-analysis project based on individual participant data. Objectives of the 3 successive stages are to investigate (1) whether IMT progression prospectively predicts myocardial infarction, stroke, or death in population-based samples; (2) whether it does so in prevalent disease cohorts; and (3) whether interventions affecting IMT progression predict a therapeutic effect on clinical end points. Recruitment strategies, inclusion criteria, and estimates of the expected numbers of eligible studies are presented along with a detailed analysis plan.
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Increased prevalence of carotid artery atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis is artery-specific.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality are increased in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Prior investigations of the association of RA with measures of carotid atherosclerosis have yielded conflicting results. We compared carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) of both the common carotid (CCA) and proximal internal carotid (bulb-ICA) arteries, and plaque prevalence, between RA and non-RA participants.
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Structural and functional vascular alterations and incident hypertension in normotensive adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2009
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Vascular abnormalities may exist before clinical hypertension. Using Poisson regression, the authors studied the association of coronary artery calcium (CAC), common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), aortic distensibility, and large and small arterial elasticity with incident hypertension among 2,512 normotensive US adults free of cardiovascular disease. Incidence rate ratios for incident hypertension (blood pressure > or =140/90 mm Hg or new antihypertensive medication) were calculated. Increased CAC was associated with incident hypertension in demographics-adjusted models (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.75; IRR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.78; and IRR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.25 for CAC scores of 30-99, 100-399, and > or =400, respectively) but was attenuated after further adjustment. Increased common CIMT was associated with incident hypertension (IRR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.28, 2.46 for quintile 4; IRR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.28, 2.53 for quintile 5). Participants with the lowest, compared with the highest, aortic distensibility had an increased risk of hypertension (IRR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.79), as did those with the lowest large arterial elasticity (IRR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.99). Lower small arterial elasticity was incrementally associated with incident hypertension starting at quintile 2 (IRR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.39, 2.91; IRR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.71, 3.57; IRR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.88, 3.95; and IRR = 2.85, 95% CI: 1.95, 4.16). Structural and functional vascular abnormalities are independent predictors of incident hypertension. These findings are important for understanding the pathogenesis of hypertension.
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Segment-specific associations of carotid intima-media thickness with cardiovascular risk factors: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2009
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We propose to study possible differences in the associations between risk factors for cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction and stroke) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) measurements made at 3 different levels of the carotid bifurcation.
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Creation of virtual patients from CT images of cadavers to enhance integration of clinical and basic science student learning in anatomy.
Med Teach
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2009
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The goal of this study was to determine whether computerized tomographic (CT) images of cadavers could be used in addition to images from patients to develop virtual patients (VPs) to enhance integrated learning of basic and clinical science.
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Relationship of carotid distensibility and thoracic aorta calcification: multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2009
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Stiffening of the central elastic arteries is one of the earliest detectable manifestations of adverse change within the vessel wall. Although an association between carotid artery stiffness and adverse events has been demonstrated, little is known about the relationship between stiffness and atherosclerosis. Even less is known about the impact of age, sex, and race on this association. To elucidate this question, we used baseline data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2002). Carotid artery distensibility coefficient was calculated after visualization of the instantaneous waveform of the common carotid diameter using a high-resolution B-mode ultrasound. Thoracic aorta calcification was identified using noncontrast cardiac computed tomography. We found a strong association between decreasing distensibility coefficient (increasing carotid stiffness) and increasing thoracic aorta calcification, as well as a graded increase in the thoracic aorta calcification score (P<0.001). After controlling for age, sex, race, and traditional and emerging cardiovascular risk factors, individuals in the stiffest quartile had a prevalence ratio of 1.52 (95% CI: 1.15 to 2.00) for thoracic aorta calcification compared with the least stiff quartile. In exploratory analysis, carotid stiffness was more highly correlated with calcification of the aorta than calcification of the coronary arteries (rho=0.32 versus 0.22; P<0.001 for comparison). In conclusion, there is a strong independent association between carotid stiffness and thoracic aorta calcification. Carotid stiffness is more highly correlated with calcification of the aorta, a central elastic artery, than calcification of the coronary arteries. The prognostic significance of these findings requires longitudinal follow-up of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort.
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Do socioeconomic gradients in subclinical atherosclerosis vary according to acculturation level? Analyses of Mexican-Americans in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
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To examine whether the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and subclinical atherosclerosis in Mexican-Americans would be moderated by acculturation. Although SEP shows a consistent, inverse relationship with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in westernized non-Hispanic white populations, the relationship in ethnic minorities, including Hispanics, is often weak or even reversed (i.e., worse health with higher SEP).
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Predictive value of brachial flow-mediated dilation for incident cardiovascular events in a population-based study: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2009
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Although brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) predicts recurrent cardiovascular events, its predictive value for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in adults free of CVD is not well established. We assessed the predictive value of FMD for incident CVD events in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.