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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Development of a novel, guinea pig-specific IFN-? ELISPOT assay and characterization of guinea pig cytomegalovirus GP83-specific cellular immune responses following immunization with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-vectored GP83 vaccine.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) provides a useful animal model for studying the pathogenesis of many infectious diseases, and for preclinical evaluation of vaccines. However, guinea pig models are limited by the lack of immunological reagents required for characterization and quantification of antigen-specific T cell responses. To address this deficiency, an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay for guinea pig interferon (IFN)-? was developed to measure antigen/epitope-specific T cell responses to guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) vaccines. Using splenocytes harvested from animals vaccinated with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector encoding the GPCMV GP83 (homolog of human CMV pp65 [gpUL83]) protein, we were able to enumerate and map antigen-specific responses, both in vaccinated as well as GPCMV-infected animals, using a panel of GP83-specific peptides. Several potential immunodominant GP83-specific peptides were identified, including one epitope, LGIVHFFDN, that was noted in all guinea pigs that had a detectable CD8+ response to GP83. Development of a guinea pig IFN-? ELISPOT should be useful in characterization of additional T cell-specific responses to GPCMV, as well as other pathogens. This information in turn can help focus future experimental evaluation of immunization strategies, both for GPCMV as well as for other vaccine-preventable illnesses studied in the guinea pig model.
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Identification by mass spectrometry and immune response analysis of guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) pentameric complex proteins GP129, 131 and 133.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Development of a vaccine against congenital infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major public health priority. A potential vaccine target receiving considerable recent attention is the pentameric complex (PC) of HCMV proteins consisting of gL, gH, UL128, UL130, and UL131, since some antibodies against these target proteins are capable of potently neutralizing virus at epithelial and endothelial cell surfaces. Recently, homologous proteins have been described for guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV), consisting of gH, gL, and the GPCMV proteins GP129, GP131, and GP133. To investigate these proteins as potential vaccine targets, expression of GP129-GP133 transcripts was confirmed by reverse-transcriptase PCR. Mass spectrometry combined with western blot assays demonstrated the presence of GP129, GP131, and GP133 proteins in virus particles. Recombinant proteins corresponding to these PC proteins were generated in baculovirus, and as GST fusion proteins. Recombinant proteins were noted to be immunoreactive with convalescent sera from infected animals, suggesting that these proteins are recognized in the humoral immune response to GPCMV infection. These analyses support the study of PC-based recombinant vaccines in the GPCMV congenital infection model.
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Novel structural protein in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus encoded by an alternative ORF5 present in all arteriviruses.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an arterivirus that emerged in the late 1980s in both Europe and North America as the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), now the most important disease of swine worldwide. Despite extensive characterization of PRRSV proteins by direct analysis and comparison with other arteriviruses, determinants of virulence, pathogenesis and protective immune recognition remain poorly understood. Thus, we hypothesized that additional ORFs are present in the PRRSV genome that may contribute to its biological properties, and so we screened highly purified virions of strain VR2332, the prototype type 2 PRRSV, for evidence of novel polypeptides. A 51 aa polypeptide was discovered that is encoded by an alternative ORF of the subgenomic mRNA encoding the major envelope glycoprotein, GP5, and which is incorporated into virions. The protein, referred to as ORF5a protein, is expressed in infected cells, and pigs infected with PRRSV express anti-ORF5a protein antibodies. A similar ORF is present as an alternative reading frame in all PRRSV subgenomic RNA5 genes and in all other arteriviruses, suggesting that this ORF5a protein plays a significant role in arterivirology. Its discovery also provides a new potential target for immunological and pharmacological intervention in PRRS.
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Antibody response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nonstructural proteins and implications for diagnostic detection and differentiation of PRRSV types I and II.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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To further characterize the humoral immune response of pigs to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to study the kinetics of antibody responses directed against PRRSV nonstructural proteins in pigs experimentally exposed to the virus. The highest immunoreactivities were against nsp1, nsp2, and nsp7. Using the recombinant nsp7 as an antigen, we validated a dual ELISA for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of serum antibodies against type I and type II PRRSV. Receiver operating characteristic analysis based on 1,334 known-positive and 1,357 known-negative samples showed good specificity (98.3% to type I and 99.3% to type II) and sensitivity (97.4% for type I and 99.8% for type II). To differentiate type I and type II PRRSV, 470 sera originating from experimentally inoculated pigs were tested, and positive sera were correctly differentiated in 469 of 470 samples. The capability of the nsp7 dual ELISA to detect serum antibody responses from pigs infected with various genetically different field strains was determined. The nsp7 dual ELISA possessed 97.6% agreement with the Idexx HerdChek PRRS 2XR ELISA. In further testing of Idexx ELISA suspected false-positive samples, the nsp7 dual ELISA resolved 98% of the samples as negative. Taken together, these results indicate that the nsp7 dual ELISA can be used as a differential test for PRRSV serology with high levels of sensitivity and specificity. This ELISA offers an additional tool for routine or follow-up diagnostics, as well as having substantial value in epidemiological surveys and outbreak investigations.
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Presence of Oxalobacter formigenes in the intestinal tract is associated with the absence of calcium oxalate urolith formation in dogs.
Urol. Res.
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The incidence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis in dogs has increased steadily over the last two decades. A potential mechanism to minimize CaOx urolithiasis is to reduce enteric absorption of dietary oxalate by oxalate-metabolizing enteric bacteria. Enteric colonization of Oxalobacter formigenes, an anaerobe which exclusively relies on oxalate metabolism for energy, is correlated with absence of hyperoxaluria or CaOx urolithiasis or both in humans and laboratory animals. We thus hypothesized that decreased enteric colonization of O. formigenes is a risk factor for CaOx urolithiasis in dogs. Fecal samples from dogs with CaOx uroliths, clinically healthy, age-, breed- and gender-matched dogs, and healthy non-stone forming breed dogs were screened for the presence of O. formigenes by quantitative PCR to detect the oxalyl CoA decarboxylase (oxc) gene, and by oxalate degrading biochemical activity in fecal cultures. Prevalence of O. formigenes in dogs with CaOx uroliths was 25%, compared to 50% in clinically healthy, age-, breed- and gender-matched dogs, and 75% in healthy non-stone forming breeds. The presence of oxc genes of O. formigenes was significantly higher in healthy non-stone forming breed dogs than in the dogs with CaOx stones. Further, dogs with calcium oxalate stones and the stone-forming breed-matched controls showed comparable levels of biochemical oxalate degrading activity. We conclude that the absence of enteric colonization of O. formigenes is a risk factor for CaOx urolithiasis.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.