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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effect of the alkali insertion ion on the electrochemical properties of nickel hexacyanoferrate electrodes.
Faraday Discuss.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCFe) is an attractive cathode material in both aqueous and organic electrolytes due to a low-cost synthesis using earth-abundant precursors and also due to its open framework, Prussian blue-like crystal structure that enables ultra-long cycle life, high energy efficiency, and high power capability. Herein, we explored the effect of different alkali ions on the insertion electrochemistry of NiHCFe in aqueous and propylene carbonate-based electrolytes. The large channel diameter of the structure offers fast solid-state diffusion of Li(+), Na(+), and K(+) ions in aqueous electrolytes. However, all alkali ions in organic electrolytes and Rb(+) and Cs(+) in aqueous electrolytes show a quasi-reversible electrochemical behavior that results in poor galvanostatic cycling performance. Kinetic regimes in aqueous electrolyte were also determined, highlighting the effect of the size of the alkali ion on the electrochemical properties.
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High Electrochemical Selectivity of Edge versus Terrace Sites in Two-Dimensional Layered MoS2 Materials.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Exploring the chemical reactivity of different atomic sites on crystal surface and controlling their exposures are important for catalysis and renewable energy storage. Here, we use two-dimensional layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) to demonstrate the electrochemical selectivity of edge versus terrace sites for Li-S batteries and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanoparticles decorates along the edges of the MoS2 nanosheet versus terrace, confirming the strong binding energies between Li2S and the edge sites and guiding the improved electrode design for Li-S batteries. We also provided clear comparison of HER activity between edge and terrace sites of MoS2 beyond the previous theoretical prediction and experimental proof.
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Nodular fasciitis on temple area resulting in surgical trauma.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Nodular fasciitis (NF) is a pseudosarcomatous reactive proliferative lesion that commonly occurs as a solitary, well-circumscribed, painful, rapidly growing soft tissue mass. It appears at any age, but incidence peaks in the third decade, with a slight predilection for women. It is most commonly located on the extremities, followed by the chest and trunk. Although a common site in the pediatric population, NF is found on the head and neck only in 7% to 20% in the adult population and includes the cheek, parotid region, zygoma, periorbital area, eyelid, forehead, and intraoral sites. The cause of NF is unknown, but an association with trauma may be present. A case of NF over the temple area in a 28-year-old man who has no trauma history but has surgical incisional biopsy history and tenderness on palpation is reported.
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Conformational coupling between the active site and residues within the KC-channel of the Vibrio cholerae cbb3-type (C-family) oxygen reductase.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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The respiratory chains of nearly all aerobic organisms are terminated by proton-pumping heme-copper oxygen reductases (HCOs). Previous studies have established that C-family HCOs contain a single channel for uptake from the bacterial cytoplasm of all chemical and pumped protons, and that the entrance of the K(C)-channel is a conserved glutamate in subunit III. However, the majority of the K(C)-channel is within subunit I, and the pathway from this conserved glutamate to subunit I is not evident. In the present study, molecular dynamics simulations were used to characterize a chain of water molecules leading from the cytoplasmic solution, passing the conserved glutamate in subunit III and extending into subunit I. Formation of the water chain, which controls the delivery of protons to the K(C)-channel, was found to depend on the conformation of Y241(Vc), located in subunit I at the interface with subunit III. Mutations of Y241(Vc) (to A/F/H/S) in the Vibrio cholerae cbb3 eliminate catalytic activity, but also cause perturbations that propagate over a 28-Å distance to the active site heme b3. The data suggest a linkage between residues lining the K(C)-channel and the active site of the enzyme, possibly mediated by transmembrane helix ?7, which contains both Y241(Vc) and the active site cross-linked Y255(Vc), as well as two CuB histidine ligands. Other mutations of residues within or near helix ?7 also perturb the active site, indicating that this helix is involved in modulation of the active site of the enzyme.
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Association between occupational dust exposure and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A Korean national survey.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Background:Previous studies have investigated the relationship between occupational and environmental agents and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, there have been few studies regarding the prognosis of IPF patients, according to patient occupation. Objective:We investigated whether occupational dust exposure was associated with clinically decreased lung function and poor prognosis. Design:The Korean Interstitial Lung Disease Research Group conducted a national survey to evaluate the clinical, physiological, radiological, and survival characteristics of IPF patients. A total of 1,311 IPF patients were stratified into five groups, according to their occupation: (1) unemployed or homemakers (n = 628); (2) farmers, fishers, or ranchers (n = 230); (3) sales or service personnel (n = 131); (4) clerical or professional personnel (n = 151); (5) specific dust-exposed workers (n = 171). Results:The mean age of subjects, at diagnosis, was 67.5 ± 9.7 years. Current smokers were 336 patients, 435 were ex-smokers, and 456 were never smokers. Dust-exposed workers showed early onset of IPF (61.3 ± 8.6 years, p < 0.001) and a longer duration of symptoms at diagnosis (17.0 ± 28.2 months, p = 0.004). Aging (p = 0.001; hazard ratio [HR], 1.034; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.014-1.054), forced vital capacity (% of predicted) at diagnosis (p = 0.004; HR, 0.984; 95% CI, 0.974-0.995), and dust-exposure occupation (p = 0.033; HR, 1.813; 95% CI, 1.049-3.133) were associated with mortality. Conclusion:These findings indicate that occupational dust may be an aggravating factor associated with a poor prognosis in IPF.
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Ultrathin two-dimensional atomic crystals as stable interfacial layer for improvement of lithium metal anode.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Stable cycling of lithium metal anode is challenging due to the dendritic lithium formation and high chemical reactivity of lithium with electrolyte and nearly all the materials. Here, we demonstrate a promising novel electrode design by growing two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystal layers including hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene directly on Cu metal current collectors. Lithium ions were able to penetrate through the point and line defects of the 2D layers during the electrochemical deposition, leading to sandwiched lithium metal between ultrathin 2D layers and Cu. The 2D layers afford an excellent interfacial protection of Li metal due to their remarkable chemical stability as well as mechanical strength and flexibility, resulting from the strong intralayer bonds and ultrathin thickness. Smooth Li metal deposition without dendritic and mossy Li formation was realized. We showed stable cycling over 50 cycles with Coulombic efficiency ?97% in organic carbonate electrolyte with current density and areal capacity up to the practical value of 2.0 mA/cm(2)and 5.0 mAh/cm(2), respectively, which is a significant improvement over the unprotected electrodes in the same electrolyte.
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Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells Protect the Ocular Surface by Suppressing Inflammation in an Experimental Dry Eye.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Dry eye syndrome (DES) is one of the most common ocular diseases affecting nearly 10% of the US population. Most of the currently available treatments are palliative, and few therapeutic agents target biological pathway of DES. Although DES is a multifactorial disease, it is well-known that inflammation in the ocular surface plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DES. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to repair tissues by modulating excessive immune responses in various diseases. Therefore, we here investigated the therapeutic potential of MSCs in a murine model of an inflammation-mediated dry eye that was induced by an intraorbital injection of concanavalin A. We found that a periorbital administration of MSCs reduced the infiltration of CD4(+) T cells and the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the intraorbital gland and ocular surface. Also, MSCs significantly increased aqueous tear production and the number of conjunctival goblet cells. Subsequently, corneal epithelial integrity was well-preserved by MSCs. Together, the results demonstrate that MSCs protect the ocular surface by suppressing inflammation in DES, and suggest that MSCs may offer a therapy for a number of ocular surface diseases where inflammation plays a key role.Molecular Therapy (2014); doi:10.1038/mt.2014.159.
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TSG-6 protects corneal endothelium from transcorneal cryoinjury in rabbits.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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To investigate the effect of an anti-inflammatory protein, TNF-? stimulated gene/protein (TSG)-6 and an antiapoptotic protein, stanniocalcin (STC)-1 on corneal endothelium in rabbits with transcorneal cryoinjury.
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Intraperitoneal infusion of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells prevents experimental autoimmune uveitis in mice.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Autoimmune uveitis is one of the leading causes of blindness. We here investigated whether intraperitoneal administration of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) might prevent development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) in mice. Time course study showed that the number of IFN-?- or IL-17-expressing CD4(+) T cells was increased in draining lymph nodes (DLNs) on the postimmunization day 7 and decreased thereafter. The retinal structure was severely disrupted on day 21. An intraperitoneal injection of hMSCs at the time of immunization protected the retina from damage and suppressed the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the eye. Analysis of DLNs on day 7 showed that hMSCs decreased the number of Th1 and Th17 cells. The hMSCs did not reduce the levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-23 which are the cytokines that drive Th1/Th17 differentiation. Also, hMSCs did not induce CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) cells. However, hMSCs increased the level of an immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10 and the population of IL-10-expressing B220(+)CD19(+) cells. Together, data demonstrate that hMSCs attenuate EAU by suppressing Th1/Th17 cells and induce IL-10-expressing B220(+)CD19(+) cells. Our results support suggestions that hMSCs may offer a therapy for autoimmune diseases mediated by Th1/Th17 responses.
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Formation of stable phosphorus-carbon bond for enhanced performance in black phosphorus nanoparticle-graphite composite battery anodes.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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High specific capacity battery electrode materials have attracted great research attention. Phosphorus as a low-cost abundant material has a high theoretical specific capacity of 2596 mAh/g with most of its capacity at the discharge potential range of 0.4-1.2 V, suitable as anodes. Although numerous research progress have shown other high capacity anodes such as Si, Ge, Sn, and SnO2, there are only a few studies on phosphorus anodes despite its high theoretical capacity. Successful applications of phosphorus anodes have been impeded by rapid capacity fading, mainly caused by large volume change (around 300%) upon lithiation and thus loss of electrical contact. Using the conducting allotrope of phosphorus, "black phosphorus" as starting materials, here we fabricated composites of black phosphorus nanoparticle-graphite by mechanochemical reaction in a high energy mechanical milling process. This process produces phosphorus-carbon bonds, which are stable during lithium insertion/extraction, maintaining excellent electrical connection between phosphorus and carbon. We demonstrated high initial discharge capacity of 2786 mAh·g(-1) at 0.2 C and an excellent cycle life of 100 cycles with 80% capacity retention. High specific discharge capacities are maintained at fast C rates (2270, 1750, 1500, and 1240 mAh·g(-1) at C/5, 1, 2, and 4.5 C, respectively).
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Characterization of biomaterial-free cell sheets cultured from human oral mucosal epithelial cells.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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The purpose of this study was to report the characteristics of biomaterial-free sheets cultured from human oral mucosal epithelial cells without fibrin support, in vitro and after transplantation to limbal-deficient models. Human oral mucosal epithelial cells and limbal epithelial cells were cultured for 2 weeks, and the colony-forming efficiency (CFE) rates were compared. Markers of stem cells (p63), cell proliferation (Ki-67) and epithelial differentiation (cytokeratin; K1, K3, K4, K13) were observed in colonies and in biomaterial-free sheets. Biomaterial-free sheets which had been detached with 1% dispase or biomaterial-free sheets generated by fibrin support were transplanted to 12 limbal-deficient rabbit models. In vitro cell viability, in vivo stability and cytokeratin characteristics of biomaterial-free sheets were compared with those of sheets formed by fibrin-coated culture 1 week after transplantation. Mean CFE rate was significantly higher in human oral mucosal epithelial cells (44.8%) than in human limbal epithelial cells(17.7%). K3 and K4 were well expressed in both colonies and sheets. Biomaterial-free sheets had two to six layers of stratified cells and showed an average of 79.8% viable cells in the sheets after detachment. Cytokeratin expressions of biomaterial-free sheets were comparable to those of sheets cultured by fibrin support, in limbal-deficient models. Both p63 and Ki-67 were well expressed in colonies, isolated sheets and sheets transplanted to limbal-deficient models. Our results suggest that biomaterial-free sheets cultured from human oral mucosal epithelial cells without fibrin support can be an alternative option for cell therapy in use for the treatment of limbal-deficient diseases. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Procarbazine, CCNU, and Vincristine Chemotherapy in Gliomatosis Cerebri.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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A 49-year-old female patient was admitted due to memory disturbances. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging suggested gliomatosis cerebri (GC), which had spread to both insular lobes, both frontal and basal ganglia and the brain stem. A stereotactic biopsy was performed at the high signal intensity area of the T2-weighted MR image, and the revealed a diffuse astrocytoma. Radiation therapy was judged not to be an appropriate treatment for the patient because of her cognitive impairment. A combinatorial chemotherapy regiment consisting of Procarbazine, CCNU, and Vincristine (PCV) was agreed upon after discussion. The patient underwent six cycles of PCV chemotherapy (a full dose was applied until the 3rd cycle, and dose then was reduced to 75% for the remaining cycles). Although the patient exhibited side effects such as bone marrow suppression and gastrointestinal symptoms, these were managed by medication. Over the 28 months following initiation of treatment, the high signal area in the right frontal and temporal lobes in the T2-weighted MR image decreased, and the patient's cognitive function [global deterioration scale (GDS) 4 points, mini-mental state examination (MMSE) 25 point] also improved (GDS 1 points, MMSE 29 points). PCV chemotherapy can therefore be an alternative therapeutic option for patients with GC who cannot be treated with radiation therapy or other chemotherapies.
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Rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist, restores alveolar and pulmonary vascular development in a rat model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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We tested whether rosiglitazone (RGZ), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist, can restore alveolar development and vascular growth in a rat model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).
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Acrolein- and 4-Aminobiphenyl-DNA adducts in human bladder mucosa and tumor tissue and their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Tobacco smoke (TS) is a major cause of human bladder cancer (BC). Two components in TS, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and acrolein, which also are environmental contaminants, can cause bladder tumor in rat models. Their role in TS related BC has not been forthcoming. To establish the relationship between acrolein and 4-ABP exposure and BC, we analyzed acrolein-deoxyguanosine (dG) and 4-ABP-DNA adducts in normal human urothelial mucosa (NHUM) and bladder tumor tissues (BTT), and measured their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells. We found that the acrolein-dG levels in NHUM and BTT are 10-30 fold higher than 4-ABP-DNA adduct levels and that the acrolein-dG levels in BTT are 2 fold higher than in NHUM. Both acrolein-dG and 4-ABP-DNA adducts are mutagenic; however, the former are 5 fold more mutagenic than the latter. These two types of DNA adducts induce different mutational signatures and spectra. We found that acrolein inhibits nucleotide excision and base excision repair and induces repair protein degradation in urothelial cells. Since acrolein is abundant in TS, inhaled acrolein is excreted into urine and accumulates in the bladder and because acrolein inhibits DNA repair and acrolein-dG DNA adducts are mutagenic, we propose that acrolein is a major bladder carcinogen in TS.
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Alveolar soft part sarcoma of the uterine cervix: a case report and review of the literature.
Korean J Pathol
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) of the uterine cervix is a rare malignancy, and 21 cases have been reported the literature from every language (including our case). Herein, we describe a 17-yearold female patient who presented with active vaginal bleeding. Pelvic examination revealed a 1.6 ×1.0×0.5-cm-sized soft mass protruding from the uterine cervix. The final pathological diagnosis was ASPS of the uterine cervix. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were strongly nuclear positive for transcription factor E3. The patient remained disease free for 24 months without adjuvant therapy. The prognosis of ASPS in the cervix is considerably better than that of ASPS in soft tissues due to early clinical detection, small size, and resectability. ASPS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an unusual epithelioid neoplasm showing organoid appearance with mild cytologic atypia and no/rare mitotic figures, particularly in young women. Pathologists should be aware of those unusual locations where ASPS may originate.
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Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism in Medical Intensive Care Unit: A Multicenter Observational Study in Korea.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Patients admitted to medical intensive care unit (MICU) are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE); and prophylaxis is recommended. However, the actual range and frequency of VTE prophylaxis administered to MICU patients are not well defined. Patients over 40 yr of age and expected MICU stay of more than 48 hr were eligible for this observational cohort study of 23 MICUs in Korea. Patients already on anticoagulation therapy or those requiring anticoagulation for reasons other than VTE were excluded. Among 830 patients, VTE prophylaxis was given to 560 (67.5%) patients. Among 560 patients, 323 (38.9%) received pharmacoprophylaxis, 318 (38.4%) received mechanical prophylaxis and 81 (9.8%) received both forms of prophylaxis. About 74% of patients in the pharmacoprophylaxis group received low molecular weight heparin and 53% of the patients in the mechanical prophylaxis group used intermittent pneumatic compression. Most of the patients (90%) had more than one risk factor for VTE and the most common risk factor was old age, followed by heart and respiratory failure. In this observational cohort study of 23 MICUs in Korea, 67.5% of patients received thromboprophylaxis. Further studies are needed to clarify the role and efficacy of VTE prophylaxis in Korean critically ill patients.
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Manganese hexacyanomanganate open framework as a high-capacity positive electrode material for sodium-ion batteries.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Potential applications of sodium-ion batteries in grid-scale energy storage, portable electronics and electric vehicles have revitalized research interest in these batteries. However, the performance of sodium-ion electrode materials has not been competitive with that of lithium-ion electrode materials. Here we present sodium manganese hexacyanomanganate (Na2MnII[MnII(CN)6]), an open-framework crystal structure material, as a viable positive electrode for sodium-ion batteries. We demonstrate a high discharge capacity of 209?mAh?g-1 at C/5 (40?mA?g-1) and excellent capacity retention at high rates in a propylene carbonate electrolyte. We provide chemical and structural evidence for the unprecedented storage of 50% more sodium cations than previously thought possible during electrochemical cycling. These results represent a step forward in the development of sodium-ion batteries.
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Patterns of Neutropenia and Risk Factors for Febrile Neutropenia of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patients Treated with Rituximab-CHOP.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Febrile neutropenia (FN) is the major toxicity of rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) regimen in the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The prediction of neutropenia and FN is mandatory to continue the planned R-CHOP therapy resulting in successful anti-cancer treatment. The clinical features and patterns of neutropenia and FN from 181 DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP were analyzed retrospectively. Sixty percent (60.2%) of patients experienced at least one episode of grade 4 neutropenia. Among them, 42.2% of episodes progressed to FN. Forty-eight percent (48.8%) of patients with FN was experienced their first FN during the first cycle of R-CHOP. All those patients never experienced FN again during the rest cycles of R-CHOP. Female, higher stage, international prognostic index (IPI), age ?65 yr, comorbidities, bone marrow involvement, and baseline serum albumin ?3.5 mg/dL were significant risk factors for FN by univariate analysis. Among these variables, comorbidities (P=0.009), bone marrow involvement (P=0.006), and female gender (P=0.024) were independent risk factors for FN based on multivariate analysis. On observing the patterns of neutropenia and FN, primary prophylaxis of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and antibiotics should be considered particularly in female patients, patients with comorbidities, or when there is bone marrow involvement of disease.
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Dose-dependent embryotrophic effect of recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in culture medium for mouse preimplantation embryo.
Obstet Gynecol Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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To evaluate the dose effect of recombinant mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rmGM-CSF) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in culture medium on the development of in vitro fertilized mouse embryos.
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Dry-air-stable lithium silicide-lithium oxide core-shell nanoparticles as high-capacity prelithiation reagents.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Rapid progress has been made in realizing battery electrode materials with high capacity and long-term cyclability in the past decade. However, low first-cycle Coulombic efficiency as a result of the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase and Li trapping at the anodes, remains unresolved. Here we report LixSi-Li2O core-shell nanoparticles as an excellent prelithiation reagent with high specific capacity to compensate the first-cycle capacity loss. These nanoparticles are produced via a one-step thermal alloying process. LixSi-Li2O core-shell nanoparticles are processible in a slurry and exhibit high capacity under dry-air conditions with the protection of a Li2O passivation shell, indicating that these nanoparticles are potentially compatible with industrial battery fabrication processes. Both Si and graphite anodes are successfully prelithiated with these nanoparticles to achieve high first-cycle Coulombic efficiencies of 94% to >100%. The LixSi-Li2O core-shell nanoparticles enable the practical implementation of high-performance electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.
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Enhanced air stability of polymer solar cells with a nanofibril-based photoactive layer.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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In spite of the rapid increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of polymer solar cells (PSCs), the poor stability of the photoactive layer in air under sunlight is a critical problem blocking commercialization of PSCs. This study investigates the photo-oxidation behavior of a bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) photoactive film made of single-crystalline poly(3-hexlythiophene) (P3HT) nanofibrils and fullerene derivatives [phenyl-C61-butyric methyl ester (PCBM), indene-C 60 bisadduct (ICBA)]. Because the single-crystalline P3HT nanofibrils had tightly packed ?-? stacking, the permeation of oxygen and water into the nanofibrils was significantly reduced. Chemical changes in P3HT were not apparent in the nanofibrils, and hence the air stability of the nanofibril-based BHJ film was considerably enhanced as compared with conventional BHJ films. The chemical changes were monitored by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and UV-vis absorbance. Inverted PSCs made of the nanofibril-based BHJ layer also showed significantly enhanced air stability under sunlight. The nanofibril-based solar cell maintained more than 80% of its initial PCE after 30 days of continuous exposure to sunlight (AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm(2)), whereas the PCE of the conventional BHJ solar cell decreased to 20% of its initial PCE under the same experimental conditions.
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Neonatal systemic inflammation in rats alters retinal vessel development and simulates pathologic features of retinopathy of prematurity.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Alteration of retinal angiogenesis during development leads to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in preterm infants, which is a leading cause of visual impairment in children. A number of clinical studies have reported higher rates of ROP in infants who had perinatal infections or inflammation, suggesting that exposure of the developing retina to inflammation may disturb retinal vessel development. Thus, we investigated the effects of systemic inflammation on retinal vessel development and retinal inflammation in neonatal rats.
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Anti-osteoporotic and antioxidant activities of chemical constituents of the aerial parts of Ducrosia ismaelis.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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A new pterocarpan glycoside, glycinol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), and a new dihydrochalcone glycoside, ismaeloside A (2), were isolated together with 13 known compounds, including several flavonoids (3-8), lignans (9-11), and phenolic compounds (12-15), from the methanol extract of the aerial parts of Ducrosia ismaelis. The chemical structures of these compounds were elucidated from spectroscopic data and by comparison of these data with previously published results. The anti-osteoporotic and antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds were assessed using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and reducing capacity assays. Compound 15 exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of osteoclastic TRAP activity with a TRAP value of 86.05±6.55% of the control at a concentration of 10 ?M. Compounds 1, 3-5, and 8 showed potent peroxyl radical-scavenging capacities with ORAC values of 22.79±0.90, 25.57±0.49, 20.41±0.63, 26.55±0.42, and 24.83±0.12 ?M Trolox equivalents (TE) at 10 ?M, respectively. Only compound 9 was able to significantly reduce Cu(I) with 23.44 ?M TE at a concentration of 10 ?M. All of the aforementioned compounds were isolated for the first time from a Ducrosia species.
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Interconnected hollow carbon nanospheres for stable lithium metal anodes.
Nat Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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For future applications in portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid storage, batteries with higher energy storage density than existing lithium ion batteries need to be developed. Recent efforts in this direction have focused on high-capacity electrode materials such as lithium metal, silicon and tin as anodes, and sulphur and oxygen as cathodes. Lithium metal would be the optimal choice as an anode material, because it has the highest specific capacity (3,860 mAh g(-1)) and the lowest anode potential of all. However, the lithium anode forms dendritic and mossy metal deposits, leading to serious safety concerns and low Coulombic efficiency during charge/discharge cycles. Although advanced characterization techniques have helped shed light on the lithium growth process, effective strategies to improve lithium metal anode cycling remain elusive. Here, we show that coating the lithium metal anode with a monolayer of interconnected amorphous hollow carbon nanospheres helps isolate the lithium metal depositions and facilitates the formation of a stable solid electrolyte interphase. We show that lithium dendrites do not form up to a practical current density of 1 mA cm(-2). The Coulombic efficiency improves to ? 99% for more than 150 cycles. This is significantly better than the bare unmodified samples, which usually show rapid Coulombic efficiency decay in fewer than 100 cycles. Our results indicate that nanoscale interfacial engineering could be a promising strategy to tackle the intrinsic problems of lithium metal anodes.
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Enhanced expression and purification of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase A through use of the pCold1-GST vector and a C-terminal hexahistidine tag in Escherichia coli.
Protein Expr. Purif.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase A (IP3K-A, alternative name: ITPKA) is a neuron-specific enzyme that converts 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) into inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (IP4) through its kinase domain. In addition, transient overexpression of IP3K-A induces morphological changes in dendritic spines of excitatory synapses in a kinase-independent manner, apparently by modulating the organization of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Although the procurement of a purified recombinant IP3K-A protein would be indispensable for the biochemical elucidation of its physiological roles, production of recombinant IP3K-A has proven technically challenging in conventional Escherichia coli expression systems. These difficulties stem from low enzyme solubility, as well as poor protein quality caused by the tendency of IP3K-A to split into partial fragments. In present study, we newly introduced cold-shock expression vector (pCold1) together with a C-terminal hexahistidine tag (C-HIS) to enhance the expression levels of recombinant IP3K-A in E. coli. Importantly, when compared with other commonly-employed bacterial expression systems, the pCold1 system improved the yield and the purity of full-length IP3K-A due to the exclusion of truncated enzyme forms, and also enhanced the solubility of the enzyme. Furthermore, the functional integrity of purified IP3K-A was confirmed in both kinase activity assay and microtubule binding assay. Recombinant IP3K-A acquired via this modified protocol will be expected to facilitate the exploration of the enzyme's biochemical profile, both structurally and functionally.
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Factors affecting the spontaneous expulsion of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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To estimate the incidence of, and identify risk factors for, spontaneous expulsion of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS).
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Intravenous infusion of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells decreased CCR7(+) antigen presenting cells in mice with corneal allotransplantation.
Curr. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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To investigate the effects of intravenous (IV) infusion of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) on activation and migration of CCR7(+) antigen presenting cells (APCs) in allogeneic corneal transplantation.
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Surgical Ligation on Significant Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Very Low Birth Weight Infants: Comparison between Early and Late Ligations.
Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of early surgical ligation (within 15 days of age) over late surgical ligation (after 15 days of age) by a comparative analysis of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants undergoing surgical correction for symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) over the course of 6 years in our hospital.
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Impaired extinction of learned contextual fear memory in early growth response 1 knockout mice.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Inductive expression of early growth response 1 (Egr-1) in neurons is associated with many forms of neuronal activity. However, only a few Egr-1 target genes are known in the brain. The results of this study demonstrate that Egr-1 knockout (KO) mice display impaired contextual extinction learning and normal fear acquisition relative to wild-type (WT) control animals. Genome-wide microarray experiments revealed 368 differentially expressed genes in the hippocampus of Egr-1 WT exposed to different phases of a fear conditioning paradigm compared to gene expression profiles in the hippocampus of KO mice. Some of genes, such as serotonin receptor 2C (Htr2c), neuropeptide B (Npb), neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (Npas4), NPY receptor Y1 (Npy1r), fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7), and neuropeptide Y (Npy) are known to regulate processing of fearful memories, and promoter analyses demonstrated that several of these genes contained Egr-1 binding sites. This study provides a useful list of potential Egr-1 target genes which may be regulated during fear memory processing.
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Risk factors for hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in critically ill patients: a multicenter study in Korea.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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We performed a case-control study to identify risk factors of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGNB) as an increasing cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). The study included critically ill adult patients with HAP whose microbial etiology was identified at eight tertiary centers in Korea between June 2008 and December 2009. Eighty two patients with 86 isolates of CRGNB (62 Acinetobacter baumannii, 14 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 10 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) were included in the case group, and 122 patients with carbapenem-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria were included in the control group. Diabetes mellitus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.82, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.25-6.38), radiologic score ?5 (aOR 4.56, 95% CI 2.36-8.81), prior fluoroquinolone (aOR 2.39. 95% CI = 1.07-5.35), or carbapenem usage (aOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.75-17.83) were found to be independent risk factors. Fluoroquinolone and carbapenem should be cautiously used to avoid HAP caused by CRGNB.
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Polarized and Stage-Dependent Distribution of Immunoreactivity for Novel PDZ-Binding Protein Preso1 in Adult Neurogenic Regions.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Adult neural stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell lineages via symmetric or asymmetric cell division. Preso1 is a recently identified protein involved in the formation of dendritic spines and the promotion of axonal growth in developing neurons. Preso1 can also bind to cell polarity proteins, suggesting a potential role for Preso1 in asymmetric cell division.
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High Expression of Aldo-Keto Reductase 1B10 Is an Independent Predictor of Favorable Prognosis in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Upregulation of aldo-keto reductase 1B10 (AKR1B10) through the mitogenic activator protein-1 signaling pathway might promote hepatocarcinogenesis and tumor progression. The goal of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of AKR1B10 protein expression in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after surgery.
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High expression of ribonucleotide reductase subunit m2 correlates with poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Ribonucleotide reductase subunit M2 (RRM2) catalyzes the production of deoxynucleotide triphosphates, which are necessary for DNA synthesis. RRM2 has been reported to play an active role in tumor progression, and elevated RRM2 levels have been correlated with poor prognosis for colorectal cancer patients. This study aimed to elucidate the prognostic significance of RRM2 protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma after surgery.
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ABA renewal involves enhancements in both GluA2-lacking AMPA receptor activity and GluA1 phosphorylation in the lateral amygdala.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Fear renewal, the context-specific relapse of fear following fear extinction, is a leading animal model of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and fear-related disorders. Although fear extinction can diminish fear responses, this effect is restricted to the context where the extinction is carried out, and the extinguished fear strongly relapses when assessed in the original acquisition context (ABA renewal) or in a context distinct from the conditioning and extinction contexts (ABC renewal). We have previously identified Ser831 phosphorylation of GluA1 subunit in the lateral amygdala (LA) as a key molecular mechanism for ABC renewal. However, molecular mechanisms underlying ABA renewal remain to be elucidated. Here, we found that both the excitatory synaptic efficacy and GluA2-lacking AMPAR activity at thalamic input synapses onto the LA (T-LA synapses) were enhanced upon ABA renewal. GluA2-lacking AMPAR activity was also increased during low-threshold potentiation, a potential cellular substrate of renewal, at T-LA synapses. The microinjection of 1-naphtylacetyl-spermine (NASPM), a selective blocker of GluA2-lacking AMPARs, into the LA attenuated ABA renewal, suggesting a critical role of GluA2-lacking AMPARs in ABA renewal. We also found that Ser831 phosphorylation of GluA1 in the LA was increased upon ABA renewal. We developed a short peptide mimicking the Ser831-containing C-tail region of GluA1, which can be phosphorylated upon renewal (GluA1S); thus, the phosphorylated GluA1S may compete with Ser831-phosphorylated GluA1. This GluA1S peptide blocked the low-threshold potentiation when dialyzed into a recorded neuron. The microinjection of a cell-permeable form of GluA1S peptide into the LA attenuated ABA renewal. In support of the GluA1S experiments, a GluA1D peptide (in which the serine at 831 is replaced with a phosphomimetic amino acid, aspartate) attenuated ABA renewal when microinjected into the LA. These findings suggest that enhancements in both the GluA2-lacking AMPAR activity and GluA1 phosphorylation at Ser831 are required for ABA renewal.
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Effect of Collecting Duct-Specific Deletion of Both Rh B Glycoprotein (Rhbg) and Rh C Glycoprotein (Rhcg) on Renal Response to Metabolic Acidosis.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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The Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins, Rh B and Rh C Glycoprotein (Rhbg and Rhcg, respectively), are ammonia-specific transporters expressed in renal distal nephron and collecting duct sites that are necessary for normal rates of ammonia excretion. The purpose of the current studies was to determine the effect of their combined deletion from the renal collecting duct (CD-Rhbg/Rhcg-KO) on basal and acidosis-stimulated acid-base homeostasis. Under basal conditions, urine pH and ammonia excretion and serum HCO3(-) were similar in control (C) and CD-Rhbg/Rhcg-KO mice. After acid-loading for seven days, CD-Rhbg/Rhcg-KO mice developed significantly more severe metabolic acidosis than did C mice. Acid-loading increased ammonia excretion, but ammonia excretion increased more slowly in CD-Rhbg/Rhcg-KO and it was significantly less than in C mice on days 1-5. Urine pH was significantly more acidic in CD-Rhbg/Rhcg-KO mice on days 1, 3, and 5 of acid-loading. Metabolic acidosis increased phosphenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and NHE-3 and decreased glutamine synthetase (GS) expression in both genotypes, and these changes were significantly greater in CD-Rhbg/Rhcg-KO than in C mice. We conclude that: 1) Rhbg and Rhcg are critically important in the renal response to metabolic acidosis; 2) the significantly greater changes in PEPCK, NHE-3 and GS expression in acid-loaded CD-Rhbg/Rhcg-KO compared to acid-loaded C mice cause the role of Rhbg and Rhcg to be underestimated quantitatively ; and 3) in mice with intact Rhbg and Rhcg expression, metabolic acidosis does not induce maximal changes in PEPCK, NHE-3 and GS expression despite the presence of persistent metabolic acidosis.
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Electrical and mechanical characteristics of room temperature deposited silicon nitride using two inner parallel cylindrical coils inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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For investigating silicon nitride (SiN) thin film deposition process at room temperature without additional substrate heating, we studied inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition with two inner parallel cylindrical coils which can activate the more radicals and charged species in the plasma. We investigated the influence of plasma RF power on the characteristics of room temperature deposited SiN films. Deposition rates, dielectric constant, refractive index, and stress of the films ranged from 4.5 nm/min to 8.3 nm/min, 8.4 to 10, 1.8 to 2.1, and 0.54 to 0.15, respectively. According to the FTIR measurements, the concentration of the Si--H and N--H bonds was decreased as the RF power increased, and the Si--H bonds tended to disappear at RF power over 500 W. This reduction in the hydrogen content was accompanied by the increases in the deposition rate and refractive index. It was confirmed that the breakdown field could be also maximized to 10 MV/cm.
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Analysis of macrophage phenotype in rejected corneal allografts.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
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We investigated the phenotype of macrophages infiltrating rejected corneal allografts.
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Asthma and severity of the 2009 novel H1N1 influenza: a case-control study.
J Asthma
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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Abstract Objective: Previous studies reported that the most common chronic condition found among hospitalized patients due to the novel 2009 H1N1 influenza was asthma. However, these studies did not include a concurrent control group. Thus, we investigated the association of asthma status and severity of H1N1 influenza in adults. Methods: The study was designed as a multi-site case-control study. Cases were patients who had positive PCR for H1N1 influenza and were admitted to the ICU or general ward with a diagnosis of H1N1 influenza from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2009. Controls were patients who had positive PCR for H1N1 influenza, but were not admitted to hospitals. Results: There were 91 H1N1 cases admitted to either ICU (n?=?41) or general hospital ward (n?=?50), and 56 controls who met the matching criteria were available. Of the 91 cases, the mean age was 47.3 years, 59% were female, and 38% had comorbid conditions. Of the 91 cases, 12 (13%) had asthma. Stratified analysis by comorbid conditions showed that among those without any comorbid conditions, 8 of 56 cases (14%) and 2 of 49 controls (4%) had asthma, (OR: 3.92, 95% CI: 0.79-19.42, p?=?0.095) whereas, among the 39 subjects with one or more comorbid conditions, one of 7 controls (14%) had asthma and 4 of 35 (11%) cases had asthma (p?=?0.83). Conclusions: Asthma may be associated with severity of H1N1 influenza among those without any non-asthma comorbid conditions. However, the limited sample size did not allow this study to fully establish statistical significance. We still recommend asthmatics as a priority group for influenza vaccination and treatment.
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Boron-doped peroxo-zirconium oxide dielectric for high-performance, low-temperature, solution-processed indium oxide thin-film transistor.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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We developed a solution-processed indium oxide (In2O3) thin-film transistor (TFT) with a boron-doped peroxo-zirconium (ZrO2:B) dielectric on silicon as well as polyimide substrate at 200 °C, using water as the solvent for the In2O3 precursor. The formation of In2O3 and ZrO2:B films were intensively studied by thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT IR), high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Boron was selected as a dopant to make a denser ZrO2 film. The ZrO2:B film effectively blocked the leakage current at 200 °C with high breakdown strength. To evaluate the ZrO2:B film as a gate dielectric, we fabricated In2O3 TFTs on the ZrO2:B dielectrics with silicon substrates and annealed the resulting samples at 200 and 250 °C. The resulting mobilities were 1.25 and 39.3 cm(2)/(V s), respectively. Finally, we realized a flexible In2O3 TFT with the ZrO2:B dielectric on a polyimide substrate at 200 °C, and it successfully operated a switching device with a mobility of 4.01 cm(2)/(V s). Our results suggest that aqueous solution-processed In2O3 TFTs on ZrO2:B dielectrics could potentially be used for low-cost, low-temperature, and high-performance flexible devices.
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A Prospective, Randomized Comparison of Promus Everolimus-Eluting and TAXUS Liberte Paclitaxel-Eluting Stent Systems in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Eligible for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: The PROMISE Study.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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We aimed comparing two-year clinical outcomes of the Everolimus-Eluting Promus and Paclitaxel-Eluting TAXUS Liberte stents used in routine clinical practice. Patients with objective evidence of ischemia and coronary artery disease eligible for PCI were prospectively randomized to everolimus-eluting stent (EES) or paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) groups. The primary end-point was ischemia-driven target vessel revascularization (TVR) at 2 yr after intervention, and the secondary end-point was a major adverse cardiac event (MACE), such as death, myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR), TVR or stent thrombosis. A total of 850 patients with 1,039 lesions was randomized to the EES (n=425) and PES (n=425) groups. Ischemic-driven TVR at 2 yr was 3.8% in the PES and 1.2% in the EES group (P for non-inferiority=0.021). MACE rates were significantly different; 5.6% in PES and 2.5% in EES (P = 0.027). Rates of MI (0.8% in PES vs 0.2% in EES, P = 0.308), all deaths (1.5% in PES vs 1.2% in EES, P = 0.739) and stent thrombosis (0.3% in PES vs 0.7% in EES, P = 0.325) were similar. The clinical outcomes of EES are superior to PES, mainly due to a reduction in the rate of ischemia-driven TVR.
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Retropharyngeal spindle cell/pleomorphic lipoma.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Spindle cell/pleomorphic lipoma is an uncommon benign adipose tissue tumor most frequently arising from the subcutaneous tissue of the back, shoulder, head and neck, and extremities. The deep cervical spaces are the rarely affected locations. Herein we report on the imaging findings of spindle cell/pleomorphic lipoma involving the retropharyngeal space in an elderly woman.
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Double exposure to intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide and maternal betamethasone induces sustained increase of neutrophils in the lungs and disrupts alveolarization in newborn rats.
J Perinat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2013
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We investigated the combined effects of intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and maternal betamethasone (BMZ) on alveolarization using a newborn rat model.
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Persistent phosphorylation of NKCC1 and WNK1 in the epicenter of the spinal cord following contusion injury.
Spine J
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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NKCC1 regulates neuronal homeostasis of chloride ions and mediates GABAergic activities in nociceptive processing. WNK1 is an upstream regulator of NKCC1 and acts via SPAK (STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase) and oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1. NKCC1 activity has been shown to be important in edema formation and nociception following spinal cord injury (SCI).
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Amnestic multiple cognitive domains impairment and periventricular white matter hyperintensities are independently predictive factors progression to dementia in mild cognitive impairment.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) usually represents a transitional phase between normal cognitive function and dementia, but not all people with MCI develop dementia because MCI is a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous grouping. The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical subtypes of MCI and severity of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) were associated with progression of MCI to dementia.
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Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination in children with chronic or recurrent rhinosinusitis.
Korean J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Although chronic and recurrent rhinosinusitis is prevalent in children, little is known about its causes. Here, we investigated the humoral immunity in children with chronic or recurrent rhinosinusitis.
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Current routine practice and clinico-pathological characteristics associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia in Korea.
Blood Res
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) can be life threatening, necessitating emergency therapy with prompt diagnosis by morphologic findings, immunophenotyping, cytogenetic analysis, or molecular studies. This study aimed to assess the current routine practices in APL and the clinico-pathologic features of APL.
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The heme-copper oxidase superfamily shares a Zn2+-binding motif at the entrance to a proton pathway.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Heme-copper oxidases (HCuOs) catalyse the reduction of oxygen, using the liberated free energy to maintain a proton-motive force across the membrane. In the mitochondrial-like A-type HCuOs, binding of heavy metal ions at the surface of the protein inhibits proton transfer. In bacterial C-type oxidases, the entry point to the proton pathway is on an accessory subunit unrelated to any subunit in A-type HCuOs. Despite this, we show here that heavy metal ions such as Zn(2+) inhibit O2-reduction very similarly in C-type as in A-type HCuOs, and furthermore that the binding site shares the same Glu-His motif.
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Mortality of community-acquired pneumonia in Korea: assessed with the pneumonia severity index and the CURB-65 score.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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The pneumonia severity index (PSI) and CURB-65 are widely used tools for the prediction of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study was conducted to evaluate validation of severity scoring system including the PSI and CURB-65 scores of Korean CAP patients. In the prospective CAP cohort (participated in by 14 hospitals in Korea from January 2009 to September 2011), 883 patients aged over 18 yr were studied. The 30-day mortalities of all patients were calculated with their PSI index classes and CURB scores. The overall mortality rate was 4.5% (40/883). The mortality rates per CURB-65 score were as follows: score 0, 2.3% (6/260); score 1, 4.0% (12/300); score 2, 6.0% (13/216); score 3, 5.7% (5/88); score 4, 23.5% (4/17); and score 5, 0% (0/2). Mortality rate with PSI risk class were as follows: I, 2.3% (4/174); II, 2.7% (5/182); III, 2.3% (5/213); IV, 4.5% (11/245); and V, 21.7% (15/69). The subgroup mortality rate of Korean CAP patients varies based on the severity scores and CURB-65 is more valid for the lower scores, and PSI, for the higher scores. Thus, these variations must be considered when using PSI and CURB-65 for CAP in Korean patients.
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Comparison of Direct Sequencing, PNA Clamping-Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, and Pyrosequencing Methods for the Detection of EGFR Mutations in Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma and the Correlation with Clinical Responses to EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibito
Korean J Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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The aims of this study were to evaluate the abilities of direct sequencing (DS), peptide nucleic acid (PNA) clamping, and pyrosequencing methods to detect epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) samples and to correlate EGFR mutational status as determined by each method with the clinical response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).
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High-efficiency tooth bleaching using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with low concentration of hydrogen peroxide.
J Appl Oral Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Light-activated tooth bleaching with a high hydrogen peroxide (HP; H2O2) concentration has risks and the actual role of the light source is doubtful. The use of conventional light might result in an increase in the temperature and cause thermal damage to the health of the tooth tissue.
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Stanniocalcin-1 protects retinal ganglion cells by inhibiting apoptosis and oxidative damage.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Optic neuropathy including glaucoma is one of the leading causes of irreversible vision loss, and there are currently no effective therapies. The hallmark of pathophysiology of optic neuropathy is oxidative stress and apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), a population of neurons in the central nervous system with their soma in the inner retina and axons in the optic nerve. We here tested that an anti-apoptotic protein stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1) can prevent loss of RGCs in the rat retina with optic nerve transection (ONT) and in cultures of RGC-5 cells with CoCl2 injury. We found that intravitreal injection of STC-1 increased the number of RGCs in the retina at days 7 and 14 after ONT, and decreased apoptosis and oxidative damage. In cultures, treatment with STC-1 dose-dependently increased cell viability, and decreased apoptosis and levels of reactive oxygen species in RGC-5 cells that were exposed to CoCl2. The expression of HIF-1? that was up-regulated by injury was significantly suppressed in the retina and in RGC-5 cells by STC-1 treatment. The results suggested that intravitreal injection of STC-1 might be a useful therapy for optic nerve diseases in which RGCs undergo apoptosis through oxidative stress.
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Gemcitabine and oxaliplatin with or without erlotinib in advanced biliary-tract cancer: a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 study.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2011
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Combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and a platinum-based agent is regarded as a standard treatment for patients with advanced biliary-tract cancer. Results of phase 2 trials of single-agent erlotinib in biliary-tract cancer and of gemcitabine plus erlotinib in pancreatic cancer have shown modest benefits. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin plus erlotinib versus chemotherapy alone for advanced biliary-tract cancer.
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Acquisition of a BCR-ABL1 transcript in a patient with disease progression from MDS with fibrosis to AML with myelodysplasia-related changes.
Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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The 2008 WHO classification tentatively introduced myelodysplastic syndrome with fibrosis (MDS-F) based on previous literature of the existence of such cases. Most MDS-F cases have increased blasts, lower hemoglobin and platelet counts, an aggressive clinical course, and more frequently include cytogenetic aberrations. We report the case of a 66-year-old male patient diagnosed with refractory anemia with excess blasts-2 with fibrosis (MDS RAEB-2-F) with a normal karyotype and negative findings for both BCR-ABL1 transcript and JAK2 V617F mutations. He refused therapy upon his diagnosis and, after 5 months, his disease progressed to leukemia. The patient was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC), based on a bone marrow exam revealing increased blasts (32.8%). Cytogenetic study revealed a complex karyotype, and molecular studies identified a minor BCRABL1 fusion transcript. The patients general condition deteriorated despite the initiation of induction chemotherapy, and he died approximately 2 weeks after the diagnosis of AML-MRC. This patients poor clinical outcome may have been exacerbated by the acquisition of the BCR-ABL1 fusion transcript overlapping with the aggressive nature of MDS-F.
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Effect of aldosterone on the amplification of oncolytic vaccinia virus in human cancer lines.
Korean J Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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JX-594 is an oncolytic virus derived from the Wyeth vaccinia strain that causes replication-dependent cytolysis and antitumor immunity. Starting with a cross-examination of clinical-trial samples from advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients having high levels of aldosterone and virus amplification in JX-594 treatment, we investigated the association between virus amplification and aldosterone in human cancer cell lines.
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Entrance of the proton pathway in cbb3-type heme-copper oxidases.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
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Heme-copper oxidases (HCuOs) are the last components of the respiratory chain in mitochondria and many bacteria. They catalyze O(2) reduction and couple it to the maintenance of a proton-motive force across the membrane in which they are embedded. In the mitochondrial-like, A family of HCuOs, there are two well established proton transfer pathways leading from the cytosol to the active site, the D and the K pathways. In the C family (cbb(3)) HCuOs, recent work indicated the use of only one pathway, analogous to the K pathway. In this work, we have studied the functional importance of the suggested entry point of this pathway, the Glu-25 (Rhodobacter sphaeroides cbb(3) numbering) in the accessory subunit CcoP (E25(P)). We show that catalytic turnover is severely slowed in variants lacking the protonatable Glu-25. Furthermore, proton uptake from solution during oxidation of the fully reduced cbb(3) by O(2) is specifically and severely impaired when Glu-25 was exchanged for Ala or Gln, with rate constants 100-500 times slower than in wild type. Thus, our results support the role of E25(P) as the entry point to the proton pathway in cbb(3) and that this pathway is the main proton pathway. This is in contrast to the A-type HCuOs, where the D (and not the K) pathway is used during O(2) reduction. The cbb(3) is in addition to O(2) reduction capable of NO reduction, an activity that was largely retained in the E25(P) variants, consistent with a scenario where NO reduction in cbb(3) uses protons from the periplasmic side of the membrane.
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Antiulcer activity of anthocyanins from Rubus coreanus via association with regulation of the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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Anthocyanins were extracted from the fruits of Rubus coreanus. Whether their antioxidant properties and antiulcer activity in gastric ulceration have been accompanied by the activation of matrix metalloproteainse-2 (MMP-2) was investigated. To assess the effect of anthocyanins on gastric ulcer, the rats were administered with anthocyanins (20, 50, and 80 mg/kg of body weight) before treatment with naproxen (80 mg/kg of body weight) to induce gastric ulceration. Lipid peroxidation and the activities of radical scavenging enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase were determined. The MMP-2 level was tested by zymography and Western blot. Anthocyanins of R. coreanus exhibit possible antiulcer activity in acute ulcer in a rat model by preventing lipid peroxidation and a significant increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Also, anthocyanins induce activation of MMP-2 and attenuate the activity of the proinflammatory molecules, such as tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1?.
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Multiple extramedullary relapses without bone marrow involvement after second allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
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EMR without BM involvement after allogeneic HSCT is extremely rare, especially in children; only a few cases have been reported. A two-yr-old boy was diagnosed with AML (M4) and underwent allogeneic HSCT in first complete remission with BM from HLA-matched unrelated donor without GVHD. Four yr later, he had a BM relapse and after induction and consolidation chemotherapy, he received a second HSCT from an unrelated donor using peripheral blood stem cells. His second post-transplant course was complicated by extensive chronic GVHD involving the skin, oral cavity, and lungs, which was treated with tacrolimus and corticosteroid. Two yr later, he noticed a mild swelling in the right cheek area. The BM showed a complete remission marrow and a soft tissue biopsy was compatible with granulocytic sarcoma. PET-CT showed multifocal bone involvements. He received chemotherapy, and the chloromas decreased in size. We report a case of diffuse EMR of AML without BM involvement after a second allogeneic HSCT.
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Functional proton transfer pathways in the heme-copper oxidase superfamily.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2011
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Heme-copper oxidases (HCuOs) terminate the respiratory chain in mitochondria and most bacteria. They are transmembrane proteins that catalyse the reduction of oxygen and use the liberated free energy to maintain a proton-motive force across the membrane. The HCuO superfamily has been divided into the oxygen-reducing A-, B- and C-type oxidases as well as the bacterial NO reductases (NOR), catalysing the reduction of NO in the denitrification process. Proton transfer to the catalytic site in the mitochondrial-like A family occurs through two well-defined pathways termed the D- and K-pathways. The B, C, and NOR families differ in the pathways as well as the mechanisms for proton transfer to the active site and across the membrane. Recent structural and functional investigations, focussing on proton transfer in the B, C and NOR families will be discussed in this review.
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Surviving grief: An analysis of the exchange of hope in online grief communities.
Omega (Westport)
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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Online grief communities represent relatively new forms of peer support. However, the degree to which they are helpful for individual grieving processes is unknown. To date, no research has evaluated the type or quality of support exchanged in online grief communities. To begin to address these questions, this study analyzed 564 messages from internet grief websites to: (1) classify the type of helping skills used, and (2) extract themes contained in the content of the messages. Messages selected for analysis were the first response to an original post, assuming they would be the first effort to provide support to a grieving individual. Results revealed a majority of responses contained self-disclosure. Themes in the messages suggested provision of more than "one-way" support; messages themes also included exchanging hope for the future by sharing ones own story, validating the grief experience, providing resources, and exchanging psychosocial support. Clinical implications and research recommendations are discussed.
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Optimal culture conditions for the generation of natural killer cell-induced dendritic cells for cancer immunotherapy.
Cell. Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2011
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Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines continue to be considered an attractive tool for cancer immunotherapy. DCs require an additional signal from the environment or other immune cells to polarize the development of immune responses toward T helper 1 (Th1) or Th2 responses. DCs play a role in natural killer (NK) cell activation, and NK cells are also able to activate and induce the maturation of DCs. We investigated the types of NK cells that can induce the maturation and enhanced function of DCs and the conditions under which these interactions occur. DCs that were activated by resting NK cells in the presence of inflammatory cytokines exhibited increased expression of several costimulatory molecules and an enhanced ability to produce IL-12p70. NK cell-stimulated DCs potently induced Th1 polarization and exhibited the ability to generate tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. Our data demonstrate that functional DCs can be generated by coculturing immature DCs with freshly isolated resting NK cells in the presence of Toll-like receptor agonists and proinflammatory cytokines and that the resulting DCs effectively present antigens to induce tumor-specific T-cell responses, which suggests that these cells may be useful for cancer immunotherapy.
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Reversible plasticity of fear memory-encoding amygdala synaptic circuits even after fear memory consolidation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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It is generally believed that after memory consolidation, memory-encoding synaptic circuits are persistently modified and become less plastic. This, however, may hinder the remaining capacity of information storage in a given neural circuit. Here we consider the hypothesis that memory-encoding synaptic circuits still retain reversible plasticity even after memory consolidation. To test this, we employed a protocol of auditory fear conditioning which recruited the vast majority of the thalamic input synaptic circuit to the lateral amygdala (T-LA synaptic circuit; a storage site for fear memory) with fear conditioning-induced synaptic plasticity. Subsequently the fear memory-encoding synaptic circuits were challenged with fear extinction and re-conditioning to determine whether these circuits exhibit reversible plasticity. We found that fear memory-encoding T-LA synaptic circuit exhibited dynamic efficacy changes in tight correlation with fear memory strength even after fear memory consolidation. Initial conditioning or re-conditioning brought T-LA synaptic circuit near the ceiling of their modification range (occluding LTP and enhancing depotentiation in brain slices prepared from conditioned or re-conditioned rats), while extinction reversed this change (reinstating LTP and occluding depotentiation in brain slices prepared from extinguished rats). Consistently, fear conditioning-induced synaptic potentiation at T-LA synapses was functionally reversed by extinction and reinstated by subsequent re-conditioning. These results suggest reversible plasticity of fear memory-encoding circuits even after fear memory consolidation. This reversible plasticity of memory-encoding synapses may be involved in updating the contents of original memory even after memory consolidation.
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Effect of ?Gal on corneal xenotransplantation in a mouse model.
Xenotransplantation
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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It has been reported that hyperacute rejection (HAR) does not occur after pig-to-nonhuman corneal xenotransplantation. However, considering that immune privilege is already disrupted in most human corneal recipients, and the expression of ?Gal can be gradually reduced after pig-to-rat corneal transplantation, the long-term survival of corneal grafts from wild-type pigs cannot be guaranteed. Accordingly, we aimed to investigate the effect of ?Gal on the change in anti-Gal antibodies, using sensitized ?1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO) mice recipients.
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Successful treatment of argyria using a low-fluence Q-switched 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser.
Int. J. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2011
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Argyria is a rare skin disease caused by cutaneous deposits of silver granules as a result of exposure to silver substrates or ingestion of silver salt. This pigmentation change causes cosmetic problems, and there was previously no recognized effective treatments for argyria.
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Pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients without air-meniscus sign and underlying lung disease: CT findings and histopathologic features.
Acta Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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Pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients has been described as a saprophytic infection with pre-existing lung lesions showing an air-meniscus sign on chest radiograph or CT scans. There have been rare articles dealing with pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients without pre-existing lung lesions.
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Cloning and characterization of a modular GH5 ?-1,4-mannanase with high specific activity from the fibrolytic bacterium Cellulosimicrobium sp. strain HY-13.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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The gene (1272-bp) encoding a ?-1,4-mannanase from a gut bacterium of Eisenia fetida, Cellulosimicrobium sp. strain HY-13 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant ?-1,4-mannanase (rManH) was approximately 44.0 kDa and has a catalytic GH5 domain that is 65% identical to that of the Micromonospora sp. ?-1,4-mannosidase. The enzyme exhibited the highest catalytic activity toward mannans at 50 °C and pH 6.0. rManH displayed a high specific activity of 14,711 and 8498 IU mg?¹ towards ivory nut mannan and locust bean gum, respectively; however it could not degrade the structurally unrelated polysaccharides, mannobiose, or p-nitrophenyl sugar derivatives. rManH was strongly bound to ivory nut mannan, Avicel, chitosan, and chitin but did not attach to curdlan, insoluble oat spelt xylan, lignin, or poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). The superior biocatalytic properties of rManH suggest that the enzyme can be exploited as an effective additive in the animal feed industry.
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Assessment of Young Dong tributary and Imgok Creek impacted by Young Dong coal mine, South Korea.
Environ Geochem Health
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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An initial reclamation of the Young Dong coal mine site, located in northeastern South Korea, was completed in 1995. Despite the filling of the adit with limestone, acid rock drainage (ARD) enters Young Dong tributary and is then discharged to Imgok Creek. This ARD carries an average of 500 mg CaCO(3)/l of mineral acidity, primarily as Fe(II) and Al. Before spring runoff, the flow of Imgok Creek is 3.3-4 times greater than that of the tributary and has an alkalinity of 100 mg CaCO(3)/l, which is sufficient to eliminate the mineral acidity and raise the pH to about 6.5. From April through September 2008, there were at least two periods of high surface flow that affects the flow of ARD from the adit. Flow of ARD reaches 2.8 m(3)/min during spring runoff. This raised the concentrations of Fe and Al in the confluence with Imgok Creek. However, by 2 km downstream the pH of the Imgok Creek is 6.5 and only dissolved Fe is above the Korean drinking water criteria (0.30 mg/l). This suggests only a minor impact of Young Dong Creek water on Imgok Creek. Acid digestion of the sediments in Imgok Creek and Young Dong Tributary reveals considerable abundances of heavy metals, which could have a long-term impact on water quality. However, several water-based leaching tests, which better simulate the bioavailable metals pool, released only Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn at concentrations exceeding the criteria for drinking water or aquatic life.
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Type I and II interferons enhance dendritic cell maturation and migration capacity by regulating CD38 and CD74 that have synergistic effects with TLR agonists.
Cell. Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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The major limitation for the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) using Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists is their decreased ability to migrate into lymph nodes compared with conventional DCs. CD38 can be used as a multifunctional marker to modulate migration, survival and Th1 responses of DCs. CD74 has been shown to negatively regulate DC migration. The goal of this study was to investigate the combinations of TLR agonists and interferons (IFNs) that most effectively regulate CD38 and CD74 expression on DCs. Synergistic TLR agonist stimulation in combination with IFN-? and IFN-? was the best method for regulating CD38 and CD74 expression and inducing the highest secretion of IL-12p70. An in vitro migration assay showed that DCs treated with this combination had significantly enhanced migratory ability, similar to that observed in cells expressing CD38, CD74 and CCR7. The results of this study suggest that an alternative maturation protocol in which two TLR ligands are combined with type I and II IFNs generates potent DCs that have both a high migratory capacity and high IL-12p70 production.
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Investigating the relationship between serum interleukin-17 levels and systemic immune-mediated disease in patients with dry eye syndrome.
Korean J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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To investigate the association between dry eye syndrome (DE) and serum levels of interleukin (IL)-17 in patients with systemic immune-mediated diseases.
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Clinical and radiological features of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection manifesting as acute febrile respiratory illness at their initial presentations: comparison with contemporaneous non-H1N1 patients.
Acta Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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Since the first outbreak caused by the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza in Mexico, the virus has spread widely across the world with meaningful morbidity and mortality. However, there are few data on the comparative investigations to assess the clinical and radiological features between the H1N1 patient and non-H1N1 patients.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.