To the Editor: Varadhachary and Raber (Aug. 21 issue)(1) highlighted the usefulness of RNA-based tissue-of-origin molecular profiling for directing site-specific therapy. With an expanding repository of whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing data generated from reliably curated tumor specimens, comprehensive interrogation of individual cancers can increasingly provide a molecular fingerprint that not only identifies the site of origin(2) and uncovers therapeutic targets(3) but also determines key mutational signatures that have a predilection for certain cancers.(4) Recently, a "multi-omic" analysis of more than 3000 specimens spanning 12 tumor types elegantly showed that integrative analyses accurately reconciled the tissue of origin in the majority . . .
Background Early enteral feeding through a nasoenteric feeding tube is often used in patients with severe acute pancreatitis to prevent gut-derived infections, but evidence to support this strategy is limited. We conducted a multicenter, randomized trial comparing early nasoenteric tube feeding with an oral diet at 72 hours after presentation to the emergency department in patients with acute pancreatitis. Methods We enrolled patients with acute pancreatitis who were at high risk for complications on the basis of an Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 8 or higher (on a scale of 0 to 71, with higher scores indicating more severe disease), an Imrie or modified Glasgow score of 3 or higher (on a scale of 0 to 8, with higher scores indicating more severe disease), or a serum C-reactive protein level of more than 150 mg per liter. Patients were randomly assigned to nasoenteric tube feeding within 24 hours after randomization (early group) or to an oral diet initiated 72 hours after presentation (on-demand group), with tube feeding provided if the oral diet was not tolerated. The primary end point was a composite of major infection (infected pancreatic necrosis, bacteremia, or pneumonia) or death during 6 months of follow-up. Results A total of 208 patients were enrolled at 19 Dutch hospitals. The primary end point occurred in 30 of 101 patients (30%) in the early group and in 28 of 104 (27%) in the on-demand group (risk ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 1.44; P=0.76). There were no significant differences between the early group and the on-demand group in the rate of major infection (25% and 26%, respectively; P=0.87) or death (11% and 7%, respectively; P=0.33). In the on-demand group, 72 patients (69%) tolerated an oral diet and did not require tube feeding. Conclusions This trial did not show the superiority of early nasoenteric tube feeding, as compared with an oral diet after 72 hours, in reducing the rate of infection or death in patients with acute pancreatitis at high risk for complications. (Funded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development and others; PYTHON Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN18170985 .).
A simple and sensitive approach is proposed and evaluated for determination of ultratrace Zn and Cd in limited amounts of samples or tens of cells based on a novel single drop (5-20 ?L) solution electrode glow discharge assisted-chemical vapor generation technique. Volatile species of Zn and Cd were immediately generated and separated from the liquid phase for transporting to atomic fluorescence or atomic mass spectrometric detectors for their determination only using hydrogen when the glow discharge was ignited between the surface of a liquid drop and the tip of a tungsten electrode. Limits of detection are better than 0.01 µg L-1 (0.2 pg) for Cd and 0.1 µg L-1 (2 pg) for Zn, respectively, and comparable or better than the previously reported results due to only a 20 µL sampling volume required, which makes the proposed technique convenient for the determination of Zn and Cd in limited amounts of samples or even only tens of cells. The proposed method not only retains the advantages of conventional chemical vapor generation but also provides several unique advantages, including better sensitivity, lower sample and power consumption, higher chemical vapor generation efficiencies and simpler setup as well as greener analytical chemistry. The utility of this technique was demonstrated by the determination of ultra-trace Cd and Zn in several single human hair samples, Certified Reference Materials GBW07601a (human hair powder) and paramecium cells.
This paper reports a complete ammonia borane (AB) regeneration process in which Bu3SnH was utilized as a reductant for the reductive dechlorination of BCl3, and Et2PhN was selected as a 'helper ligand' to generate Et2PhN·BH3, which gives rise to a high yield of AB by a base-exchange reaction at ambient temperature.
Following on the heels of the US FDA approval of tofacitinib (Xeljanz, Pfizer, USA), an inhibitor of the JAK family members, and ibrutinib (Imbruvica, Janssen, Belgium), an inhibitor of BTK, for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, respectively, there is now renewed interest in the biopharmaceutical industry in the development of orally active small-molecule agents targeting key protein kinases implicated in immune regulation. One such 'immunokinase' target is SYK, a non-receptor tyrosine protein kinase critical for transducing intracellular signaling cascades for various immune recognition receptors, such as the B-cell receptor and the Fc receptor. Here, we review and discuss the progress and challenges in the development of small-molecule inhibitors of SYK and their potential as a new class of disease-modifying immunosuppressive agents for certain inflammatory and autoimmune disorders.
Seven VEGFR small-molecule inhibitors have been approved by the US FDA as anticancer drugs, which confirms the therapeutic value of angiogenesis inhibitors. However, much more evidence indicates that VEGFR inhibition alone is usually not sufficient to block the tumor progress. The potential of some agents targeting VEGFR owes partially to the simultaneous inhibition of additional targets in other signaling pathways. In this review, the crosstalk between VEGFR2 and the additional targets in other signaling pathways, such as EGFR, MET, FGFR, PDGFR, c-Kit, Raf, PI3K and HDAC, and the synergistic effects derived from multitarget activities against these crosstalks are discussed. We also briefly describe the multitarget inhibitors in clinical trials or reported in the literature and patents under the different multitarget categories involving VEGFR2.
Bioremediation of hexavalent chromium by Aspergillus niger was attributed to the reduction product (trivalent chromium) that could be removed in precipitation and immobilized inside the fungal cells and on the surface of mycelium. The site location of reduction was conducted with assays of the permeabilized cells, cell-free extracts, and cell debris, which confirmed that the chromate reductase was mainly located in the soluble fraction of cells. The oxidation-reduction process was accompanied by the increase of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant levels after hexavalent chromium treatment. Michaelis-Menten constant (K m) and maximum reaction rate (V max), obtained from the Lineweaver-Burk plot were 14.68 ?M and 434 ?M min(-1) mg(-1) of protein, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectra analyses manifested that both Cr(VI) and Cr(III) species were present on the mycelium. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy analysis suggested that carboxyl, hydroxide, amine, amide, cyano-group, and phosphate groups from the fungal cell wall were involved in chromium binding by the complexation with the Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species. A Cr(VI) removal mechanism of Cr(VI) reduction followed by the surface immobilization and intracellular accumulation of Cr(III) in living A. niger was present.
Well-distributed lithium amidoborane (LiAB) nanoparticles were successfully fabricated via adopting carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with homogenous pores uniformly containing Li3N as the nanoreactor and reactant, simply prepared by a single-nozzle electrospinning technique, for the subsequent interaction with AB. The hierarchical porous structure consists of various macropores, mesopores and micropores in situ produced during the formation of Li3N simultaneously serving as the reaction initiator, which not only controllably realizes the well-distribution of LiAB nanoparticles but also provides favorable channels for hydrogen release. Because of the hierarchical porous architecture and nanoscale size effects, the LiAB nanoparticles start to release hydrogen at only 40 °C, which is 30 °C lower than that of pure LiAB, and dehydrogenate completely within only 15 min at 100 °C (10.6 wt%). This work provides a new perspective to the controllable fabrication of nanosized hydrogen storage materials.
BackgoundDue to difficulties of culturing Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) much of the current understanding of HMPV replication can be inferred from other closely related viruses. The slow rates of virus replication prevent many biochemical analyses of HMPV particles. In this study imaging was used to examine the process of HMPV morphogenesis in individually infected LLC-MK2 cells, and to better characterise the sites of HMPV assembly. This strategy has circumvented the problems associated with slow replication rates and allowed us to characterise both the HMPV particles and the sites of HMPV morphogenesis.MethodsHMPV-infected LLC-MK2 cells were stained with antibodies that recognised the HMPV fusion protein (F protein), attachment protein (G protein) and matrix protein (M protein), and fluorescent probes that detect GM1 within lipid-raft membranes (CTX-B-AF488) and F-actin (Phalloidin-FITC). The stained cells were examined by confocal microscopy, which allowed imaging of F-actin, GM1 and virus particles in HMPV-infected cells. Cells co-expressing recombinant HMPV G and F proteins formed virus-like particles and were co-stained with antibodies that recognise the recombinant G and F proteins and phalloidin-FITC and CTX-B-AF594, and the distribution of the G and F proteins, GM1 and F-actin determined.ResultsHMPV-infected cells stained with anti-F, anti-G or anti-M revealed a filamentous staining pattern, indicating that the HMPV particles have a filamentous morphology. Staining of HMPV-infected cells with anti-G and either phalloidin-FITC or CTX-B-AF488 exhibited extensive co-localisation of these cellular probes within the HMPV filaments. This suggested that lipid-raft membrane domains and F-actin structures are present at the site of the virus morphogenesis, and are subsequently incorporated into the HMPV filaments. Furthermore, the filamentous virus-like particles that form in cells expressing the G protein formed in cellular structures containing GM1 and F-actin, suggesting the G protein contains intrinsic targeting signals to the sites of virus assembly.ConclusionsThese data suggest that HMPV matures as filamentous particles and that virus morphogenesis occurs within lipid-raft microdomains containing localized concentrations of F-actin. The similarity between HMPV morphogenesis and the closely related human respiratory syncytial virus suggests that involvement of F-actin and lipid-raft microdomains in virus morphogenesis may be a common feature of the Pneumovirinae.
The endometrial perivascular microenvironment is rich in mesenchymal stem-like cells that express type 1 integral membrane protein Sushi domain containing 2 (SUSD2) but the role of these cells in the decidual transformation of this tissue in pregnancy is unknown. We used an antibody directed against SUSD2 (W5C5) to isolate perivascular (W5C5(+)) and nonperivascular (W5C5(-)) fibroblasts from mid-luteal biopsies. We show that SUSD2 expression, and hence the ratio of W5C5(+):W5C5(-) cells, changes in culture depending on cell-cell contact and activation of the Notch signaling pathway. RNA sequencing revealed that cultures derived from W5C5(+) progenitor cells remain phenotypically distinct by the enrichment of novel and established endometrial perivascular signature genes. In an undifferentiated state, W5C5(+)-derived cells produced lower levels of various chemokines and inflammatory modulators when compared with their W5C5(-) counterparts. This divergence in secretomes was switched and became more pronounced upon decidualization, which transformed perivascular W5C5(+) cells into the dominant source of a range of chemokines and cytokines, including leukemia inhibitory factor and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7. Our findings suggest that the decidual response is spatially organized at the embryo-maternal interface with differentiating perivascular cells establishing distinct cytokine and chemokine profiles that could potentially direct trophoblast toward maternal vessels and govern local immune responses in pregnancy.
The major envelope fusion protein F of the budded virus of baculoviruses consists of two disulfide-linked subunits: an N-terminal F2 subunit and a C-terminal, membrane-anchored F1 subunit. There is one cysteine in F2 and there are 15 cysteines in F1, but their role in disulfide linking is largely unknown. In this study, the inter- and intra-subunit disulfide bonds of the Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) F protein were analysed by site-directed mutagenesis. Results indicated that in a functional F protein, an inter-subunit disulfide bond exists between amino acids C108 (F2) and C241 (F1). When C241 was mutated, an alternative disulfide bond was formed between C108 and C232, rendering F non-functional. No inter-subunit bridge was observed in a double C232/C241 mutant of F1. C403 was not involved in the formation of inter-subunit disulfide bonding, but mutation of this amino acid decreased viral infectivity significantly, suggesting that it might be involved in intra-subunit disulfide bonds. The influence of reductant [tris(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine (TCEP)] and free-thiol inhibitors [4-acetamido-4'-maleimidylstilbene 2,2'-disulfonic acid (AMS) and 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB)] on the infectivity of HearNPV was tested. The results indicated that TCEP greatly decreased the infection of HzAm1 cells by HearNPV. In contrast, AMS and DTNB had no inhibitory effect on viral infectivity. The data suggested that free thiol/disulfide isomerization was not likely to play a role in viral entry and infectivity.
Pro-inflammatory cytokines play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of joint inflammation and destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The therapeutic success of biologics targeting tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin (IL)-6 receptor (IL-6R) has broadened the treatment options for RA. These agents have potential overlapping and discriminating biologic effects, as well as different pharmacological features. Tocilizumab (TCZ) is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds and neutralizes IL-6R, resulting in the inhibition of various IL-6-mediated biological activities, including inflammation-related, immunomodulatory and tissue/matrix remodelling effects. Randomized, double-blind, controlled phase III studies and a number of early clinical observational studies have shown that treatment with TCZ results in rapid and sustained improvement in the signs and symptoms of RA among different patient populations. These studies have established the efficacy and safety of TCZ. Here, we review the pleiotropic functions of IL-6 and how it impinges on many aspects of RA pathogenesis, and highlight the clinical experience to date with TCZ as an emerging new treatment option for RA.
It has been presupposed that the thermodynamic stability constant (K(therm)) of gadolinium-based MRI chelates relate to the risk of precipitating nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. The present study compared low-K(therm) gadodiamide with high-K(therm) gadoteridol in cultured fibroblasts and rats with uninephrectomies. Gadolinium content was assessed using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in paraffin-embedded tissues. In vitro, fibroblasts demonstrated dose-dependent fibronectin generation, transforming growth factor-? production, and expression of activated myofibroblast stress fiber protein ?-smooth muscle actin. There were negligible differences with respect to toxicity or proliferation between the two contrast agents. In the rodent model, gadodiamide treatment led to greater skin fibrosis and dermal cellularity than gadoteridol. In the kidney, both contrast agents led to proximal tubule vacuolization and increased fibronectin accumulation. Despite large detectable gadolinium signals in the spleen, skin, muscle, and liver from the gadodiamide-treated group, contrast-induced fibrosis appeared to be limited to the skin and kidney. These findings support the hypothesis that low-K(therm) chelates have a greater propensity to elicit nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and demonstrate that certain tissues are resistant to these effects.
In this study, the removal of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) from aqueous solutions was investigated using a novel chelating material. The first part described the synthesis of ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid dianhydride (EGTAD), mercerization treatment of ramie fiber (MRF), and the MRF was then reacted with EGTAD to prepare the new material (ERF). The obtained material was characterized by weight gain, SEM, FTIR, and elemental analysis. The results of FTIR and elemental analysis confirmed that ester bond, carboxyl and amine groups were introduced onto ERF. The adsorption capacity of metals on ERF was evaluated at different contact times, pH values, initial metal concentrations, and temperatures in the second part. The adsorption equilibrium was reached within 5 min for Cd(2+) and Pb(2+). Adsorption isotherm could be well fitted by the Langmuir model, and the maximum adsorption capacities were 159.11 and 273.78 mg g(-1) for Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) at 298 K, respectively. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The molar ratio of adsorbed cation to grafted EGTA is close to 1.8:1, which confirmed that the adsorption was chemical process involving both surface chelation reaction and ion exchange. In addition, the absorbent was successfully regenerated using HCl and ultrasonic treatment.
BackgroundArterial calcification is an important pathological change of diabetic vascular complication. Osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important cytopathologic role in arterial calcification. The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA), a novel type of antidiabetic drugs, exert cardioprotective effects through the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). However, the question of whether or not GLP-1RA regulates osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of VSMCs has not been answered, and the associated molecular mechanisms have not been examined.MethodsCalcifying VSMCs (CVSMCs) were isolated from cultured human arterial smooth muscle cells through limiting dilution and cloning. The extent of matrix mineralization was measured by Alizarin Red S staining. Protein expression and phosphorylation were detected by Western blot. Gene expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-¿B ligand (RANKL) was silenced by small interference RAN (siRNA).ResultsExenatide, an agonist of GLP-1 receptor, attenuated ß-glycerol phosphate (ß-GP) induced osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of human CVSMCs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. RANKL siRNA also inhibited osteoblastic differentiation and calcification. Exenatide decreased the expression of RANKL in a dose-dependent manner. 1,25 vitD3 (an activator of RANKL) upregulated, whereas BAY11-7082 (an inhibitor of NF-¿B) downregulated RANKL, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), and core binding factor ¿1 (Runx2) protein levels and reduced mineralization in human CVSMCs. Exenatide decreased p-NF-¿B and increased p-AMPK¿ levels in human CVSMCs 48 h after treatment. Significant decrease in p-NF-¿B (p-Ser276, p-Ser536) level was observed in cells treated with exenatide or exenatide¿+¿BAY11-7082.ConclusionGLP-1RA exenatide can inhibit human VSMCs calcification through NF-¿B/ RANKL signaling.
Emerging data suggest that cancer stem cells (CSCs) exist in equilibrium with differentiated cells and that stochastic transitions between these states can account for tumor heterogeneity and drug resistance. The aim of this study was to establish an in vitro system that recapitulates stem cell plasticity in head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCCs) and identify the factors that play a role in the maintenance and repopulation of CSCs. Tumor spheres were established using patient-derived cell lines via anchorage-independent cell culture techniques. These tumor spheres were found to have higher aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD) cell fractions and increased expression of Kruppel-like factor 4, SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2, and Nanog and were resistant to ?-radiation, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and etoposide treatment compared with monolayer culture cells. Monolayer cultures were subject to single cell cloning to generate clones with high and low ALD fractions. ALD(High) clones showed higher expression of stem cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers compared with ALD(Low) clones. ALD fractions, representing stem cell fractions, fluctuated with serial passaging, equilibrating at a level specific to each cell line, and could be augmented by the addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and/or insulin. ALD(High) clones showed increased EGF receptor (EGFR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) phosphorylation, with increased activation of downstream pathways compared with ALD(Low) clones. Importantly, blocking these pathways using specific inhibitors against EGFR and IGF-1R reduced stem cell fractions drastically. Taken together, these results show that HNSCC CSCs exhibit plasticity, with the maintenance of the stem cell fraction dependent on the EGFR and IGF-1R pathways and potentially amenable to targeted therapeutics.
The potential of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) to develop resistance against five PPO-inhibiting herbicides has been studied using computational mutation scanning (CMS) protocol, leading to valuable insights into the resistance mechanisms and structure-resistance relationship of the PPO inhibitors. The calculated shifts in the binding free energies caused by the mutations correlated very well with those derived from the corresponding experimental data obtained from site-directed mutagenesis of PPO, leading to valuable insights into the resistance mechanisms of PPO inhibitors. The calculated entropy change was related to the conformational flexibility of the inhibitor, which demonstrated that inhibitors with appropriate conformational flexibility may inhibit both the wild type and mutants simultaneously. The reasonable correlation between the computational and experimental data further validate that CMS protocol is valuable for predicting resistance associated with amino acid mutations on target proteins.
To investigate the effect of curcumin on monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) production and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in macrophage induced by oxidation low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), and to identify the signal pathways involved.
Characterizing the genetic alterations leading to the more aggressive forms of oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers is of critical significance in breast cancer management. Here we identify recurrent rearrangements between the oestrogen receptor gene ESR1 and its neighbour CCDC170, which are enriched in the more aggressive and endocrine-resistant luminal B tumours, through large-scale analyses of breast cancer transcriptome and copy number alterations. Further screening of 200 ER+ breast cancers identifies eight ESR1-CCDC170-positive tumours. These fusions encode amino-terminally truncated CCDC170 proteins (?CCDC170). When introduced into ER+ breast cancer cells, ?CCDC170 leads to markedly increased cell motility and anchorage-independent growth, reduced endocrine sensitivity and enhanced xenograft tumour formation. Mechanistic studies suggest that ?CCDC170 engages Gab1 signalosome to potentiate growth factor signalling and enhance cell motility. Together, this study identifies neoplastic ESR1-CCDC170 fusions in a more aggressive subset of ER+ breast cancer, which suggests a new concept of ER pathobiology in breast cancer.
Cadmium (Cd)-induced growth inhibition is one of the primary factors limiting phytoremediation effect of Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud in contaminated soil. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a donor of nitric oxide (NO), has been evidenced to alleviate Cd toxicity in many plants. However, as an important mechanism of NO in orchestrating cellular functions, S-nitrosylation is still poorly understood in its relation with Cd tolerance of plants. In this study, higher exogenous NO levels were found to coincide with higher S-nitrosylation level expressed as content of S-nitrosothiols (SNO). The addition of low concentration (100 ?M) SNP increased the SNO content, and it simultaneously induced an alleviating effect against Cd toxicity by enhancing the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) and reduced the accumulation of H2O2 as compared with Cd alone. Application of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) inhibitors dodecanoic acid (DA) in 100 ?M SNP group brought in an extra elevation in S-nitrosylation level and further reinforced the effect of SNP. While the additions of 400 ?M SNP and 400 ?M SNP?+?50 ?M DA further elevated the S-nitrosylation level, it markedly weakened the alleviating effect against Cd toxicity as compared with the addition of 100 ?M SNP. This phenomenon could be owing to excess consumption of glutathione (GSH) to form SNO under high S-nitrosylation level. Therefore, the present study indicates that S-nitrosylation is involved in the ameliorating effect of SNP against Cd toxicity. This involvement exhibited a concentration-dependent property.
The hierarchical porous Li2Mg(NH)2@C nanowires full of micropores, mesopores, and macropores are successfully fabricated via a single-nozzle electrospinning technique combined with in-situ reaction between the precursors, i.e., MgCl2 and LiN3, under physical restriction upon thermal annealing. The explosive decomposition of LiN3 well dispersed in the electrospun nanowires during carbothermal treatment induces a highly porous structure, which provides a favourable way for H2 delivering in and out of Li2Mg(NH)2 nanoparticles simultaneously realized by the space-confinement of the porous carbon coating. As a result, the thus-fabricated Li2Mg(NH)2@C nanowires present significantly enhanced thermodynamics and kinetics towards hydrogen storage performance, e.g., a complete cycle of H2 uptake and release with a capacity close to the theoretical value at a temperature as low as 105°C. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest cycling temperature reported to date. More interestingly, induced by the nanosize effects and space-confinement function of porous carbon coating, a excellently stable regeneration without apparent degradation after 20 de-/re-hydrogenation cycles at a temperature as low as 130°C was achieved for the as-prepared Li2Mg(NH)2@C nanowires.
Oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (TSCC) are a unique subset of head and neck cancers with a distinct demographic profile, where up to half of the cases are never smokers. A small proportion of patients with OSCC are known to respond to EGFR TKI. We used a high-sensitivity mass spectrometry-based mutation profiling platform to determine the EGFR mutation status, as well as other actionable alterations in a series of Asian TSCC.
To screen the optimal extraction process and content determination of active component of Huangqi Yinyanghuo group (HYG) and to study the effects of HYG on human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and Bcl-2 protein in osteosarcoma (HOS) cells, providing the theoretical basis for clinical application of HYG in treatment of osteosarcoma, orthogonal design table L9(4(3)) was used to design the extraction process of HYG, and icariin was taken as the investigation index to optimize the extraction process of HYG. 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8??mol/L HYG were taken to act separately on logarithmic growth phase osteosarcoma HOS cells, CCK-8 assay was used to determine cell viability, and immunohistochemical SP assay was used to determine the expression of hTERT and Bcl-2 protein. Apoptosis rate was positively correlated with the dose of HYG, and the expressions of hTERT and Bcl-2 protein were significantly decreased with the prolonged duration of action. Under the effect of HYG, dose was negatively correlated with osteosarcoma cell survival fraction; osteosarcoma cell survival fraction was positively correlated with hTERT and Bcl-2 protein; duration of action was negatively correlated with hTERT and Bcl-2 protein; and hTERT and Bcl-2 protein were in a synchronous relationship.
To effectively repair or replace damaged tissues, it is necessary to design three dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM) mimicking scaffolds with tunable biomechanical properties close to the desired tissue application. In the present work, gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) and dextran glycidyl methacrylate (DexMA) with tunable mechanical and biological properties were utilized to prepared novel bicomponent polymeric hydrogels by cross-linking polymerization using photoinitiation. We controlled the degree of substitution (DS) of glycidyl methacrylate in DexMA so that they could obtain relevant mechanical properties. The results indicated that copolymer hydrogels demonstrated a lower swelling ratio and higher compressive modulus as compared to the GelMA. Moreover, all of the hydrogels exhibited a honeycomb-like architecture, the pore sizes decreased as DS increased, and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts encapsulated in these hydrogels all exhibited excellent viability. These characteristics suggest a class of photocrosslinkable, tunable mechanically copolymer hydrogels that may find potential application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.
Vascular injury is one of the typical symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and may play a key role in the choice of treatment strategy and prediction of prognosis. In this review, diverse vascular lesions in SLE and their clinical significance are discussed.
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) rearrangement is sensitive to the ALK inhibitor crizotinib, but resistance invariably develops. Ceritinib (LDK378) is a new ALK inhibitor that has shown greater antitumor potency than crizotinib in preclinical studies.
BackgroundThere are many existing operative approaches for subtalar fusion; however, no optional strategy of operative approach has been developed yet. This study aimed to analyze the differential clinical efficacy of subtalar fusion with three operative approaches.MethodsThe clinical data of 102 patients from April 2008 to April 2012 were analyzed prospectively. These patients were divided into three groups with the random number table: group A, group B, and group C. The following parameters were compared among three groups: effective exposure area and exposure time of subtalar joint, intraoperative bleeding volume, postoperative complications, fusion time, fusion rate, AOFAS score and VAS score before and after operation.ResultsIn the exposure area score, there was no statistically significant difference between group A and group C (P >0.05) ,but with a statistically significant difference between group A/C and group B (P <0.05). In exposure time and intraoperative bleeding volume, there was no statistically significant difference between group A and group B (P >0.05) but with a statistically significant difference between group A/B and group C (P <0.05). In three groups, there was a statistically significant difference in both AOFAS score and VAS score before operation and at 6 months/12 months/last visit after operation (P <0.05). The incidence of complications in the three groups was 8.8%, 12.5% and 19.4%. No statistically significant differences in fusion rate and fusion time were observed among the three groups (P >0.05).ConclusionThree operative approaches have different indications, All the three operative approaches do not influence the fusion rate and fusion time of subtalar joint. The lateral tarsal sinus approach is inferior to the posterior-lateral L approach and the approach from the inferior tip of fibula to the basilar part of the fourth metatarsal bone in the exposure area, while the lateral tarsal sinus approach and the approach from the inferior tip of fibula to the basilar part of the fourth metatarsal bone are superior to the posterior-lateral L approach in the exposure time, intraoperative bleeding volume, and incidence of complications.Level of evidenceTherapeutic, level III.
Polysaccharide-based hydrogels are remarkable materials for the biomedical fields because of its excellent biodegradation and biocompatibility. In this work, a novel polysaccharide-based hydrogel was fabricated by in situ crosslinking of starch-based nanoparticles and polyvinylamine. Starch was decorated with cholesterol group and aldehyde groups. TEM and DLS showed that the cholesterol modified oxidation starch (OCS) exhibited a core-shell nanoparticles with mean size of ?143 nm in aqueous. The hydrogel was then synthesized via Schiff base reaction. Rheological measurements demonstrated the incorporation of cholesterol groups not only reduced the gel time but also improved the storage modulus of the hydrogel compared with the oxide starch crosslinked hydrogel. SEM showed the OCS based hydrogels possess a well-defined porous structure. Furthermore, doxorubicin (DOX) was used as model drug to investigate the control and release properties of OCS hydrogels. This OCS hydrogel would be a promising drug carrier for biomedical applications.
Vitamin D binding protein (DBP) may alter the biologic activity of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. The objective of our present study was to determine the joint effect of serum 25(OH)D and DBP on the risk of frailty. Five hundred sixteen male participants aged 70 years or older were recruited in Changsha city and its surrounding area in Hunan province of China. Frailty was defined as the presence of at least three of the five following criteria: weakness, low physical activity, slow walking speed, exhaustion, and weight loss. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between 25(OH)D and DBP levels. Odds ratios (ORs) for frailty were evaluated across quartiles of 25(OH)D and DBP levels, adjusted age, education, and body mass index. The results showed that participants in the lowest quartile of 25(OH)D and the highest quartile of DBP levels, the lowest quartile of 25(OH)D and the lowest quartile of DBP levels, and those in the the lower quartile of 25(OH)D and lowest quartile of DBP levels had significantly higher OR of being frail compared with those in the highest quartile of 25(OH)D and lowest quartile of DBP, with OR of 3.18 (95% CI: 1.46-4.56, P < 0.05), 2.63 (95% CI: 1.31-3.68, P < 0.01), and 2.52 (95% CI: 1.22-3.52, P < 0.05), respectively. The results indicate that the joint effect of serum 25(OH)D and DBP levels is associated with the risk of frailty, and serum DBP levels affects 25(OH)D-frailty relationship in the older men.
Vascular calcification is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a key step in vascular calcification, but the molecular mechanisms driving the differentiation remain elusive. In this study, the involvement of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling in osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs is investigated.
Adipolin/CTRP12 is a novel adipokine with anti-inflammatory and glucose-lowering properties in rodents. We sought to investigate the effects of metformin treatment (850 mg twice daily for 6 months) and a 2 h 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on serum adipolin concentrations in humans.
We developed a new method, based on alkaline diatomite solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, for the simultaneous determination of the toxic contaminants ethyl carbamate (EC) and 4-(5-)methylimidazole (4-MEI) in yellow rice wine and soy sauce. The optimal extraction conditions were defined. With the application of alkaline diatomite solid-phase extraction, damage to the capillary column by organic acids was greatly reduced. With deuterated EC used as the internal standard, the linearity of the calibration curves for EC and 4-MEI was good with correlation coefficient above 0.99. In a spiked experiment with EC and 4-MEI in yellow rice wine and soy sauce, recovery of the added EC was 80.5-102.5% and that of 4-MEI was 78.3-92.8%. The limit of quantification and limit of detection for EC were 6.0 and 2.0 ?g/kg, respectively, and for 4-MEI were 15.0 and 5.0 ?g/kg, respectively. The validation results demonstrate that the method is fast, simple, and selective, and therefore is suitable for simultaneously determining the presence of EC and 4-MEI in fermented food.
We previously demonstrated that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (Nox4) mediates increased monocyte priming and chemotaxis under conditions of diabetic metabolic stress, and emerging data indicate that group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2?) also participates in regulating monocyte chemotaxis. Here, we examined relationships between iPLA2? expression and Nox4 action in mouse peritoneal macrophages subjected to diabetic metabolic stress.
To further enhance the biological properties of acid-etched microrough titanium surfaces, titania nanotextured thin films were produced by simple chemical oxidation, without significantly altering the existing topographical and roughness features. The nanotextured layers on titanium surfaces can be controllably varied by tuning the oxidation duration time. The oxidation treatment significantly reduced water contact angles and increased the surface energy compared to the surfaces prior to oxidation. The murine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were used to evaluate the bioactivity. In comparison, oxidative nanopatterning of microrough titanium surfaces led to improved attachment and proliferation of BMSCs. The rate of osteoblastic differentiation was also represented by the increased levels of alkaline phosphatase activity and mineral deposition. These data indicated that oxidative nanopatterning enhanced the biological properties of the microrough titanium surfaces by modulating their surface chemistry and nanotopography. Based on the proven mechanical interlocking ability of microtopographies, enhancement of multiple osteoblast functions attained by this oxidative nanopatterning is expected to lead to better implant osseointegration in vivo.
Ethyl carbamate (EC) was analyzed during yellow rice wine production and storage. EC increased slowly during fermentation and rapidly after frying and sterilization. Less amount of EC was formed when cooled rapidly to 30 °C than when cooled naturally. High temperature and long storage time increased EC formation. After 400 days storage, EC increased from 74.0 to 84.2, 131.8 and 509.4 ?g/kg at 4 °C, room temperature and 37 °C, respectively, and there was significantly difference between the fried wine and the wine on sale from 2011 (p<0.01). Urea increased during yellow rice wine fermentation and was above 20 mg/kg after the wine was fried; urea contributed to EC formation when the fried wine was cooled slowly. These results indicate that it is necessary for industry to optimize the wine frying conditions, such as temperature, time and cooling process in order to decrease EC formation.
The advent of effective targeted therapeutics has led to increasing emphasis on precise biomarkers for accurate patient stratification. Here, we describe the role of ACK1, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase in abrogating migration and invasion in KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinoma. Bosutinib, which inhibits ACK1 at 2.7 nM IC50, was found to inhibit cell migration and invasion but not viability in a panel of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Knockdown of ACK1 abrogated bosutinib-induced inhibition of cell migration and invasion specifically in KRAS mutant cells. This finding was further confirmed in an in vivo zebrafish metastatic model. Tissue microarray data on 210 Singaporean lung adenocarcinomas indicate that cytoplasmic ACK1 was significantly over-expressed relative to paired adjacent non-tumor tissue. Interestingly, ACK1 expression in "normal" tissue adjacent to tumour, but not tumour, was independently associated with poor overall and relapse-free survival. In conclusion, inhibition of ACK1 with bosutinib attenuates migration and invasion in the context of KRAS mutant NSCLC and may fulfil a therapeutic niche through combinatorial treatment approaches.
Biodegradable thermosensitive hydrogels have attracted great interest because of their potential in biomedical applications. Herein, we present a novel, thermoresponsive poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate) hydrogels with starch-based nanospheres as cross-linkers (NMH). NMHs exhibit a narrow lower critical phase transition temperature (LCST) range and high mechanical strength compared with conventional, small molecular cross-linked hydrogels (CMH). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy confirms that the NMHs are degradable in aqueous medium. The phase transition temperature of the NMHs is ?4°C compared with ?25°C for CMH. The NMHs can sustain strength of 12.2MPa, 10 times more than that of CMH. Moreover, the deswelling rate of NMHs is faster than CMH. The different concentrations of nanospheres can efficiently regulate the various properties of NMHs. The NMHs have excellent properties because of its even network structure formed by nanosphere cross-linkers.
Vascular calcification is common in patients with peripheral artery diseases and coronary artery diseases. The osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes significantly to vascular calcification. Adiponectin has been demonstrated to exert a protective effect in osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs through regulating mTOR activity. However, the upstream and downstream signaling molecules of adiponectin-regulated mTOR signaling have not been identified in VSMCs with osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, the VSMC differentiation model was established by beta-glycerophosphate (?-GP) induction. The mineralization was identified by Alizarin Red S staining. Protein expression and phosphorylation were detected by Western blot or immunofluorescence. Adiponectin attenuated osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of ?-GP-treated VSMCs. Adiponectin inhibited osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs through increasing the level of p-AMPK?. Pretreatment of VSMCs with AMPK inhibitor blocked while AMPK activator enhanced the effect of adiponectin on osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs. Adiponectin upregulated TSC2 expression and downregulated mTOR and S6K1 phosphorylation in ?-GP-treated VSMCs. Adiponectin treatment significantly attenuates the osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of VSMCs through modulation of AMPK-TSC2-mTOR-S6K1 signal pathway.
P16 and cyclin-D1 are cell cycle proteins commonly dysregulated in head and neck carcinoma. We assessed their expression, clinicopathological variables, and overall survival (OS) in oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
MTA2 is a member of metastasis associated family, which is highly expressed in several solid tumors and associated with tumor cells migration and invasion. Here, we report that MTA2 is acetylated at K152 and histone acetyltransferase p300 binds to and acetylates MTA2. Furthermore, mutation of the MTA2 acetylation site inhibits the growth of colorectal cancer cells and migration and invasion of Rat1 fibroblasts. These results reveal a novel post-translational regulation of MTA2 by the way of p300-dependent acetylation, which is important for tumor cells growth and migration and provides a potential target for clinical cancer research.
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a heterogeneous disease, with a burden of genomic alterations exceeding most other tumors. The goal of our study was to evaluate the frequencies of co-occurring mutations and copy-number aberrations (CNAs) within the same tumor and to evaluate their potential clinical impact. Mass-spectrometry based mutation profiling using a customized lung cancer panel evaluating 214 mutations across 26 key NSCLC genes was performed on 230 nonsquamous NSCLC and integrated with genome-wide CNAs and clinical variables. Among the 138 cases having at least one mutation, one-third (41, 29.7%) showed two or more mutations, either in the same gene (double mutation) or in different genes (co-mutations). In epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant cancers, there was a double mutation in 18% and co-mutations in the following genes: TP53 (10%), PIK3CA (8%), STK11 (6%) and MET (4%). Significant relationships were detected between EGFR mutation and 1p, 7p copy gains (harboring the EGFR gene) as well as 13q copy loss. KRAS mutation was significantly related with 1q gain and 3q loss. For Stage I, tumors harboring at least one mutation or PIK3CA mutation were significantly correlated with poor prognosis (p-value?=?0.02). When combining CNAs and mutational status, patients having both KRAS mutation and the highest related CNA (3q22.3 copy loss) showed a significant poorer prognosis (p-value?=?0.03). Our study highlights the clinical relevance of studying tumor complexity by integrative genomic analysis and the need for developing assays that broadly screen for both "actionable" mutations and copy-number alterations to improve precision of stratified treatment approaches.
Cartonectin is a novel adipokine of the C1q complement/TNF-related protein (CTRP) superfamily, with glucose lowering effects, anti-inflammatory and cardio-protective properties. We sought to investigate circulating cartonectin concentrations in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as well as age and BMI matched control subjects. We also examined the effects of a 2 hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on serum cartonectin concentrations in T2DM subjects.
This study examined alterations in the functions and proteome of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions (HDL2 and HDL3) isolated from patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared with control subjects.
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hepatic metabolic regulator with pleotropic actions. Its plasma concentrations are increased in obesity and diabetes; states associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. We therefore investigated the direct effect of FGF21 on cardio-protection in obese and lean hearts in response to ischemia.
There has been intense interest in the adipokines of the C1q complement/TNF-related protein (CTRP) superfamily. Adipolin (CTRP12) has been described as a novel adipokine, abundantly expressed in adipose tissue with insulin-sensitising and anti-inflammatory effects. We wanted to investigate the effects of acute and chronic hyperinsulinaemia on circulating adipolin concentrations (ELISA) via a prolonged insulin-glucose infusion in humans. We also examined the effects of insulin and the insulin sensitiser, rosiglitazone, on adipolin concentrations (western blotting) in human adipose tissue explants. We found that hyperinsulinaemic induction in healthy lean human subjects significantly increased circulating levels of adipolin (P<0.05 and P<0.01). Furthermore, in subcutaneous adipose tissue explants, insulin significantly increased adipolin protein expression and secretion (P<0.05 and P<0.01). This effect was attenuated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002 (P<0.05). Moreover, the insulin-sensitising peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist, rosiglitazone, significantly increased adipolin protein expression and secretion in subcutaneous adipose tissue explants (P<0.05 and P<0.01). This effect was inhibited by the PPAR? antagonist, GW9662 (P<0.05). Our data provide novel insights into adipolin physiology in human subjects.
The entry of baculovirus budded virus into host cells is mediated by two distinct types of envelope fusion proteins (EFPs), GP64 or F protein. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that F proteins were ancestral baculovirus EFP, whereas GP64 was acquired by progenitor group I alphabaculovirus more recently and may have stimulated the formation of group I lineage. This study was designed to experimentally recapitulate a possible major step in the evolution of baculoviruses. We demonstrated that the infectivity of an F-null group II alphabaculovirus (Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus, HearNPV) can be functionally rescued by co-insertion of GP64 along with the non-fusogenic F(def) (furin site mutated HaF) from HearNPV. Interestingly, HearNPV enters cells by endocytosis and, less efficiently, by direct membrane fusion under low pH. However, this recombinant HearNPV co-expressing F(def) and GP64 mimicked group I virus not only in its EFP composition, but also in its abilities to enter host cells via low-pH triggered direct fusion pathway. Neutralization assays indicated that the non-fusogenic F-proteins contribute mainly to binding to susceptible cells, while GP64 contributes to fusion. Co-insertion of GP64 with an F-like protein (Ac23) from group I virus led to efficient rescue of an F-null group II virus. In summary, these recombinant viruses and their entry modes are considered to resemble an evolutionary event of the acquisition of GP64 by an ancestral group I virus and subsequent adaptive inactivation of the original F protein. The study described here provides the first experimental evidence to support the hypothesis for the evolution of baculovirus EFPs.
The synthesis and photophysical characterization of new conjugated polymers (CPs) with alternating phenylethynylene and diazobenzene (azo-PPE) units were reported, which showed broadened absorption and no measurable fluorescence. Quenching studies showed that azo-PPEs displayed high efficiency over a wide wavelength range.
Context: Recently cartonectin was reported as a novel adipokine, with lower levels in diet-induced obese mice, glucose-lowering effects, and antiinflammatory and cardioprotective properties. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a proinflammatory state associated with obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular complications. Objectives: The objective of the study was to investigate cartonectin levels and regulation in sera and adipose tissue (AT) as well as the effects of metformin of women with PCOS and control subjects. Design: This was a cross-sectional study [PCOS (n = 83) and control (n = 39) subjects]. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to assess mRNA and protein expression of cartonectin. Serum cartonectin was measured by an ELISA. Results: Serum and omental adipose tissue cartonectin were significantly lower in women with PCOS compared with control subjects (P < .05 and P < .01, respectively). Furthermore, cartonectin showed a significant negative association with body mass index, waist to hip ratio, glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and intima-media thickness (P < .05 and P < .01, respectively); in multiple regression analyses, triglycerides (P =.040) and hs-CRP (P = .031) were predictive of cartonectin levels (P < .05). After 6 months of metformin treatment, there was an associated increase in serum cartonectin (P < .05). Importantly, changes in hs-CRP were significantly negatively correlated with changes in serum cartonectin (P = .033). Finally, cartonectin protein production and secretion into conditioned media were significantly increased by metformin in control human omental AT explants (P < .05). Conclusions: Serum and omental AT cartonectin are lower in women with PCOS. Metformin treatment increases serum cartonectin levels in these women and in omental AT explants.
Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have the potential to improve functional recovery in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI); however, they are limited by low survival rates after transplantation in the injured tissue. Our objective was to clarify the effects of a temporal blockade of interleukin 6 (IL-6)/IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) engagement using an anti-mouse IL-6R monoclonal antibody (MR16-1) on the survival rate of BMSCs after their transplantation in a mouse model of contusion SCI. MR16-1 cotreatment improved the survival rate of transplanted BMSCs, allowing some BMSCs to differentiate into neurons and astrocytes, and improved locomotor function recovery compared with BMSC transplantation or MR16-1 treatment alone. The death of transplanted BMSCs could be mainly related to apoptosis rather than necrosis. Transplantation of BMSC with cotreatment of MR16-1 was associated with a decrease of some proinflammatory cytokines, an increase of neurotrophic factors, decreased apoptosis rates of transplanted BMSCs, and enhanced expression of survival factors Akt and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2. We conclude that MR16-1 treatment combined with BMSC transplants helped rescue neuronal cells and axons after contusion SCI better than BMSCs alone by modulating the inflammatory/immune responses and decreasing apoptosis.
Objectives. To evaluate pregnancy outcomes and its determinants in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods. Two-hundred and twenty pregnant PCOS and 594 healthy women were followed from early pregnancy. Incidences of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), preterm birth, twinning, and fetal growth restriction (FGR) were determined. Results. The incidence of GDM was notably higher among all PCOS combined (54.9%; OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 2.0-4.1) and PCOS subgroups, whether they conceived spontaneously (51.5%; OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 2.0-5.4), or via IVF-ET or ovarian stimulation, compared with controls (14.3%; P < 0.001). The incidence of PIH was also higher among all PCOS (10.4%; OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.1-4.4) and the subgroup conceiving spontaneously (11.8%; OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.1-6.2; P < 0.001) but not for those conceiving with IVF-ET (9.1%) or ovarian stimulation (9.4%). Lean women with PCOS (BMI <24 kg/m(2)) had higher incidences of GDM (51.1% versus 14.5%; OR: 5.6, 95% CI: 3.4-9.0) and PIH (8.9% versus 3.2%; OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.3-7.1) than lean controls. PCOS woemn with normal glucose tolerance had higher risk for PIH than their comparable control group (OR: 4.0, 95% CI: 1.3-11.7). Conclusion. This study suggested that PCOS is an independent risk factor for the development of GDM and PIH. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-RCC-11001824.
Those with high baseline stress levels are more likely to develop mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimers Disease (AD). While meditation may reduce stress and alter the hippocampus and default mode network (DMN), little is known about its impact in these populations. Our objective was to conduct a "proof of concept" trial to determine whether Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) would improve DMN connectivity and reduce hippocampal atrophy among adults with MCI. 14 adults with MCI were randomized to MBSR vs. usual care and underwent resting state fMRI at baseline and follow-up. Seed based functional connectivity was applied using posterior cingulate cortex as seed. Brain morphometry analyses were performed using FreeSurfer. The results showed that after the intervention, MBSR participants had increased functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex and bilateral medial prefrontal cortex and left hippocampus compared to controls. In addition, MBSR participants had trends of less bilateral hippocampal volume atrophy than control participants. These preliminary results indicate that in adults with MCI, MBSR may have a positive impact on the regions of the brain most related to MCI and AD. Further research with larger sample sizes and longer-follow-up are needed to further investigate the results from this pilot study.
B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by clonally expanded and molecularly heterogeneous populations of B lymphocytes with impaired apoptotic mechanisms. This occurs as a result of multiple genetic and epigenetic abnormalities, including chromosomal aberrations and enhancer region hypomethylation, often impinging on intracellular signaling pathways that are essential to normal B-cell activation, proliferation, and survival. The B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling is one such pathway usurped by malignant B cells, as exemplified by the early phase clinical success achieved by small-molecule agents targeting key players involved in the pathway. Such new targeted agents, including those that inhibit the function of Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K), and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), along with the current standard therapy comprising chemo-immunotherapies with or without B-cell depleting biologic agent rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody), should expand the armamentarium for CLL therapy. We review the therapeutic agents currently in clinical development which target different effectors of the malignant BCR signaling, and discuss their overlapping and discriminating translational opportunities in the context of CLL treatment.
Wnt signaling regulates synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis in the adult nervous system, suggesting a potential role in behavioral processes. Here, we probed the requirement for Wnt signaling during olfactory memory formation in Drosophila using an inducible RNAi approach. Interfering with ?-catenin expression in adult mushroom body neurons specifically impaired long-term memory (LTM) without altering short-term memory. The impairment was reversible, being rescued by expression of a wild-type ?-catenin transgene, and correlated with disruption of a cellular LTM trace. Inhibition of wingless, a Wnt ligand, and arrow, a Wnt coreceptor, also impaired LTM. Wingless expression in wild-type flies was transiently elevated in the brain after LTM conditioning. Thus, inhibiting three key components of the Wnt signaling pathway in adult mushroom bodies impairs LTM, indicating that this pathway mechanistically underlies this specific form of memory.
Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a key integrator of intracellular signals triggered by activated immunoreceptors, including Bcell receptors (BCR) and Fc receptors, which are important for the development and function of lymphoid cells. Given the clinical efficacy of Bcell depletion in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, pharmacological modulation of Bcells using orally active small molecules that selectively target SYK presents an attractive alternative therapeutic strategy.
There is vast evidence to support the presence of brain aberrations in patients with fibromyalgia (FM), and it is possible that central plasticity is critical for the transition from acute to chronic pain. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between brain structure and function in patients with FM.
VEGFR, ERK and Abl had been respectively identified as good drug targets, and their crosstalk also had been well elaborated. Multitarget drugs were more advantageous for cancer treatment, however, no inhibitors simultaneously acting on the three proteins were developed due to their structural diversities. Herein, N-(4-((2-(2-(naphthaen-1-yl)acetamido)ethyl)carbamoyl)piperidin-4-yl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)nicotinamide (NEPT, 6a) was discovered as an active scaffold against VEGFR-2, ERK-2 and Abl-1 kinases through the combination of support vector machine, similarity searching and molecular docking. NEPT and its derivatives were synthesized by convenient routine, their in vitro anti-proliferative abilities against human liver cancer cell line HepG2 were preliminarily evaluated. A representative compound 6b showed an IC50 value of 11.3 ?M and induced significant HepG2 cells apoptosis. Besides, these compounds displayed better anti-proliferative abilities against K562 cells (a cell line with typical hyperactivity of the above multikinases), for example compound 6b exhibited an IC50 value of 4.5 ?M. Based on hepatotoxicity case reports of Abl inhibitors, cytotoxicity of synthetic compounds against normal liver cell lines (QSG7701 and HL7702) was studied, 6b had a similar toxic effect with positive control imatinib, and most compounds showed less than 35% inhibition activities at 100 ?M. Molecular docking study disclosed interactions of 6b with VEGFR-2, ERK-2 and Abl-1 kinases, respectively. Our data suggested the biological activities of 6b may derived from collaborative effects of VEGFR-2, ERK-2 and Abl-1 inhibition.
The Endometriosis Health Profile-30 (EHP-30), an endometriosis-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaire, forms part of our service evaluation of all women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for endometriosis in our reproductive medicine unit. We used the EHP-30 to investigate patient-reported outcomes in all patients undergoing this procedure.
Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) and Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK) are key mediators in coupling cell surface receptors, such as the B-cell receptor (BCR), to downstream signaling events affecting diverse biological functions. There is therefore tremendous interest in the development of pharmacological inhibitors targeting the SYK-BTK axis for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and hematological malignancies. A good pharmacodynamic (PD) assay, ideally a blood-based assay that measures proximal events, is warranted for evaluation of such inhibitors. In platelets, collagen-induced activation of membrane glycoprotein GPVI is dependent on the SYK-BTK axis. Here, we report the development of a novel immunoassay that uses the dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassay (DELFIA) to measure GPVI-mediated phosphorylation of phospholipase C ?2 (PLC?2), a direct substrate of SYK and BTK, in platelets. The assay was validated using SYK or BTK inhibitors and generated IC50 correlated with those from the BCR-induced B-cell activation assay. Furthermore, this assay showed good stability and uniformity over a period of 24 h in different donors. Interestingly, compound IC50 values using blood from patients with rheumatoid arthritis were slightly higher compared with those produced using samples from healthy donors. This novel platelet PLC?2 phosphorylation-based immunoassay should serve as a promising PD assay for preclinical and clinical development of inhibitors targeting the SYK-BTK axis.
DRESS syndrome is an idiosyncratic reaction to drugs, which can occur in both adults and children. To date there is no agreed upon criteria for its diagnosis; there is even less consensus on its management. We report the case of a 14- year-old boy with carbamazepine induced DRESS syndrome, predominantly involving the liver. He responded rapidly to high dose pulsed intravenous corticosteroids.
Pokemon is an important proto-oncogene involved in various biological processes and cancer development, such as cell differentiation, tumorigenesis and metastasis. Pokemon is recognized as a transcription factor localized upstream of several oncogenes, regulating their expression. p38MAPKs act as key regulatory factors in cellular signaling pathways associated with inflammatory responses, cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. p38?, a member of p38MAPK family, is closely correlated with tumorigenesis, but the mechanism of activation remains unclear. In this study, we found overexpression of Pokemon promoted the growth, migration and invasion of HepG2 cells. However, a p38 inhibitor SB202190 efficiently attenuated the promoting effect of Pokemon in the HepG2 cells. Targeted expression or silencing of Pokemon changed cellular p38? protein level and phosphorylation of downstream ATF2 in the p38 signaling pathway. Both dual luciferase report assay and ChIP assay suggested that p38? is a novel regulatory target of the transcription factor Pokemon and positively regulated by Pokemon in hepatic cells.
3D porous carbon-coated Li3 N nanofibers are successfully fabricated via the electrospinning technique. The as-prepared nanofibers exhibit a highly improved hydrogen-sorption performance in terms of both thermodynamics and kinetics. More interestingly, a stable regeneration can be achieved due to the unique structure of the nanofibers, over 10 cycles of H2 sorption at a temperature as low as 250 °C.
A fundamental characteristic of neural circuits is the capacity for plasticity in response to experience. Neural plasticity is associated with the development of chronic pain disorders. In this study, we investigated 1) brain resting state functional connectivity (FC) differences between patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) and matched healthy controls (HC); 2) FC differences within the cLBP patients as they experienced different levels of endogenous low back pain evoked by exercise maneuvers, and 3) morphometric differences between cLBP patients and matched HC. We found the dynamic character of FC in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in cLBP patients, i.e., S1 FC decreased when the patients experienced low intensity LBP as compared with matched healthy controls, and FC at S1 increased when cLBP patients experienced high intensity LBP as compared with the low intensity condition. In addition, we also found increased cortical thickness in the bilateral S1 somatotopically associated with the lower back in cLBP patients as compared to healthy controls. Our results provide evidence of structural plasticity co-localized with areas exhibiting FC changes in S1 in cLBP patients.
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