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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
HIV Stigma as a Barrier to Retention in HIV Care at a General Hospital in Lima, Peru: A Case-Control Study.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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HIV stigma as a barrier to retention in HIV care has not been well-studied outside the United States. We conducted a case-control study in Lima, Peru to examine this issue. Cases were out-of-care for ?12 months (n = 66) and controls were recruited from patients in active care presenting for a clinic visit (n = 110). A previously validated HIV stigma scale with four domains was used. Associations between being out-of-care and each stigma domain were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Stigma scores were highest for disclosure concerns. Modest associations were found for greater disclosure concerns (OR 1.16; 95 % CI 0.99, 1.36) and concerns with public attitudes (OR 1.20; 95 % CI 1.03, 1.40). Enacted stigma and negative self-image showed non-linear associations with being out-of-care that plateaued or declined, respectively, at higher levels of stigma. The threshold effect for enacted stigma warrants further exploration, while disclosure concerns may be especially amenable to intervention in this population.
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Microarray-based identification of lectins for the purification of human urinary extracellular vesicles directly from urine samples.
Chembiochem
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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As cellular-derived vesicles largely maintain the biomolecule composition of their original tissue, exosomes, which are found in nearly all body fluids, have enormous potential as clinical disease markers. A major bottleneck in the development of exosome-based diagnostic assays is the challenging purification of these vesicles; this requires time-consuming and instrument-based procedures. We employed lectin arrays to identify potential lectins as probes for affinity-based isolation of exosomes from the urinary matrix. We found three lectins that showed specific interactions to vesicles and no (or only residual) interaction with matrix proteins. Based on these findings a bead-based method for lectin-based isolation of exosomes from urine was developed as a sample preparation step for exosome-based biomarker research.
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Mumps-associated meningitis and encephalitis in patients with no suspected mumps infection.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Mumps virus (MuV) was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 6 of 158 patients with meningitis or encephalitis in absence of clinical mumps in the context of mumps epidemics. Our results suggest the need for the study of MuV RNA in the CSF of neurological patients in this context.
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Novel papillomaviruses in free-ranging Iberian bats: no virus-host co-evolution, no strict host specificity, and hints for recombination.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Papillomaviruses (PVs) are widespread pathogens. However, the extent of PV infections in bats remains largely unknown. This work represents the first comprehensive study of PVs in Iberian bats. We identified four novel PVs in the mucosa of free-ranging Eptesicus serotinus (EserPV1, EserPV2, and EserPV3) and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (RferPV1) individuals and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships within the viral family. We further assessed their prevalence in different populations of E. serotinus and its close relative E. isabellinus. Although it is frequent to read that PVs co-evolve with their host, that PVs are highly species-specific, and that PVs do not usually recombine, our results suggest otherwise. First, strict virus-host co-evolution is rejected by the existence of five, distantly related bat PV lineages and by the lack of congruence between bats and bat PVs phylogenies. Second, the ability of EserPV2 and EserPV3 to infect two different bat species (E. serotinus and E. isabellinus) argues against strict host specificity. Finally, the description of a second noncoding region in the RferPV1 genome reinforces the view of an increased susceptibility to recombination in the E2-L2 genomic region. These findings prompt the question of whether the prevailing paradigms regarding PVs evolution should be reconsidered.
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Safety profile of HIV-1 attachment inhibitor prodrug BMS-663068 in antiretroviral-experienced subjects: week 24 analysis.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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BMS-663068 is a prodrug of BMS-626529, an attachment inhibitor that binds directly to HIV-1 gp120, preventing initial viral attachment and entry into the host CD4+ T-cell. AI438011 is an ongoing, Phase IIb, randomized, active-controlled trial investigating the safety, efficacy and dose-response of BMS-663068 vs. atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) in treatment-experienced (TE), HIV-1-positive subjects. At Week 24, response rates across the BMS-663068 arms were consistent with ATV/r.
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HIV-1 attachment inhibitor prodrug BMS-663068 in antiretroviral-experienced subjects: week 24 sub-group analysis.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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BMS-663068 is a prodrug of BMS-626529, an attachment inhibitor that binds directly to HIV-1 gp120, preventing initial viral attachment and entry into the host CD4+ T-cell. AI438011 is a Phase IIb, randomized, active-controlled trial investigating the safety, efficacy and dose-response of BMS-663068 versus atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) in treatment-experienced (TE), HIV-1-positive subjects.
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Novel lyssavirus in bat, Spain.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.
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[Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America].
Rev Iberoam Micol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America, was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of neonates who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, central venous catheter management, and management of complications. This manuscript is the fourth of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America, Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America, and Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America.
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[Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America].
Rev Iberoam Micol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America, was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of children who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, duration of candidemia treatment, and central venous catheter management in children with candidemia. This manuscript is the third of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America, Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America, and Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America.
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Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America.
Rev Iberoam Micol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America, was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of children who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, duration of candidemia treatment, and central venous catheter management in children with candidemia. This manuscript is the third of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America, Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America, and Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America.
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[Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America].
Rev Iberoam Micol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America, was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of adults who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, duration of candidemia treatment, and central venous catheter management in patients with candidemia. This manuscript is the second of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America, Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America, and Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America.
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Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America.
Rev Iberoam Micol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America, was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the diagnosis of candidemia, as well as on the usefulness and application of susceptibility testing in patients who have a confirmed diagnosis of candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America includes diagnostic methods used to detect candidemia, Candida species identification, and susceptibility testing. The availability of methods, their costs and treatment settings are considered. This manuscript is the first of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America, Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America, and Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America.
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[Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America].
Rev Iberoam Micol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America, was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the diagnosis of candidemia, as well as on the usefulness and application of susceptibility testing in patients who have a confirmed diagnosis of candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America includes diagnostic methods used to detect candidemia, Candida species identification, and susceptibility testing. The availability of methods, their costs and treatment settings are considered. This manuscript is the first of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America, Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America, and Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America.
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Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America.
Rev Iberoam Micol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America, was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of adults who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, duration of candidemia treatment, and central venous catheter management in patients with candidemia. This manuscript is the second of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America, Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America, and Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America.
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Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America.
Rev Iberoam Micol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America, was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of neonates who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, central venous catheter management, and management of complications. This manuscript is the fourth of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America, Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America, and Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America.
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[Re-emergence of measles in the province of Guadalajara, Spain. Is it time to establish new strategies for its elimination?]
Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Measles is a viral infection that was almost eradicated, but it is re-emerging in Spain and Europe in recent years. The aim of this study was to describe the microbiological, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a measles outbreak that occurred in Guadalajara (Spain) from June to August 2012.
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[Risk factors associated with virologic failure in HIV- infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy at a public hospital in Peru].
Rev Chilena Infectol
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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To describe clinical and biological characteristics of subjects with virologic failure who participated in the sexually transmitted diseases HIV/AIDS National Program from a Peruvian public hospital.
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Comparative evaluation of tests for detection of parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM.
APMIS
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate enzyme immunoassays (EIA) (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany) and chemiluminiscent immunoassays (CLIA) (Diasorin, Saluggia, Italy) in their application to detect B19V-IgM and -IgG. For this purpose, one hundred and ninety samples were studied. Of them, 101 came from recent infection cases (B19V-specific IgM (86) and/or PCR (87), 42 from past infections, 18 from non-infected, and 29 from other viral recent infections (Epstein-Barr virus, measles, and rubella). Samples were characterized by capture (for IgM), or indirect (for IgG) EIA (Biotrin, Dublin, Ireland); indeterminate samples were classified by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) (Biotrin). All the samples were used for testing IgM assays, and all but the cases from other viral infections were used for IgG tests. For IgM, CLIA, and EIA identified 76 and 62 of 86 IgM positives, respectively (sensitivity 88.4% and 72.1%). Considering B19V IgM negative samples, negative result was obtained in 95 and 92 of 104, being the specificity values of CLIA and EIA 91.3% and 88.5%, respectively. For IgG, CLIA and EIA identified correctly 114 and 115 of the 122 positive samples (sensitivity 93.4% and 94.3%, respectively), and 39 and 36 of 39 negative samples (specificity 100% and 92.3%). As conclusion, CLIA methods can be used in clinical laboratories as adequate alternatives to the well-established Biotrin EIAs.
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Epidemiology of candidemia in Latin America: a laboratory-based survey.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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The epidemiology of candidemia varies depending on the geographic region. Little is known about the epidemiology of candidemia in Latin America.
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Medication possession ratio predicts antiretroviral regimens persistence in Peru.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In developing nations, the use of operational parameters (OPs) in the prediction of clinical care represents a missed opportunity to enhance the care process. We modeled the impact of multiple measurements of antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence on antiretroviral treatment outcomes in Peru.
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Discovery of an ebolavirus-like filovirus in europe.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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Filoviruses, amongst the most lethal of primate pathogens, have only been reported as natural infections in sub-Saharan Africa and the Philippines. Infections of bats with the ebolaviruses and marburgviruses do not appear to be associated with disease. Here we report identification in dead insectivorous bats of a genetically distinct filovirus, provisionally named Lloviu virus, after the site of detection, Cueva del Lloviu, in Spain.
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Phylogeny of European bat Lyssavirus 1 in Eptesicus isabellinus bats, Spain.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2011
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To better understand the epidemiology of European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1) in Europe, we phylogenetically characterized Lyssavirus from Eptesicus isabellinus bats in Spain. An independent cluster of EBLV-1 possibly resulted from geographic isolation and association with a different reservoir from other European strains. EBLV-1 phylogeny is complex and probably associated with host evolutionary history.
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[Microbiological diagnosis of central nervous system infections].
Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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The infections of the central nervous system are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Several agents including bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa can invade the CNS. They are different clinical presentations of these infections: meningitis, encephalitis, brain and epidural abscesses and cerebrospinal fluid shunt infections. The clinical course could be acute, subacute or chronic depending on the infecting agent and the location of the infection. The travelling entails a risk of infection by exotic agents of meningo-encephalitis such as robovirus and arbovirus, which require new diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Despite some progress in the treatment of the CNS infections, the mortality is usually high. Rapid diagnosis and emergent interventions are necessary to improve the outcome of those patients, and early and targeted antimicrobial treatment and support measures are of paramount importance for a favourable clinical patient outcome. The antigen detection techniques and particularly those of genetic diagnosis by amplification (PCR and others) have advanced, and improved the diagnostic of those diseases. In this paper the clinical signs and symptoms and diagnostic procedures of CNS infections are presented.
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Detection of alpha and betacoronaviruses in multiple Iberian bat species.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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Bat coronaviruses (CoV) are putative precursors of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV and other CoV that crossed the species barrier from zoonotic reservoirs into the human population. To determine the presence and distribution of CoV in Iberian bats, 576 individuals of 26 different bat species were captured in 13 locations in Spain. We report for the first time the presence of 14 coronaviruses in 9 Iberian bat species. Phylogenetic analysis of a conserved CoV genome region (RdRp gene) shows a wide diversity and distribution of alpha and betacoronavirus in Spain. Interestingly, although some of these viruses are related to other European BatCoV, or to Asian CoV, some of the viruses found in Spain cluster in new groups of ? and ? CoV.
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Phylodynamics and human-mediated dispersal of a zoonotic virus.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
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Understanding the role of humans in the dispersal of predominantly animal pathogens is essential for their control. We used newly developed Bayesian phylogeographic methods to unravel the dynamics and determinants of the spread of dog rabies virus (RABV) in North Africa. Each of the countries studied exhibited largely disconnected spatial dynamics with major geopolitical boundaries acting as barriers to gene flow. Road distances proved to be better predictors of the movement of dog RABV than accessibility or raw geographical distance, with occasional long distance and rapid spread within each of these countries. Using simulations that bridge phylodynamics and spatial epidemiology, we demonstrate that the contemporary viral distribution extends beyond that expected for RABV transmission in African dog populations. These results are strongly supportive of human-mediated dispersal, and demonstrate how an integrated phylogeographic approach will turn viral genetic data into a powerful asset for characterizing, predicting, and potentially controlling the spatial spread of pathogens.
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Mobile learning for HIV/AIDS healthcare worker training in resource-limited settings.
AIDS Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2010
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We present an innovative approach to healthcare worker (HCW) training using mobile phones as a personal learning environment.Twenty physicians used individual Smartphones (Nokia N95 and iPhone), each equipped with a portable solar charger. Doctors worked in urban and peri-urban HIV/AIDS clinics in Peru, where almost 70% of the nations HIV patients in need are on treatment. A set of 3D learning scenarios simulating interactive clinical cases was developed and adapted to the Smartphones for a continuing medical education program lasting 3 months. A mobile educational platform supporting learning events tracked participant learning progress. A discussion forum accessible via mobile connected participants to a group of HIV specialists available for back-up of the medical information. Learning outcomes were verified through mobile quizzes using multiple choice questions at the end of each module.
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Assessment of RNA amplification by multiplex RT-PCR and IgM detection by indirect and capture ELISAs for the diagnosis of measles and rubella.
APMIS
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2010
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The aim of the study was to compare RNA amplification using multiplex RT-PCR and IgM detection by means of indirect and capture ELISAs for the diagnosis of measles and rubella. A total of 229 cases of maculopapular rash with serum and throat swab samples were included. Specific serological IgM to measles and rubella was determined by Enzygnost (Siemens) and Platelia (Bio-Rad). Both viruses were researched using multiplex RT-PCR performed on throat samples. Criteria for inclusion of measles or rubella cases were a positive RT-PCR result for one virus and negative for the other; and/or a positive IgM result for one virus by both ELISAs and negative RT-PCR for the other virus. A total of 74 cases were classified as measles and 54 as rubella. In measles, sensitivity and specificity were 93.2% and 100% for RT-PCR, 97.3% and 98.1% for Enzygnost, and 90.5% and 95.5% for Platelia. For rubella, these values were 42.6% and 100% for RT-PCR, 100% and 97.1% for Enzygnost, and 94.4% and 98.3% for Platelia. Enzygnost and Platelia are useful techniques for detecting IgM against measles and rubella. RNA amplification by RT-PCR was both sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of measles; however, for rubella, the sensitivity of this technique must be improved.
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Durability of initial antiretroviral therapy in a resource-constrained setting and the potential need for zidovudine weight-based dosing.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Whereas access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected individuals in the developing world is increasing, data on factors impacting initial regimen durability are lacking.
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High prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among young Peruvians who have sexual intercourse with foreign travelers in Cuzco.
J Travel Med
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2009
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Sexual networking in popular tourist destinations is a problem worldwide. In Peru, locals sexually interacting with travelers bridge high-risk groups, the general population, and travelers.
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Measles risk groups in Spain: implications for the European measles-elimination target.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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The European Region has set itself the goal of eliminating measles by 2010. Incidence has increased in recent years. This study sought to investigate outbreaks in Spain in the period 2005-2007, in order to identify measles-vulnerable groups and compare Spain to other European countries which have also had measles outbreaks. The pattern observed for Spain proved different to that of other European countries, i.e., whereas young adults and infants aged under 15 months were affected in Spain, children aged under 9 years comprised the predominant group in other European countries. Measles cases in Spain reflect low coverage when vaccination began, a pattern that could be repeated in neighbouring countries. Vaccination efforts should thus be targeted at vulnerable groups, namely: young adults; health professionals; travelling communities; and adopted infants and foreigners from countries with important pockets of susceptibles.
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Detection of rhabdovirus viral RNA in oropharyngeal swabs and ectoparasites of Spanish bats.
J. Gen. Virol.
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Rhabdoviruses infect a variety of hosts, including mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, insects and plants. As bats are the natural host for most members of the genus Lyssavirus, the specificity of the amplification methods used for active surveillance is usually restricted to lyssaviruses. However, the presence of other rhabdoviruses in bats has also been reported. In order to broaden the scope of such methods, a new RT-PCR, able to detect a diverse range of rhabdoviruses, was designed. The method detected 81 of 86 different rhabdoviruses. In total, 1488 oropharyngeal bat swabs and 38 nycteribiid samples were analysed, and 17 unique rhabdovirus-related sequences were detected. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that those sequences detected in bats did not constitute a monophyletic group, even when originating from the same bat species. However, all of the sequences detected in nycteribiids and one sequence obtained from a bat did constitute a monophyletic group with Drosophila melanogaster sigma rhabdovirus.
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WebTag: Web browsing into sensor tags over NFC.
Sensors (Basel)
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Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) continue to overcome many of the challenges related to wireless sensor monitoring, such as for example the design of smarter embedded processors, the improvement of the network architectures, the development of efficient communication protocols or the maximization of the life cycle autonomy. This work tries to improve the communication link of the data transmission in wireless sensor monitoring. The upstream communication link is usually based on standard IP technologies, but the downstream side is always masked with the proprietary protocols used for the wireless link (like ZigBee, Bluetooth, RFID, etc.). This work presents a novel solution (WebTag) for a direct IP based access to a sensor tag over the Near Field Communication (NFC) technology for secure applications. WebTag allows a direct web access to the sensor tag by means of a standard web browser, it reads the sensor data, configures the sampling rate and implements IP based security policies. It is, definitely, a new step towards the evolution of the Internet of Things paradigm.
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A diagnostic accuracy study of Xpert®MTB/RIF in HIV-positive patients with high clinical suspicion of pulmonary tuberculosis in Lima, Peru.
PLoS ONE
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Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients remains complex and demands easy to perform and accurate tests. Xpert®MTB/RIF (MTB/RIF) is a molecular TB diagnostic test which is rapid and convenient; the test requires minimal human resources and reports results within two hours. The majority of performance studies of MTB/RIF have been performed in high HIV burden settings, thus TB diagnostic studies among HIV patients in low HIV prevalence settings such as Peru are still needed.
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BK polyomavirus with archetypal and rearranged non-coding control regions is present in cerebrospinal fluids from patients with neurological complications.
J. Gen. Virol.
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BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) has recently been postulated as an emerging opportunistic pathogen of the human central nervous system (CNS), but it is not known whether specific strains are associated with the neurotropic character of BKPyV. The presence of BKPyV large T-antigen DNA was examined in 2406 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from neurological patients with suspected JC polyomavirus infection. Twenty patients had a large T-antigen DNA-positive specimen. The non-coding control region (NCCR) of the BKPyV strains amplified from CSF from these 20 patients, strains circulating in renal and bone marrow transplant recipients and from healthy pregnant women was sequenced. The archetypal conformation was the most prevalent in all groups and 14 of the neurological patients harboured archetypal strains, while the remaining six patients possessed BKPyV with rearranged NCCR similar to previously reported variants from non-neurological patients. Transfection studies in Vero cells revealed that five of six early and four of six late rearranged promoters of these CSF isolates showed significantly higher activity than the corresponding archetypal promoter. From seven of the neurological patients with BKPyV DNA-positive CSF, paired serum samples were available. Five of them were negative for BKPyV DNA, while serum from the remaining two patients harboured BKPyV strains with archetypal NCCR that differed from those present in their CSF. Our results suggest that NCCR rearrangements are not a hallmark for BKPyV neurotropism and the dissemination of a rearranged NCCR from the blood may not be the origin of BKPyV CNS infection.
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Development and validation with clinical samples of internally controlled multiplex real-time PCR for diagnosis of BKV and JCV infection in associated pathologies.
Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
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This article describes the development and validation with clinical samples of an internally controlled multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) for human polyomaviruses BK (BKV) and JC (JCV). Blood and urine samples from renal transplant recipients with suspected nephropathy, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from AIDS, natalizumab-treated and HIV-negative patients with suspected progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, previously checked for BKV and JCV by conventional PCR, were tested by QRT-PCR. All samples positive by conventional PCR were confirmed by QRT-PCR. Four cases of JCV-associated neurological infection, including all those detected in natalizumab-treated patients, and one case of BKV-related neurological infection were only identified by QRT-PCR. BKV was quantified in the CSF of neurological patients for the first time. Analyses of the Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics 2010 panel were "highly satisfactory" for BKV and "satisfactory" for JCV. The QRT-PCR is specific and reproducible. It improves the sensitivity of conventional PCR for the diagnosis of BKV and JCV infection in various diseases.
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Active Surveillance of Candidemia in Children from Latin America: A Key Requirement for Improving Disease Outcome.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
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Active surveillance is necessary for improving the management and outcomes of patients with candidemia. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiologic and clinical features of candidemia in pediatric patients in Latin America (LA).
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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