JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Paenibacillus abyssi sp. nov., isolated from an abyssal sediment sample from the Indian Ocean.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain SCSIO N0306(T), was isolated from an abyssal sediment sample collected from the Indian Ocean. The isolate was found to grow optimally at 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl, pH 7.0 and 30 °C. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the isolate SCSIO N0306(T) belongs phylogenetically to the genus Paenibacillus, and to be most closely related to P. algorifonticola XJ259(T) (with 95.47 % sequence similarity), sharing less than 95.0 % sequence similarity with all other taxa of this genus. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed MK-7 as the major isoprenoid quinone, the DNA G+C content was determined to be 45.5 mol%, and anteiso-C15:0, C16:0, and iso-C15:0 were identified as the major fatty acids. On the basis of this polyphasic taxonomic data, isolate SCSIO N0306(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus abyssi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SCSIO N0306(T) (= DSM 26238(T) = CGMCC 1.12987(T)).
Related JoVE Video
Apolipoprotein E gene E2/E2 genotype is a genetic risk factor for vertebral fractures in humans: a large-scale study.
Int Orthop
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although many studies have been performed to evaluate whether or not apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) polymorphisms are differentially associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures, the results have been conflicting. This large-scale study was performed to investigate whether a relationship exists between APOE polymorphisms and risk of fracture.
Related JoVE Video
miR-376b-5p regulates angiogenesis in cerebral ischemia.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The profile of microRNAs (miRNAs) altered following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and miRNAs are involved in angiogenesis following cerebral ischemia. miR?376b?5p was decreased following MCAO, however, whether miR?376b?5p is important in angiogenesis remains to be elucidated. The present study was designed to identify whether miR?376b?5p is involved in angiogenesis following cerebral ischemia and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. A rat MCAO model was established and quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the mRNA expression level of miR?376b?5p for 1 to 7 days. In addition, the density of microvessels and the relative mRNA and protein levels of hypoxia?inducible factor?1 ? (HIF?1?), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and Notch1 were measured. The miR?376b?5p mimic or the miR?376b?5p inhibitor were transfected into hypoxic human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and the proliferation, migration and tube formation were measured. To further examine the underlying mechanisms, shRNA was transfected into cells to knock down HIF?1?, and angiogenesis and the expression of associated molecules, including HIF?1?, VEGFA and Notch1 were compared between each group. Our results demonstrated that miR?376b?5p repressed angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro, and miR?376b?5p inhibited angiogenesis in HUVECs by targeting the HIF?1??mediated VEGFA/Notch1 signaling pathway. These findings provide new insights into angiogenesis therapy for cerebral ischemia.
Related JoVE Video
S phase cell percentage normalized BrdU incorporation rate, a new parameter for determining S arrest.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, a new parameter, S phase cell percentage (S fraction) normalized BrdU (SFN-BrdU) incorporation rate, was introduced to detect S arrest. The results showed a positive linear correlation between the BrdU incorporation rate and the S fraction in unperturbed 16HBE cells. Theoretical analysis indicated that only S arrest could result in a decrease in the SFN-BrdU incorporation rate. Additionally, the decrease in SFN-BrdU incorporation rate and the activation of DNA damage checkpoints further demonstrated that S arrest was induced by diethyl sulfate treatment of 16HBE cells. In conclusion, SFN-BrdU incorporation rate can be used to detecting S arrest.
Related JoVE Video
The role of the globular heads of the C1q receptor in HPV-16 E2-induced human cervical squamous carcinoma cell apoptosis via a mitochondria-dependent pathway.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human papillomavirus type-16 (HPV-16) E2 protein acts as a transcriptional modulator and plays a key role in regulating many biological responses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between HPV-16 E2, the receptor for the globular heads of human C1q (gC1qR) gene expression, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis regulation in human cervical squamous carcinoma cells (C33a and SiHa).
Related JoVE Video
Atg5 deficit exaggerates the lysosome formation and cathepsin B activation in mice brain after lipid nanoparticles injection.
Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study was designed to investigate the role of autophagy-lysosome signaling in the brain after application of nanoparticles. Here, lipid nanoparticles (LNs) induced elevations of Atg5, P62, LC3 and cathepsin B in mice brain. The transmission electron microscopy revealed a dramatic elevation of lysosome vacuoles colocalized with LNs cluster inside the neurons in mice brain. Immunoblot data revealed abnormal expression of cathepsin B in brain cortex following LNs injection, whereas its expression was further elevated in Atg5(+/-) mice. The importance of Atg5 in the LNs-induced autophagy-lysosome cascade was further supported by our finding that neurovascular response was exaggerated in Atg5(+/-) mice. In addition, the siRNA knockdown of Atg5 significantly blunted the increasing of LC3 and P62 in LNs-treated Neuro-2a cells. Taken together, we propose that LNs induce autophagy-lysosome signaling and neurovascular response at least partially via an Atg5-dependent pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Interleukin-17 receptor expression on vascular endothelial cells of masses of skeletal extramedullary disease in myeloma patients.
Pathol. Res. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The goal of the study was to investigate the expression of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) in patients with myeloma bone diseases (MBD) and skeletal extramedullary disease (skeletal EMD). The levels of IL-17 were determined using ELISA. The expression of IL-17R on vascular endothelial cells of bone marrow (BM) and masses of skeletal EMD was detected using immunohistochemistry. The results showed an elevated IL-17 level in BM of BMD and skeletal EMD patients. The microvessel density (MVD) was significantly increased in the masses of skeletal EMD. IL-17R was almost exclusively expressed by endothelial cells, not by myeloma cells in the masses of skeletal EMD patients. We concluded that EMD masses showed increased angiogenesis mediated by IL-17 pathway and in part this may help in myeloma cell-growth under these conditions.
Related JoVE Video
In vivo two-photon fluorescence microscopy reveals disturbed cerebral capillary blood flow and increased susceptibility to ischemic insults in diabetic mice.
CNS Neurosci Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of stroke, but the mechanisms are unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that diabetes mellitus disturbs the brain microcirculation and increases the susceptibility to cerebral damage in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of ischemia.
Related JoVE Video
Amniotic membrane covering promotes healing of cornea epithelium and improves visual acuity after debridement for fungal keratitis.
Int J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the effect of amniotic membrane covering (AMC) on the healing of cornea epithelium and visual acuity for fungal keratitis after debridement.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy and safety of immunosuppressive therapy in the treatment of seronegative hepatitis associated aplastic anemia.
Drug Des Devel Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the clinical characteristics of seronegative hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (AA) (SNHAA) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection complicating AA (HBVAA), and thereby compare the efficacy of immunosuppressive therapy (IST).
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of histone H3K9 acetylation by anacardic acid can correct the over-expression of Gata4 in the hearts of fetal mice exposed to alcohol during pregnancy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cardiovascular malformations can be caused by abnormalities in Gata4 expression during fetal development. In a previous study, we demonstrated that ethanol exposure could lead to histone hyperacetylation and Gata4 over-expression in fetal mouse hearts. However, the potential mechanisms of histone hyperacetylation and Gata4 over-expression induced by ethanol remain unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence and clinical relevance of T-helper cells, Th17 and Th1, in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An immune imbalance in the cytokine profile exerts a profound influence on the progression of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present study evaluated the immune status of T helper (Th) 17 and Th1 cells in patients with HBV-related and non-HBV-related HCC.
Related JoVE Video
Promotion of minTBP-1-PRGDN on the attachment, proliferation and collagen I synthesis of human keratocyte on titanium.
Int J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the influence of minTBP-1-PRGDN on the attachment, proliferation and collagen I synthesis of human keratocyte on titanium (Ti) surface.
Related JoVE Video
Direct generation of broadband chaos by a monolithic integrated semiconductor laser chip.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A solitary monolithic integrated semiconductor laser (MISL) chip with a size of 780 micrometer is designed and fabricated for broadband chaos generation. Such a MISL chip consists of a DFB section, a phase section and an amplification section. Test results indicate that under suitable operation conditions, this laser chip can be driven into broadband chaos. The generated chaos covers an RF frequency range, limited by our measurement device, of 26.5GHz, and possesses significant dimension and complexity. Moreover, the routes into and out of chaos are also characterized through extracting variety dynamical states of temporal waveforms, phase portraits, RF spectra and statistical indicators.
Related JoVE Video
Targeted therapy of brain ischaemia using Fas ligand antibody conjugated PEG-lipid nanoparticles.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The translation of experimental stroke research from the laboratory to successful clinical practice remains a formidable challenge. We previously reported that PEGylated-lipid nanoparticles (PLNs) effectively transport across the blood-brain barrier along with less inflammatory responses. In the present study, PLNs conjugated to Fas ligand antibody that selectively present on brain ischaemic region were used for therapeutic targeting. Fluorescent analysis of the mice brain show that encapsulated 3-n-Butylphthalide (dl-NBP) in PLNs conjugated with Fas ligand antibody effectively delivered to ipsilateral region of ischaemic brain. Furthermore, the confocal immunohistochemical study demonstrated that brain-targeted nanocontainers specifically accumulated on OX42 positive microglia cells in ischaemic region of mice model. Finally, dl-NBP encapsulated nano-drug delivery system is resulted in significant improvements in brain injury and in neurological deficit after ischaemia, with the significantly reduced dosages versus regular dl-NBP. Overall, these data suggests that PLNs conjugated to an antibody specific to the Fas ligand constituted an ideal brain targeting drug delivery system for brain ischaemia.
Related JoVE Video
[Mutation analysis of FAH gene in patients with tyrosinemia type 1].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the clinical features and mutations of the FAH gene.
Related JoVE Video
[Advances in genetyping of Toxoplasma gondii].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Toxoplasma gondii is a nucleated cell obligate parasite, and can cause severe toxoplasmosis. The genetypes of Toxoplasma gondii isolates of different host infections have significant differences, and the pathogenicity and sensitivity to drugs of different genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii isolates are also significantly different. At present, the analysis of Toxoplasma gondii genotypes is performed by using PCR-RFLP, PCR of highly repetitive sequences, multiple PCR and nested PCR techniques, and the multiple loci of amplification are usually B1, SAG2, HSP70, GRA6 and other genetic markers. There are main 3 traditional genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii, and along with the deepening and extension of research, more and more genotypes are found. This paper reviews the advances in the research of Toxoplasma gondii genotypes.
Related JoVE Video
A novel sodium iodide and ammonium molybdate co-catalytic system for the efficient synthesis of 2-benzimidazoles using hydrogen peroxide under ultrasound irradiation.
Ultrason Sonochem
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The reaction of aldehydes and o-phenylenediamine for the preparation of 2-benzimidazoles has been studied using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant under ultrasound irradiation at room temperature in this paper. The combination of substoichiometric sodium iodide and ammonium molybdate as co-catalysts, together with using small amounts of hydrogen peroxide, makes this transformation very efficient and attractive under ultrasound. Thus, a mild, green and efficient method is established to carry out this reaction in high yield.
Related JoVE Video
Sunitinib malate as first-line treatment for an advanced, poorly differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor.
Future Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are rare, accounting for approximately 2% of primary malignant tumors of the pancreas. Compared with common pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, they grow more slowly, are less invasive and have a better prognosis. At present, surgery is the preferred method of treatment of PNETs, and offers the only chance of a cure. However, owing to the occult onset of PNETs, once diagnosed they are often inoperable when the diagnosis is established, and the optimal treatment of patients with inoperable liver metastases remains uncertain. In recent years, targeted drug therapies have emerged and have proved effective in prolonging progression-free survival in patients with advanced well-differentiated PNETs, but hardly any progress has been made in the treatment of poorly differentiated PNETs. In the patient described in this report, who had a poorly differentiated PNET with multiple hepatic metastases and had refused cytotoxic chemotherapy, oral sunitinib malate treatment for 22 months with regular follow-ups proved tolerable and effective in significantly reducing the size of the intrahepatic masses.
Related JoVE Video
Melatonin reverses the decreases in hippocampal protein serine/threonine kinases observed in an animal model of autism.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lower global cognitive function scores are a common symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study investigates the effects of melatonin on hippocampal serine/threonine kinase signaling in an experimental ASD model. We found that chronic melatonin (1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg/day, 28 days) treatment significantly rescued valproic acid (VPA, 600 mg/kg)-induced decreases in CaMKII (Thr286), NMDAR1 (Ser896), and PKA (Thr197) phosphorylation in the hippocampus without affecting total protein levels. Compared with control rats, the immunostaining of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus revealed a decrease in immunolabeling intensity for phospho-CaMKII (Thr286) in the hippocampus of VPA-treated rats, which was ameliorated by chronic melatonin treatment. Consistent with the elevation of CaMKII/PKA/PKC phosphorylation observed in melatonin-treated rat, long-term potentiation (LTP) was enhanced after chronic melatonin (5.0 mg/kg) treatment, as reflected by extracellular field potential slopes that increased from 56 to 60 min (133.4 ± 3.9% of the baseline, P < 0.01 versus VPA-treated rats) following high-frequency stimulation (HFS) in hippocampal slices. Accordingly, melatonin treatment also significantly improved social behavioral deficits at postnatal day 50 in VPA-treated rats. Taken together, the increased phosphorylation of CaMKII/PKA/PKC signaling might contribute to the beneficial effects of melatonin on autism symptoms.
Related JoVE Video
The effect of lipid nanoparticle PEGylation on neuroinflammatory response in mouse brain.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nanocarrier-based drug delivery systems have attracted wide interest for the treatment of brain disease. However, neurotoxicity of nanoparticle has limited their therapeutic application. Here we demonstrated that lipid nanoparticles (LNs) accumulated in the brain parenchyma within 3 h of intravenous injection to mice and persisted for more than 24 weeks, coinciding with a dramatic activation of brain microglia. Morphological characteristic of microglial activation also observed in LNs-treated Cx3cr1GFP/+ mice. In vivo study with two-photon confocal microscopy revealed abnormal Ca²? waves in microglia following LNs injection. The correlated activation of caspase-1, IL-1? and neurovascular damage following LNs injection was attenuated in P2X?-/- mice. PEGylation of LNs reduced correlated nanoparticles aggregation. Moreover, PEGylation of LNs ameliorated the P2X?/caspase-1/IL-1? signalling-dependent microglia activation and neurovascular damage. In conclusion, PEGylation of LNs is a promising biomaterial for brain-targeted therapy that inhibits P2X7?-dependent neuroinflammatory response.
Related JoVE Video
Influencing factors of the quality of life in Chinese burn patients: Investigation with adapted Chinese version of the BSHS-B.
Burns
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The study aims to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) in burn patients in China and find out principal influencing factors, so as to provide evidence for interventions.
Related JoVE Video
Incidence and trends of stroke and its subtypes in Changsha, China from 2005 to 2011.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During the 1990s no significant changes were found for the high incidence of ischemic stroke (IS) in Changsha, in contrast to the increase observed in Beijing and Shanghai. However, the epidemiological patterns of stroke may change with economic development. This study aimed to examine the characteristics of stroke incidence transition in Changsha from 2005 to 2011. In 2007 two communities with a registered population of about 100,000 were selected and data from stroke patients who presented between 2005 and 2007 were retrospectively collected from January to June 2008. From January to December 2007 a stroke surveillance network was established and stroke patients who presented between 2008 and 2011 were prospectively registered. From 2005 to 2011 the mean annual age-adjusted incidence of first-ever stroke was 168.5/100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 159.0-178.0/100,000), with 189.3/100,000 (95% CI 175.1-178.0/100,000) for men and 148.7/100,000 (95% CI 136.0-161.4/100,000) for women. The mean annual age-adjusted incidence of IS, intracranial hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage was 72.6/100,000 (95% CI 66.3-78.9/100,000), 85.1/100,000 (95% CI 78.3-91.9/100,000) and 9.4/100,000 (95% CI 7.1-11.7/100,000), respectively. During the study period, the age-adjusted incidence of stroke increased at an annual rate of 3.7% (p=0.001); at 4.2% for men (p=0.001) and 3.1% for women (p=0.026). The age-adjusted incidence of IS increased at an annual rate of 3.5% (p=0.003) but no significant changes were seen for hemorrhagic stroke. Characteristics of stroke incidence transition may reflect underlying changes in risk factors and there is an urgent need to identify these factors and launch appropriate public health campaigns.
Related JoVE Video
The Globular Heads of the C1q Receptor Regulate Apoptosis in Human Extravillous Cytotrophoblast-derived Transformed Cells via a Mitochondria-dependent Pathway.
Am. J. Reprod. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The receptor for the globular head of human C1q (gC1qR) predominantly localizes to the mitochondrial matrix. gC1qR mediates many biological responses, including growth perturbations, morphological abnormalities and the initiation of apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between gC1qR expression, mitochondrial dysfunction and the regulation of apoptosis in human extravillous cytotrophoblast (EVCT)-derived transformed cell lines (HTR-8/SVneo and HPT-8).
Related JoVE Video
Monoterpene pyridine alkaloids and phenolics from Scrophularia ningpoensis and their cardioprotective effect.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Scrophularianines A-C (1-3), three new unusual monoterpene pyridine alkaloids with cyclopenta [c] pyridine skeleton reported from the genus Scrophularia for the first time, together with 15 known compounds (4-18), were isolated from the extract of Scrophularia ningpoensis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive analyses of spectroscopic evidences. The biogenetic relationship between monoterpene pyridine alkaloids and iridoids was proposed preliminarily. The myocardial protective bioassay indicated that compounds 13 and 14 with a concentration of 10(-4)M exhibited significantly protective effect against H2O2-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes.
Related JoVE Video
Public and professional education on urgent therapy for acute ischemic stroke: a community-based intervention in Changsha.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Excessive delay of presentation for stroke in China is reported. In this study, an intervention trial was conducted to promote urgent therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Two communities in Changsha were selected as either intervention or control community from November 2007 to December 2011. Public and professional education was regularly implemented in the intervention community. Publics knowledge about early identification and urgent therapy of ischemic stroke was surveyed before and after intervention in the two communities. During the intervention period, first-ever ischemic stroke cases occurring in the intervention community (intervention group) and that in the control community (control group) were collected and followed for 90 days. After intervention, the publics knowledge levels in the intervention community improved significantly. Intervention group average presentation time was shorter than control group (8.3 ± 5.8 vs. 10.5 ± 6.5 h, P = 0.018). Percentage of presentation time within 3 h (48.0 %), the rate of ambulance use (59.0 %), and thrombolytic therapy (9.3 %) in the intervention group was all obviously higher than that in the control group (21.5, 41.3, and 4.5, respectively). When admitted, the intervention group had lower mean systolic blood pressure (160.8 ± 26.7 vs. 164.7 ± 26.8 mmHg, P = 0.000) than control group. Survivors in the intervention group were more likely to be in higher Barthel index scoring groups than that in the control group at day 90 [(75, 50-100) vs. (65, 35-90), P = 0.035]. Public and professional education may promote prompt presentation and urgent therapy for ischemic stroke, which may be helpful for patients prognosis.
Related JoVE Video
Role of procalcitonin in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis: a meta-analysis.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a diagnostic challenge. We aimed to systemically summarize the current evidence on the diagnostic value of procalcitonin (PCT) in identifying IE.
Related JoVE Video
Expression levels of IL-27 and IL-17 in multiple myeloma patients: a higher ratio of IL-27:IL-17 in bone marrow was associated with a superior progression-free survival.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The goal of the study was to investigate the levels of interleukin-27 (IL-27) and IL-17 in bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) of multiple myeloma (MM). The levels of IL-27 and IL-17 were determined in MM patients and controls using ELISA. The results showed a decreased IL-27 and elevated IL-17 level in MM patients and a negative association of IL-27 with IL-17. The ratio of IL-27:IL-17 in BM of newly diagnosed MM was significantly decreased and correlated with the progression of disease. Multivariate analysis showed that a higher ratio of IL-27:IL-17 in BM was associated with a superior progression-free survival (HR=0.160; 95% CI: 0.058-0.443; p<0.001). Our results suggest that there might be a possible competitive role of IL-27 and IL-17 in MM.
Related JoVE Video
The role of globular heads of the C1q receptor in HPV 16 E2-induced human cervical squamous carcinoma cell apoptosis is associated with p38 MAPK/JNK activation.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16) E2 protein is a multifunctional DNA-binding protein. HPV 16 E2 regulates many biological responses, including DNA replication, gene expression, and apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among the receptor for globular heads of the human C1q (gC1qR) gene expression, HPV 16 E2 transfection and apoptosis regulation in human cervical squamous carcinoma cells (C33a and SiHa).
Related JoVE Video
Stereoselective excretion and first-pass metabolism of clausenamide enantiomers.
Eur J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stereoselective differences in pharmacokinetics between clausenamide (CLA) enantiomers have been found after intravenous and oral administration of each enantiomer to rats. The differences could be associated with excretion and first-pass metabolism of two enantiomers. The data from this study demonstrated that (-)CLA was mainly excreted in feces with 13.9% of dose, whereas (+)CLA in bile with 17.2%. A large portion of CLA enantiomers could be transformed into hydroxyl metabolites. In the in vitro metabolic system using rat liver microsomes, it was found that (-)CLA was cleared more than its antipode with peak height ratios [(+)/(-)] from 1.0 to 1.8 at the corresponding substrate concentrations from 0.25 to 2mM. Further study in rabbits showed that two enantiomers underwent an intermediate degree of first-pass metabolism. (-)CLA had lower concentrations and AUC0-8h in the portal vein and heart than those of (+)CLA with rates of hepatic extraction 64.7% for (-)-isomer and 50.8% for (+)-isomer, and intrinsic metabolic clearances of (-) and (+)CLA being 186.3 and 107.2 (l/h), respectively. The first-pass metabolism was involved in CYP3A enzymes in the gut and liver, and different levels of CYP3A1 expression induced by (-)CLA or (+)CLA. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that (-)-isomer significantly increased the expression of CYP3A1, while (+)-isomer had no obvious effects on it. Taken together, the results provided new evidence that stereoselective pharmacokinetics of CLA enantiomers could be resulted from their stereoselective excretion, first-pass metabolism and induction to metabolizing enzymes, which might be important in understanding the clinic pharmacology of active eutomer, (-)CLA, for treatment of Alzheimers disease.
Related JoVE Video
Diversity of methanogens in the hindgut of captive white rhinoceroses, Ceratotherium simum.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The white rhinoceros is on the verge of extinction with less than 20,200 animals remaining in the wild. In order to better protect these endangered animals, it is necessary to better understand their digestive physiology and nutritional requirements. The gut microbiota is nutritionally important for herbivorous animals. However, little is known about the microbial diversity in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of the white rhinoceros. Methanogen diversity in the GIT may be host species-specific and, or, function-dependent. To assess methanogen diversity in the hindgut of white rhinoceroses, an archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone library was constructed from pooled PCR products obtained from the feces of seven adult animals.
Related JoVE Video
Puerarin Suppress Apoptosis of Human Osteoblasts via ERK Signaling Pathway.
Int J Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Puerarin, the main isoflavone glycoside extracted from Radix Puerariae, is an isoflavone traditional Chinese herb. Previous studies have demonstrated that puerarin could regulate osteoblast proliferation and differentiation to promote bone formation. However, the effect of puerarin on the process of human osteoblasts (hOBs) apoptosis is still unclear. In this study, we detected the function of puerarin on serum-free-induced cell apoptosis using ELISA and TUNEL arrays and then found that the mortality of hOBs was significantly decreased after exposure to 10(-10)-10(-6)?M puerarin and reached the maximal antiapoptotic effect at the concentration of 10(-8)?M. In addition, compared with the control group, puerarin notably increased the Bcl-2 protein levels while it decreased the Bax protein levels in the hOBs in a dose-dependent way. 10(-7)?M puerarin decreased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio with a maximal decrease to 0.08. Moreover, puerarin activated ERK signaling pathways in hOBs, and the antiapoptotic effect induced by puerarin was abolished by incubation of ERK inhibitor PD98059. Similarly, the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI182780 also suppressed the inhibitory effect of puerarin on hOBs apoptosis. In conclusion, puerarin could prevent hOBs apoptosis via ERK signaling pathway, which might be effective in providing protection against bone loss and bone remolding associated with osteoporosis.
Related JoVE Video
Valproic acid-associated low fibrinogen and delayed intracranial hemorrhage: case report and mini literature review.
Drug Des Devel Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 41-year-old male had suffered from gradual hearing loss in his right ear for 2 years. Head computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans showed a neoplasm in the cerebellopontine angle region, which was confirmed by the diagnosis of acoustic neurilemmoma by pathological findings after surgery. Following surgery, he routinely received valproic acid (VPA) to prevent seizures. However, the patient presented with hypofibrinogenemia and cerebral hemorrhage after taking VPA for 12 days. The hypofibrinogenemia recurred when VPA was re-administered. After withdrawal of VPA, his fibrinogen concentration rose to normal within several days. As far as we are aware, this is the first case of cerebral hemorrhage due to VPA to have been reported. Herein, as well as reporting on this case, a mini review of the relevant literature is also presented.
Related JoVE Video
Endocrine disruptors, polychlorinated biphenyls-induced gC1qR-dependent apoptosis in human trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo.
Reprod Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although an association exists between exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and spontaneous miscarriage, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. In this study, PCBs content in plasma was detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and decidua tissues were examined for the expression of globular heads of C1q receptor (gC1qR) using Western blot in patients who underwent induced abortion and spontaneous abortion. Results showed increased PCBs content and gC1qR expression in patients who experienced spontaneous abortion. In vitro, Western blot analysis demonstrated significantly higher caspase 3 expression and apoptotic cell counts in green fluorescent protein (GFP)-gC1qR vector group. Additionally, gC1qR and caspase 3 showed decreased expression following PCBs plus gC1qR small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased in cells treated with PCBs alone or PCB plus negative siRNA. These data suggest that maternal exposure to PCBs is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and that upregulation of gC1qR is important for PCBs-mediated trophoblast cell apoptosis.
Related JoVE Video
Nucleoid occlusion and bacterial cell division.
Nat. Rev. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The bacterial cell cycle requires the tight regulation and precise coordination of several sophisticated cellular processes. Prominent among them is the formation of the dividing wall or septum, which has to take place at the right time and place to ensure equality of the progeny and integrity of the genome. Nucleoid occlusion is a defence mechanism that prevents the chromosome from being bisected and broken by the division septum. It does so by preventing Z ring formation near the nucleoid, which also helps to determine the location of septation.
Related JoVE Video
A new frame-shifting mutation of UGT1A1 gene causes type I Crigler-Najjar syndrome.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We present a case of severe persisting unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in a Uigur infant boy, eventually diagnosed as Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I. DNA analysis of his blood of the UGT1A1 gene sequence demonstrated that he was homozygous for an insertion mutation causing a change of the coding exons with a frame-shift, resulting in the substitution of 27 abnormal amino acid residues in his hepatic bilirubin uridine diphosphoglucuronyl transferase enzyme. Both of his parents were heterozygous for the same mutation. A novel frame-shifting mutation of the UGT1A1 gene was found, confirming the diagnosis of Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I for this patient.
Related JoVE Video
[Effects of scalp acupuncture on expression of hippocampal MMP-9 in cerebral ischemia injury rats].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe the effect of scalp-acupuncture on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in the endothelium of the microvessels in the hippocampal CA 3 area in local cerebral ischemia (CI) rats, so as to study its underlying mechanism in improving CI.
Related JoVE Video
[Recent research advance on bone marrow microenvironment-mediated leukemia drug resistant mechanism].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The bone marrow microenvironment consists of bone marrow stromal cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts which facilities the survival, differentiation and proliferation of hematopoietic cells through secreting soluble factors and extracellular matrix proteins that mediate these functions. This environment not only supports the growth of normal and malignant hematopoietic cells, but also protects them against the damage from chemotherapeutic agents through the secretion of soluble cytokines, cell adhesion, up-regulation of resistant genes and changes of cell cycle. In this review, the research advances on drug-resistance mechanisms mediated by bone marrow microenvironment are summarized briefly, including soluble factors mediating drug resistance, intercellular adhesion inducing drug resistance, up-regulation of some drug resistance genes, regulation in metabolism of leukemic cells, changes in cell cycles of tumor cells and so on.
Related JoVE Video
[Observation of therapeutic effect on perineal, crissal and progenital pruritus treated with acupuncture according to differentiation].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe the therapeutic effect and safety of perineal, crissal and progenital pruritus treated with acupuncture according to differentiation.
Related JoVE Video
Simvastatin promotes osteogenic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells via canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Simvastatin, an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, has been known to reduce cholesterol biosynthesis. However, recent studies demonstrate that simvastatin shows diverse cholesterol-independent functions including cellular differentiation. In this study, we investigated the stimulatory effect of simvastatin on the osteogenic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The osteogenic effect of simvastatin was observed at relatively low doses (ranging from 1 nM to 200 nM). Incubation of ESCs in simvastatin-supplemented osteogenic medium significantly increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity at day 7. The matrix mineralization was also augmented and demonstrated pivotal levels after 14 days incubation of simvastatin. Osteogenic differentiation of ESCs by simvastatin was determined by upregulation of the mRNA expression of runtrelated gene 2 (Runx2), osterix (OSX), and osteocalcin (OCN) as osteogenic transcription factors. Moreover, the increased protein expression of OCN, osteopontin (OPN), and collagen type I (Coll I) was assessed using Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. However, the blockage of canonical Wnt signaling by DKK-1 downregulated simvastatin-induced ALP activity and the mRNA expression of each osteogenic transcription factor. Furthermore, the ?-catenin specific siRNA transfection decreased the protein levels of OCN, OPN, and Coll I. Collectively, these findings suggest that simvastatin enhances the differentiation of ESCs toward osteogenic lineage through activation of canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling.
Related JoVE Video
The role of gC1qR in regulating survival of human papillomavirus 16 oncogene-transfected cervical cancer cells.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) is strongly associated with the development of 50% of cervical cancers. The E6 and E7 proteins encoded by high-risk HPV types are associated with the immune evasion of cervical cancer cells, but the mechanism is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cells transfected with E6 and E7 expression constructs reduce the expression of the globular heads of the C1q receptor (gC1qR), a mitochondrial surface protein overexpressed in certain cancer cells. First, C-33A cells were transiently transfected with the HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes which resulted in gC1qR inhibition and a reduction in apoptosis. Second, gC1qR overexpression in cells showed that caspase-3 activation and mitochondrial dysfunction were involved in gC1qR-induced apoptosis. Cells transfected with a GFP-gC1qR vector resulted in upregulated gC1qR protein and a gradual increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, ROS generation and increased Ca2+ influx in mitochondria resulted in the loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Interestingly, when gC1qR was overexpressed in C-33A cells, apoptosis was significantly inhibited when cells were treated with metformin, which may protect mitochondrial function. These data suggest that gC1qR could play an important role in HPV-16-induced cervical cancer immune evasion depending on its level of expression and subcellular localisation.
Related JoVE Video
Sp1 inhibition-mediated upregulation of VEGF 165 b induced by rh-endostatin enhances antiangiogenic and anticancer effect of rh-endostatin in A549.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recombinant human endostatin (rh-endostatin), a potential antiangiogenic agent, is used in non-small cell lung carcinoma treatment and represses vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) levels in tumor cell. However, precise affection of rh-endostatin on the proangiogenic VEGF isoforms (VEGF(165)) or antiangiogenic VEGF isoforms (VEGF(165)b) is not clear. We therefore tested the hypothesis that rh-endostatin could alter expression of these isoforms to regulate tumor growth. A549 cells were exposed to rh-endostatin, and the expression of VEGF(165) and VEGF(165)b was detected. The role of SP1 as a regulator of isoform expression was investigated. We then examined the anticancer and antiangiogenic efficacy of rh-endostatin in combination with exogenous VEGF(165)b against A549 cells, EA.HY 926 cells and xenograft model of human lung cancer. rh-Endostatin reduced VEGF(165) and induced VEGF(165)b as well as inhibited SP1 in A549 cells. SP1 inhibitor (betulinic acid) also developed those changes. VEGF(165)b-rh-endostatin combination was highly synergistic and inhibited growth, survival, and migration of A549 cells, VEGF-mediated VEGFR2 phosphorylation in EA.HY 926 cells, and tumor growth in xenograft model of human lung cancer. rh-Endostatin downregulates proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) isoform and upregulates antiangiogenic VEGFA isoform, possibly through inhibition of SP1. Furthermore, VEGF(165)b sensitizes A549 to rh-endostatin treatment and enhances the anticancer effect of rh-endostatin.
Related JoVE Video
Multiple effects of benzamide antibiotics on FtsZ function.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cell division in almost all bacteria is orchestrated by the essential tubulin homologue FtsZ, which assembles into a ring-like structure and acts as a scaffold for the division machinery. Division was recently validated as an important target for antibiotics by the demonstration that low-molecular-weight inhibitors of FtsZ, called benzamides, can cure mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus. In treated cells of Bacillus subtilis we show that FtsZ assembles into foci throughout the cell, including abnormal locations at the cell poles and over the nucleoid. These foci are not inactive aggregates because they remain dynamic, turning over almost as rapidly as untreated polymers. Remarkably, although division is completely blocked, the foci efficiently recruit division proteins that normally co-assemble with FtsZ. However, they show no affinity for components of the Min or Nucleoid occlusion systems. In vitro, the benzamides strongly promote the polymerization of FtsZ, into hyperstable polymers, which are highly curved. Importantly, even at low concentrations, benzamides transform the structure of the Z ring, resulting in abnormal helical cell division events. We propose that benzamides act principally by promoting an FtsZ protomer conformation that is incompatible with a higher-order level of assembly needed to make a division ring.
Related JoVE Video
The role of eIF5A in epidermal growth factor-induced proliferation of corneal epithelial cell association with PI3-k/Akt activation.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
After excimer laser surgery, epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays an important role in injured corneal epithelial cell on myofibroblastic cell formation in corneal stroma. The purpose of the study is to investigate the precise mechanism of EGF on corneal wound healing, particularly on epithelial proliferation and migration.
Related JoVE Video
Influence of sulfur concentration on bioleaching of heavy metals from industrial waste sludge.
Water Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The bioleaching process, including acidification and solubilization of heavy metals, is a promising method for removing heavy metals from industrial waste sludge. Solubilization of heavy metals in industrial waste sludge is governed by adding elemental sulfur. A sulfur concentration exceeding 0.5% (w/v) inhibits sulfate production and the activity of acidophilic bacteria. Sulfate production was described well by a substrate inhibition expression in Haldanes kinetics. After 15 days of bioleaching, 79 to 81% copper, 50 to 69% lead, and 49 to 69% nickel were solubilized from sludge with a sulfur concentration of 0.5 to 1.0% (w/v). Experimental results indicated that the optimal sulfur concentration for the maximum solubilization rate of copper and nickel was 0.5% (w/v) and 1.0% (w/v) for lead. The profiles of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis confirmed that indigenous acidophilic Acidithiobacilli (A. thiooxidans and A. ferrooxidans) existed and were the dominant species in the bioleaching process.
Related JoVE Video
Bcl11b represses a mature T-cell gene expression program in immature CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bcl11b is a transcription factor that, within the hematopoietic system, is expressed specifically in T cells. Although Bcl11b is required for T-cell differentiation in newborn Bcl11b-null mice, and for positive selection in the adult thymus of mice bearing a T-cell-targeted deletion, the gene network regulated by Bcl11b in T cells is unclear. We report herein that Bcl11b is a bifunctional transcriptional regulator, which is required for the correct expression of approximately 1000 genes in CD4(+)CD8(+)CD3(lo) double-positive (DP) thymocytes. Bcl11b-deficient DP cells displayed a gene expression program associated with mature CD4(+)CD8(-) and CD4(-)CD8(+) single-positive (SP) thymocytes, including upregulation of key transcriptional regulators, such as Zbtb7b and Runx3. Bcl11b interacted with regulatory regions of many dysregulated genes, suggesting a direct role in the transcriptional regulation of these genes. However, inappropriate expression of lineage-associated genes did not result in enhanced differentiation, as deletion of Bcl11b in DP cells prevented development of SP thymocytes, and that of canonical NKT cells. These data establish Bcl11b as a crucial transcriptional regulator in thymocytes, in which Bcl11b functions to prevent the premature expression of genes fundamental to the SP and NKT cell differentiation programs.
Related JoVE Video
[Pathology, diagnosis and treatment of a patient with hemotidrosis.].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the pathology, diagnosis and treatment of a patient with hemotidrosis.
Related JoVE Video
[Correlation of HSP90 mRNA expression with migration ability of human multiple myeloma cells].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was aimed to investigate the correlation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) expression with migration ability of human multiple myeloma cells. The HSP90 mRNA expression and migration change of human multiple myeloma cell line (U266) were detected by RT-PCR and Transwell chamber respectively after treatment of U266 cells with final concentration 50, 100, 150, 200 nmol/L of bortezomib (proteosome inhibitor) for 4 hours. The results indicated that along with the increasing of bortezomib concentration, the expression level of HSP90alpha mRNA in U266 cells was enhanced, while no obvious increase of HSP90beta mRNA expression was observed in spite of statistical difference as a whole (p<0.05), but with the increasing of drug concentration in cells, their migration ability gradually decreased (p<0.05). It is concluded that the correlation of HSP90 expression with migration ability of human multiple myeloma cells exists.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of temperature and initial pH on biohydrogen production from food-processing wastewater using anaerobic mixed cultures.
Biodegradation
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study attempted to determine the optimal temperature and initial cultivation pH by conducting a series of batch tests in stirred-tank bioreactor using fructose-producing wastewater as an organic substrate. The bioreactor temperature was controlled at 35-55°C with an initial pH of 4-8. Hydrogen production efficiency was assessed using specific hydrogen production potential (SHPP) and the maximum specific hydrogen production rate (SHPR(m)). Experimental results indicated that temperature and initial pH markedly affected SHPP and SHPR(m), volatile fatty acids distribution as well as the ratio of butyrate/acetate (BHu/HAc). Two-fold higher SHPP and SHPR(m) were obtained at thermophilic condition (55°C) than those at mesophilic condition (35°C). The optimal initial pH was 6 for hydrogen production with peak values of SHPP of 166.8 ml-H(2)/g-COD and SHPR(m) of 26.7 ml-H(2)/g-VSS-h for fructose-processing wastewater. Molasses-processing wastewater had a higher SHPP (187.0 ml-H(2)/g-COD) and SHPR(m) (42.7 ml-H(2)/gVSS-h) than fructose-processing wastewater at pH 6. The DGGE profiles indicated that molasses-processing wastewater is a better substrate than fructose-processing wastewater for growth of hydrogen-producing bacteria due to the high staining intensity of bands.
Related JoVE Video
[Analysis of clinical characteristics of 43 surgical patients with Crohn disease using the Montreal classification].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the clinical features of Crohn disease according to the Montreal classification.
Related JoVE Video
Role of decay-accelerating factor in regulating survival of human cervical cancer cells.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Decay-accelerating factor (DAF) is one of the key molecules involved in cell protection against autologous complement, which restricts the action of complement at critical stages of the cascade reaction. The effect of DAF on the survival of human cervical cancer cell (ME180) has not been demonstrated.
Related JoVE Video
[Small interfering RNA-mediated COX-2 gene silencing inhibits the proliferation and migration of human ovarian cancer cell line CAOV-3].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the changes in the proliferation and migration of human ovarian cancer cells (CAOV-3) after knocking down COX-2 gene by RNA interference.
Related JoVE Video
[Mechanism of C-reactive protein on proliferation of multiple myeloma U266 cells].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was purposed to investigate the mechanism of C-reactive protein (CRP) on proliferation of U266 cells. The human multiple myeloma cell line U266 was incubated with human CRP (0, 5, 10, 20 mg/L) for 24 hours, then the proliferation level of U266 cells was detected by using blood analyser. The mRNA expressions of survivin and HSP90alpha were examined by RT-PCR. The results showed that the proliferation ratio was increased, as compared with the control group (p<0.05); furthermore, the mRNA levels of survivin and HSP90alpha were up-regulated in proportion to the increased CRP concentrations. There was significant correlation between expression of survivin and HSP90alpha (r=0.737, p<0.0001) in incubated cells. It is concluded that CRP can stimulate the proliferation of MM cells directly by up-regulating the expression of survivin and HSP90alpha in MM cells. CRP can be regarded as a potential target for MM treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of saccharification process by acid and microwave-assisted acid pretreated swine manure.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The saccharification process of swine manure by conventional and microwave-assisted acid pretreated were investigated using cellulose enzymes, respectively. The optima for microwave-assisted acid pretreated swine manure is achieved when swine manure of 50 g l(-1) of substrate concentration and water amount 40 ml was pretreated by 4% H2SO4 concentration with 445 W microwave powers for 30 min at pretreatment period, and temperature 50 degrees C, enzyme loading 2 mg g(-1) substrate, substrate concentration 5 g l(-1) and initial medium pH 4.8 at enzymes hydrolysis period by microwave-assisted acid pretreated, respectively. The optimal conditions by conventional acid pretreated is obtained when 50 g l(-1) swine manure was submerged in 40 ml, 4% H2SO4 maintained at 130 degrees C for 3 h at pretreatment period, and temperature 45 degrees C, enzyme loading 2 mg g(-1) substrate, substrate concentration 15 g l(-1) and initial medium pH 5.2 at enzymes hydrolysis period, respectively. Under the optimum conditions microwave-assisted acid pretreatment could achieve higher yield of reducing sugar, short reaction time, and lower energy consumption than from the conventional acid pretreatment, which indicates that microwave-assisted acid pretreatment is more suitable for swine manure pretreatment than by acid alone.
Related JoVE Video
It takes two DNA translocases to untangle chromosomes from the division septum.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The DNA translocase function of Bacillus subtilis SpoIIIE is essential for spore development and is important during vegetative growth for moving trapped chromosomal DNA away from division septa. Two papers in this issue of Molecular Microbiology, from the teams of Peter Graumann and William Burkholder, have characterized a second SpoIIIE/FtsK-like protein in B. subtilis, SftA. This protein lacks any recognizable transmembrane domain possessed by the other characterized members of the family, yet the protein is shown to be associated with the division septum and, like SpoIIIE, is required for clearing DNA from the septum. However, SftA and SpoIIIE act at different stages of septation and together they ensure maximum fidelity in chromosome segregation.
Related JoVE Video
Cooperation of decay-accelerating factor and membrane cofactor protein in regulating survival of human cervical cancer cells.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Decay-accelerating factor (DAF) and membrane cofactor protein (MCP) are the key molecules involved in cell protection against autologus complement, which restricts the action of complement at critical stages of the cascade reaction. The cooperative effect of DAF and MCP on the survival of human cervical cancer cell (ME180) has not been demonstrated.
Related JoVE Video
A chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor I (COUP-TFI) complex represses expression of the gene encoding tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8).
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The orphan nuclear receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor I (COUP-TFI) plays key roles in development and homeostasis. A tandem affinity purification procedure revealed that COUP-TFI associated with a number of transcriptional regulatory proteins in HeLa S3 cells, including the nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR), TIF1beta/KAP-1, HDAC1, and the SWI/SNF family member Brahma. The proapoptotic protein DBC1 was also identified in COUP-TFI complexes. In vitro experiments revealed that COUP-TFI interacted directly with NCoR but in a manner different from that of other nuclear receptors. DBC1 stabilized the interaction between COUP-TFI and NCoR by interacting directly with both proteins. The gene encoding the anti-apoptotic protein TNFAIP8 (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)-induced protein 8) was identified as being repressed by COUP-TFI in a manner that required several of the component proteins of the COUP-TFI complex. Finally, our studies highlight a central role for COUP-TFI in the induction of the TNFAIP8 promoter by TNFalpha. Together, these studies identify a novel COUP-TFI complex that functions as a repressor of transcription and may play a role in the TNFalpha signaling pathways.
Related JoVE Video
Localisation of DivIVA by targeting to negatively curved membranes.
EMBO J.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
DivIVA is a conserved protein in Gram-positive bacteria and involved in various processes related to cell growth, cell division and spore formation. DivIVA is specifically targeted to cell division sites and cell poles. In Bacillus subtilis, DivIVA helps to localise other proteins, such as the conserved cell division inhibitor proteins, MinC/MinD, and the chromosome segregation protein, RacA. Little is known about the mechanism that localises DivIVA. Here we show that DivIVA binds to liposomes, and that the N terminus harbours the membrane targeting sequence. The purified protein can stimulate binding of RacA to membranes. In mutants with aberrant cell shapes, DivIVA accumulates where the cell membrane is most strongly curved. On the basis of electron microscopic studies and other data, we propose that this is due to molecular bridging of the curvature by DivIVA multimers. This model may explain why DivIVA localises at cell division sites. A Monte-Carlo simulation study showed that molecular bridging can be a general mechanism for binding of proteins to negatively curved membranes.
Related JoVE Video
Noc protein binds to specific DNA sequences to coordinate cell division with chromosome segregation.
EMBO J.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Coordination of chromosome segregation and cytokinesis is crucial for efficient cell proliferation. In Bacillus subtilis, the nucleoid occlusion protein Noc protects the chromosomes by associating with the chromosome and preventing cell division in its vicinity. Using protein localization, ChAP-on-Chip and bioinformatics, we have identified a consensus Noc-binding DNA sequence (NBS), and have shown that Noc is targeted to about 70 discrete regions scattered around the chromosome, though absent from a large region around the replication terminus. Purified Noc bound specifically to an NBS in vitro. NBSs inserted near the replication terminus bound Noc-YFP and caused a delay in cell division. An autonomous plasmid carrying an NBS array recruited Noc-YFP and conferred a severe Noc-dependent inhibition of cell division. This shows that Noc is a potent inhibitor of division, but that its activity is strictly localized by the interaction with NBS sites in vivo. We propose that Noc serves not only as a spatial regulator of cell division to protect the nucleoid, but also as a timing device with an important role in the coordination of chromosome segregation and cell division.
Related JoVE Video
Primary ?4-3-oxosteroid 5?-reductase deficiency: two cases in China.
World J. Gastroenterol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) deficiency, a rare but life-threatening form of bile acid deficiency, has not been previously described in China. Here, we describe the first two primary ?4-3-oxosteroid 5?-reductase deficiency patients in Mainland China diagnosed by fast atom bombardment-mass spectroscopy of urinary bile acids and confirmed by genetic analysis. A high proportion of atypical 3-oxo-?4-bile acids in the urine indicated a deficiency in ?4-3-oxosteroid 5?-reductase. All of the coding exons and adjacent intronic sequence of the AKR1D1 gene were sequenced using peripheral lymphocyte genomic DNA of two patients and one of the patients parents. One patient exhibited compound heterozygous mutations: c.396C>A and c.722A>T, while the other was heterozygous for the mutation c.797G>A. Based on these mutations, a diagnosis of primary ?4-3-oxosteroid 5?-reductase deficiency could be confirmed. With ursodeoxycholic acid treatment and fat-soluble vitamin supplements, liver function tests normalized rapidly, and the degree of hepatomegaly was markedly reduced in both patients.
Related JoVE Video
Upregulating Noxa by ER stress, celastrol exerts synergistic anti-cancer activity in combination with ABT-737 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents biologically aggressive and chemo-resistant cancers. Owing to the low affinity with the apoptotic factor Mcl-1, the BH3 mimetic drug ABT-737 failed to exert potent cancer-killing activities in variety of cancer models including HCC. The current study demonstrated that combining ABT-737 and Celastrol synergistically suppressed HCC cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis which was accompanied with the activation of caspase cascade and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Further study revealed that the enhanced Noxa caused by Celastrol was the key factor for the synergy, since small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Noxa expression in HCC cells resulted in decreased apoptosis and attenuated anti-proliferative effects of the combination. In addition, our study unraveled that, upon Celastrol exposure, the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, specifically, the eIF2?-ATF4 pathway played indispensable roles in the activation of Noxa, which was validated by the observation that depletion of ATF4 significantly abrogated the Noxa elevation by Celastrol. Our findings highlight a novel signaling pathway through which Celastrol increase Noxa expression, and suggest the potential use of ATF4-mediated regulation of Noxa as a promising strategy to improve the anti-cancer activities of ABT-737.
Related JoVE Video
Selective ablation of Ctip2/Bcl11b in epidermal keratinocytes triggers atopic dermatitis-like skin inflammatory responses in adult mice.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ctip2 is crucial for epidermal homeostasis and protective barrier formation in developing mouse embryos. Selective ablation of Ctip2 in epidermis leads to increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL), impaired epidermal proliferation, terminal differentiation, as well as altered lipid composition during development. However, little is known about the role of Ctip2 in skin homeostasis in adult mice.
Related JoVE Video
The globular heads of the C1q receptor regulate apoptosis in human cervical squamous carcinoma cells via a p53-dependent pathway.
J Transl Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The globular heads of the human C1q receptor (gC1qR) localize predominantly to the mitochondrial matrix. gC1qR mediates many biological responses, including growth perturbation, morphological abnormalities and the initiation of apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction, p53 status and gC1qR expression and the regulation of apoptosis in human cervical squamous carcinoma cells (C33a and SiHa).
Related JoVE Video
Clinical study of thalidomide combined with dexamethasone for the treatment of elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the relationship between the efficacy and safety of different doses of thalidomide (Thal) plus dexamethasone (Dex) as the initial therapy in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM).
Related JoVE Video
Biochemical characteristics of neonatal cholestasis induced by citrin deficiency.
World J. Gastroenterol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore differences in biochemical indices between neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD) and that with other etiologies.
Related JoVE Video
Working memory and the identification of facial expression in patients with left frontal glioma.
Neuro-oncology
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients with brain tumors may have cognitive dysfunctions including memory deterioration, such as working memory, that affect quality of life. This study was to explore the presence of defects in working memory and the identification of facial expressions in patients with left frontal glioma. This case-control study recruited 11 matched pairs of patients and healthy control subjects (mean age ± standard deviation, 37.00 ± 10.96 years vs 36.73 ± 11.20 years; 7 male and 4 female) from March through December 2011. The psychological tests contained tests that estimate verbal/visual-spatial working memory, executive function, and the identification of facial expressions. According to the paired samples analysis, there were no differences in the anxiety and depression scores or in the intelligence quotients between the 2 groups (P > .05). All indices of the Digit Span Test were significantly worse in patients than in control subjects (P < .05), but the Tapping Test scores did not differ between patient and control groups. Of all 7 Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) indexes, only the Preservative Response was significantly different between patients and control subjects (P < .05). Patients were significantly less accurate in detecting angry facial expressions than were control subjects (30.3% vs 57.6%; P < .05) but showed no deficits in the identification of other expressions. The backward indexes of the Digit Span Test were associated with emotion scores and tumor size and grade (P < .05). Patients with left frontal glioma had deficits in verbal working memory and the ability to identify anger. These may have resulted from damage to functional frontal cortex regions, in which roles in these 2 capabilities have not been confirmed. However, verbal working memory performance might be affected by emotional and tumor-related factors.
Related JoVE Video
The role of the globular heads of C1q receptor (gC1qR) gene in regulating apoptosis of human cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The globular heads of the human C1q receptor (gC1qR) are multi-compartmental and multi-functional cellular proteins. The list of biological responses mediated by the gC1qR includes growth perturbation and morphological abnormalities, along with the initiation of apoptosis. However, the effects of the gC1qR on the apoptosis of cervical squamous carcinoma cells (C33a and SiHa) have not been demonstrated.
Related JoVE Video
Ctip2 is a dynamic regulator of epidermal proliferation and differentiation by integrating EGFR and Notch signaling.
J. Cell. Sci.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidermal morphogenesis results from a delicate balance between keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, and this balance is perturbed upon deletion of transcription factor Ctip2. Here we demonstrate that Ctip2, in a cell autonomous manner, controls keratinocyte proliferation and cytoskeletal organization, and regulates the onset and maintenance of differentiation in keratinocytes in culture. Ctip2 integrates keratinocyte proliferation and the switch to differentiation by directly and positively regulating EGFR transcription in proliferating cells and Notch1 transcription in differentiating cells. In proliferative cells, the EGFR promoter is occupied by Ctip2, whereas Ctip2 is only recruited to the Notch1 promoter under differentiating conditions. Activation of EGFR signaling downregulates Ctip2 at the transcript level, whereas high calcium signaling triggers SUMOylation, ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of Ctip2 at the protein level. Together, our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism(s) of Ctip2-mediated, coordinated control of epidermal proliferation and terminal differentiation, and identify a pathway of negative feedback regulation of Ctip2 during epidermal development.
Related JoVE Video
In vitro inhibition of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus replication in swine testicular cells by short hairpin RNAs targeting the ORF 7 gene.
Virol. J.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) is a highly contagious viral disease of swine, characterized by severe vomiting, diarrhea, and high mortality. Currently, the vaccines for it are only partially effective and no specific drug is available for treatment of TGE virus (TGEV) infection. RNA interference has been confirmed as a new approach for controlling viral infections. In this study, the inhibitory effect of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting the ORF 7 gene of TGEV on virus replication was examined.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.