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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Microvessel density as a prognostic factor in bladder cancer: A systematic review of literature and meta-analysis.
Cancer Biomark
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Many studies have shown that microvessel density (MVD) could play a potential value as prognostic biomarkers of tumors. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the association between MVD and survival in patients with bladder cancer.
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Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Peptide SS31 Protects Cultured Human Lens Epithelial Cells against Oxidative Stress.
Curr. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of the mitochondria-targeted peptide, SS31, on cultured human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) under conditions of oxidative stress. Methods: Optimal concentrations of SS31 were determined by MTT assay. HLEB-3 cells were first treated with SS31 for 2?h and then with 500?µM t-BHP for 6?h. Cell apoptosis was revealed by Annexin V/PI staining. Morphological changes in nuclei were observed by fluorescence microscopy after Hoechest 33258 fluorescent staining. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by MitoSOX staining. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) were detected using the JC-1 fluorescent dye. Activation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) were quantified by Western Blot analysis. Results: SS31 protected HLEB-3 cells against t-BHP-induced cell apoptosis, reduced ROS, maintained ??ms, and inhibited activation of JNK and p38 pathways. Conclusions: SS31 was able to protect HLEB-3 cells against oxidative damage and, thus, represents a potential new treatment modality for preventing the formation of cataracts and other age-related disorders.
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[Determination of streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin in pollens by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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A method was established for the determination of streptomycin (STR) and dihydrostreptomycin (DHS) in pollens based on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted and cleaned-up by a C18 solid phase extraction cartridge. The separation was carried out on a Protemix WCX-NP5 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 5 microm) with a gradient elution using 5% (v/v) formic acid, 20 mmol/L ammonium acetate and methanol as mobile phases. The analysis of streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin was performed under electrospray positive ionization mode. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) and limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) for the both were 5 microg/kg and 10 microg/kg, respectively. Good linearities (r > 0.99) were achieved for the target compounds over the range of 10-200 microg/L. The recoveries at three spiked levels (10, 20, 50 microg/kg) in the blank matrices, such as pollen pini, corn pollen, camellia pollen, sunflower pollen, rape pollen and bee pollen, were from 76.8% to 100.3% with the relative standard deviations varied from 3.70% to 12.6%. The method is accurate, practical, and can be applied to most of the contaminated matrices. With this method, heptafluorobutyric acid is not required as mobile phase which is harmful to MS spectrometer.
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PCN Pincer Palladium(II) Complex Catalyzed Enantioselective Hydrophosphination of Enones: Synthesis of Pyridine-Functionalized Chiral Phosphine Oxides as NCsp(3)O Pincer Preligands.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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A series of chiral PCN pincer Pd(II) complexes VI-XIII with aryl-based aminophosphine-imidazoline or phosphinite-imidazoline ligands were synthesized and characterized. They were examined as enantioselective catalysts for the hydrophosphination of enones. Among them, complex IX, which features a Ph2PO donor as well as an imidazoline donor with (4S)-phenyl and N-Tol-p groups, was found to be the optimal catalyst. Thus, in the presence of 2-5 mol % of complex IX a wide variety of enones reacted smoothly with diarylphosphines to give the corresponding chiral phosphine derivatives in high yields with enantioselectivities of up to 98% ee. In particular, heteroaryl species such as 2-thienyl-, 2-furyl-, and 2-pyridinyl-containing enones that have a strong coordination ability to the Pd center were also appropriate substrates for the current catalytic system. For example, hydrophosphination of 2-alkenoylpyridines with diphenylphosphine followed by oxidation with H2O2 afforded the corresponding pyridine-functionalized chiral phosphine oxides in good yields with good to excellent enantioselectivities (10 examples, up to 95% ee). Furthermore, it had been demonstrated that the obtained pyridine-containing phosphine oxide acted as a tridentate ligand in the reaction with PdCl2 to form an intriguing NCsp(3)O pincer Pd(II) complex via Csp(3)-H bond activation, which to our knowledge is the first example of a chiral DCsp(3)D' Pd pincer (D ? D'; D and D' denote donor atoms such as P, N, etc.).
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Rapid separation and characterization of diterpenoid alkaloids in processed roots of Aconitum carmichaeli using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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The lateral root of Aconitum carmichaeli, a popular traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used to treat rheumatic diseases. For decades, diterpenoid alkaloids have dominated the phytochemical and biomedical research on this plant. In this study, a rapid and sensitive method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry was developed to characterize the diterpenoid alkaloids in Aconitum carmichaeli. Based on an optimized chromatographic condition, more than 120 diterpenoid alkaloids were separated with good resolution. Using a systematic strategy that combines high resolution separation, highly accurate mass measurements and a good understanding of the diagnostic fragment-based fragmentation patterns, these diterpenoid alkaloids were identified or tentatively identified. The identification of these chemicals provided essential data for further phytochemical studies and toxicity research of Aconitum carmichaeli. Moreover, the ultra high performance liquid chromatography with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry platform was an effective and accurate tool for rapid qualitative analysis of secondary metabolite productions from natural resources.
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Genome wide association studies using a new nonparametric model reveal the genetic architecture of 17 agronomic traits in an enlarged maize association panel.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Association mapping is a powerful approach for dissecting the genetic architecture of complex quantitative traits using high-density SNP markers in maize. Here, we expanded our association panel size from 368 to 513 inbred lines with 0.5 million high quality SNPs using a two-step data-imputation method which combines identity by descent (IBD) based projection and k-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were carried out for 17 agronomic traits with a panel of 513 inbred lines applying both mixed linear model (MLM) and a new method, the Anderson-Darling (A-D) test. Ten loci for five traits were identified using the MLM method at the Bonferroni-corrected threshold -log10 (P) >5.74 (?=1). Many loci ranging from one to 34 loci (107 loci for plant height) were identified for 17 traits using the A-D test at the Bonferroni-corrected threshold -log10 (P) >7.05 (?=0.05) using 556809 SNPs. Many known loci and new candidate loci were only observed by the A-D test, a few of which were also detected in independent linkage analysis. This study indicates that combining IBD based projection and KNN algorithm is an efficient imputation method for inferring large missing genotype segments. In addition, we showed that the A-D test is a useful complement for GWAS analysis of complex quantitative traits. Especially for traits with abnormal phenotype distribution, controlled by moderate effect loci or rare variations, the A-D test balances false positives and statistical power. The candidate SNPs and associated genes also provide a rich resource for maize genetics and breeding.
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Status of prevalence study on multimorbidity of chronic disease in China: Systematic review.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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It is imperative to provide a more uniform method to improve the validity of prevalence studies on multimorbidity. However, the status of prevalence studies on multimorbidity of chronic disease is still yet to be confirmed in China. The objective of the present systematic review was to evaluate the variance across prevalence studies and to explore possible explanations for variations in China. Published literature was obtained from four databases. The studies that described the prevalence of multimorbidity on chronic disease based on the general population were considered. We assessed the risk of bias by a preplanned checklist referring to STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology). The heterogeneity among eligible studies was estimated by I(2) statistic and P-value using MetaAnalyst software. Nine studies were eligible for this systematic review. The prevalence of multimorbidity among the population aged 60 years or more ranged from 6.4% (95% CI 5.1-8.0) to 76.5% (95%CI 73.6-79.2). However, just two of nine studies could be judged as having a low risk of bias. It was shown that key items introducing the risk of bias included inconsistent sampling method, lacking of uniform measure indices and data source based on self-report. Heterogeneity test showed I(2) ?=?50% (P?
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Internalization of Aquaporin-4 After Collagenase-Induced Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
Anat Rec (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Brain edema formation following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) appears to be related with aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which is critically involved in brain volume homeostasis and water balance. Despite its importance, the regulation of AQP4 expression involved in transmembrane water movements still remains rudimentary. Many studies suggest that the internalization of several membrane-bound proteins, including AQP4, may occur with or without lysosomal degradation. Previously, we investigated the internalization of AQP4 in retinal ischemic-reperfusion model. Here, we test the hypothesis that AQP4 is internalized post-ICH and then degraded in the lysosome. The results demonstrated that both AQP4 and the mannose-6-phosphate receptor (MPR) co-localized in perihematomal region at 6 hr post-ICH. In addition, AQP4 and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) also co-localized in perihematomal region, with co-expression increasing followed by a gradual decrease at different time windows post-ICH (6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hr). After ICH, the Evans blue leakage happened very early at 1 hr and the brain swelling occurred at 3 hr. Moreover, we also found the AQP4 mRNA and AQP4 protein were increased post-ICH. These results suggest that AQP4 is internalized and the lysosome is involved in degrading the internalized AQP4 post-ICH. Both the AQP4 internalization and lysosomal degradation may provide biophysical insights regarding the potential of new treatments for brain edema. Anat Rec, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Sphingosine Kinase-1/sphingosine 1-phosphate pathway in diabetic nephropathy.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the major cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide and its prevalence continues to increase. Currently, therapies for DN provide only partial renoprotection; hence new targets for therapeutic intervention need to be identified. In this review, we summarized the new target, sphingosine kinase-1/sphingosine 1-phosphate (SphK1/S1P) pathway, explored its potential therapeutic role in the prevention and treatment of DN.
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XRCC2 gene polymorphisms and its protein are associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility in Chinese Han population.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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XRCC2 is an essential part of the homologous recombination repair pathway. However, relatively little is known about the effect of XRCC2 gene C41657T and G4234C polymorphisms on the individual susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC). The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between XRCC2 gene C41657T and G4234C polymorphisms and CRC and to explore the relationship among the polymorphisms and clinicopathologic parameters and protein expression levels of XRCC2. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted with 246 CRC cases and 262 healthy controls. The genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. XRCC2 protein was analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the paraffin sections of 120 CRC cases. The study data showed that the C41657T genotypes were associated with the risk of CRC. The CT/TT genotypes and T allele were overrepresented among the CRC cases. Compared with CC, CT/TT enhanced the risk of CRC (odds ratio = 1.646, 95 % confidence interval = 1.127-2.404, P = 0.010). XRCC2 protein expression of CRC patients with CT/TT genotypes was significantly higher than that of the patients with CC genotype (? (2) = 4.887, P = 0.027). XRCC2 gene G4234C polymorphisms have no relevance to the risk of CRC. Our findings suggest that XRCC2 C41657T polymorphism may adjust the XRCC2 expression and might influence susceptibility of CRC.
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Compensatory effects of hOGG1 for hMTH1 in oxidative DNA damage caused by hydrogen peroxide.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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To investigate the potential compensatory effects of hOGG1 and hMTH1 in the repair of oxidative DNA damage.
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Inhibitory Effects of 2,3,4',5-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-?-D-glucoside on angiotensin II-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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To investigate the effect of 2,3,4',5-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-?-D-glucoside (TSG), an active component extracted from the root of Polygonum multiflorum, on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced proliferation of cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and to identify the potential mechanism.
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Mode of action of allatostatins in the regulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in the cockroach, Diploptera punctata.
Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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The FGLamide allatostatins (FGL/ASTs) are a family of neuropeptides with pleiotropic functions, including the inhibition of juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis, vitellogenesis and muscle contraction. In the cockroach, Diploptera punctata, thirteen FGLa/ASTs and one allatostatin receptor (AstR) have been identified. However, the mode of action of ASTs in regulation of JH biosynthesis remains unclear. Here, we determined the tissue distribution of Dippu-AstR. And we expressed Dippu-AstR in vertebrate cell lines, and activated the receptor with the Dippu-ASTs. Our results show that all thirteen ASTs activated Dippu-AstR in a dose dependent manner, albeit with different potencies. Functional analysis of AstR in multiple cell lines demonstrated that activation of the AstR receptor resulted in elevated levels of Ca(2+) and cAMP, which suggests that Dippu-AstR can act through the G?q and G?s protein pathways. The study on the target of AST action reveals that FGL/AST affects JH biosynthesis prior to the entry of acetyl-CoA into the JH biosynthetic pathway.
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[Incidence of wheezing and chronic cough in children aged 3-14 years in rural and urban areas of Zhongshan, China: a questionnaire survey].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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To investigate the incidence of wheezing and chronic cough in children aged 3-14 years in different living areas of Zhongshan, China.
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[A study of the substitution effect of hOGG1 and hMTH1 in oxidative DNA damage with gene-deficient cell strains].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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To investigate the potential substitution effect of hOGG1 and hMTH1 on oxidative DNA damage, based on gene-deficient cell strains models.
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Improved methods for isolation of avian influenza virus.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Isolation of viruses using chick embryos is a classical virological method. Inoculation of the allantoic cavity and use of allantoic fluid is a common method of passaging isolated avian influenza viruses. In the present study, 2490 fresh fecal samples and 4967 old fecal samples were investigated and subjected to conventional passaging (allantoic fluid method). Two newly developed methods-the allantochorion and allantoic fluid mixed method and the chick embryo and allantoic fluid mixed method-were also examined. The rates of influenza virus isolation for these three methods were compared. There appeared to be little difference among these methods when fresh fecal samples were used. However, for the old fecal samples, isolation rates for influenza virus were significantly higher for the chick embryo and allantoic fluid mixed method compared with the conventional allantoic fluid method. All viruses isolated using the conventional allantoic fluid method were isolated successfully using the two newly developed methods. These results suggest that using chick embryos in conjunction with allantoic fluid is effective for early virus isolation, especially for fecal samples that are not fresh. Additionally, practical chick embryo passage methods are described that improve significantly the rate of isolation of influenza viruses from fecal samples of migratory birds in a complex wild ecological environment.
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[Effects of jingjin acupuncture on fine activity of hemiplegic hand in recovery period of stroke].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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To observe improved effects of Jingjin acupuncture on fine activity of hemiplegic hand in recovery period of stroke.
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Relation of diabetes to coronary artery ectasia: A meta-analysis study.
Anadolu Kardiyol Derg
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Previous studies have shown a significant negative association between diabetes and abdominal aortic aneurysm. However, the relation of diabetes to coronary artery ectasia (CAE) has not well established. The aim of the current study was to conduct a systemic review for evaluating the relationship between diabetes and CAE.
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Alteration of Gene Expression Profiling Including GPR174 and GNG2 is Associated with Vasovagal Syncope.
Pediatr Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Vasovagal syncope (VVS) causes accidental harm for susceptible patients. However, pathophysiology of this disorder remains largely unknown. In an effort to understanding of molecular mechanism for VVS, genome-wide gene expression profiling analyses were performed on VVS patients at syncope state. A total of 66 Type 1 VVS child patients and the same number healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood RNAs were isolated from all subjects, of which 10 RNA samples were randomly selected from each groups for gene expression profile analysis using Gene ST 1.0 arrays (Affymetrix). The results revealed that 103 genes were differently expressed between the patients and controls. Significantly, two G-proteins related genes, GPR174 and GNG2 that have not been related to VVS were among the differently expressed genes. The microarray results were confirmed by qRT-PCR in all the tested individuals. Ingenuity pathway analysis and gene ontology annotation study showed that the differently expressed genes are associated with stress response and apoptosis, suggesting that the alteration of some gene expression including G-proteins related genes is associated with VVS. This study provides new insight into the molecular mechanism of VVS and would be helpful to further identify new molecular biomarkers for the disease.
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Computer tomography and magnetic resonance image manifestations of primary hepatic neuroendocrine cell carcinomas.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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This study aims to investigate the manifestation of CT, MRI and dynamic enhanced scans for primary hepatic neuroendocrine cell carcinoma.
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[Outcomes of treatment of 32 cases of advanced or relapsed post-surgery pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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To determine the efficacy of the third generation chemotherapy agents on relapsed post-surgery and advanced pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC).
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Knockdown of ANLN by lentivirus inhibits cell growth and migration in human breast cancer.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Anillin (ANLN), an actin-binding protein, is required for cytokinesis. Recently, ANLN has been identified as a biomarker in diverse human cancers; however, the precise role of ANLN in breast cancer remains unclear. In this study, we firstly detected the expression of ANLN in 71 patients with breast cancer by immunohistochemistry, and found ANLN was highly expressed in breast cancer tissues. To evaluate the function of ANLN in breast cancer cells, we employed lentivirus-mediated RNA interference to knock down ANLN expression in two human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231, and ZR-75-30. Knockdown of ANLN remarkably inhibited the proliferation rate and colony formation ability of both breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, flow cytometry analysis showed that depletion of ANLN in MDA-MB-231 cells blocked the cell cycle progression, with more cells delayed at G2/M phase, due to phosphorylation of Cdc2 and suppression of Cyclin D1. Furthermore, knockdown of ANLN strongly suppressed the migration of breast cancer cells, strengthening the evidence that ANLN could be involved in breast cancer progression. Our results may suggest ANLN as a potential target candidate in breast cancer.
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[The role of Foxo1 and ubiquitin-proteasome system markers in muscle atrophy caused by chronic kidney disease].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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To identity whether there is muscle atrophy phenomenon in end-stage kidney disease patients and to detect the level of transcription factor Foxo1 and the activity of ubiquitin-proteasome system.
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Homologous black-bright-blood and flexible interleaved imaging sequence (HOBBI) for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the vessel wall.
Magn Reson Med
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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To present a HOmologous Black-Bright-blood and flexible Interleaved imaging (HOBBI) sequence for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the vessel wall.
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Association of alkaline phosphatase with isolated coronary artery ectasia.
Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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It has been shown that alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a reliable marker for cardiovascular events and mortality. However, there is no data available regarding the association of ALP with isolated coronary artery ectasia (CAE). The aim of the present study was to assess the serum ALP activity in isolated CAE.
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Upregulation and lysosomal degradation of AQP4 in rat brains with bacterial meningitis.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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Brain edema is among the major complications in children with bacterial meningitis. Aquaporins are integral membrane pore proteins that form channels to regulate cellular water content. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which is enriched in parts of astrocytic membranes that are apposed to pial or perivascular basal laminae, is the predominant aquaporin in the central nervous system. Dystroglycan is among the proteins that are responsible for the site-specific anchorage of AQP4. To elucidate the role of AQP4 in the development of brain edema induced by meningitis, a model of bacterial meningitis was established by injecting group B ?-hemolytic Streptococci into the cerebrospinal fluid of three-week-old rats. The brain water content increased in this model compared with that in the control group. The expression of AQP4 and dystroglycan was examined by Western blot and the degradation route of AQP4 was investigated by double immunofluorescence labeling. Western blot results showed that the expression of AQP4 and dystroglycan in rat brain increased in the meningitis model. Meanwhile, AQP4 was co-localized with the marker of lysosome in this model, indicating that the lysosome is involved in AQP4 degradation.
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Real-time elastography in the diagnosis of patients suspected of having prostate cancer: a meta-analysis.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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The goal of the study described here was to assess the performance of real-time elastography (RTE) in the detection of prostate cancers using a meta-analysis. A literature search of PubMed, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library was conducted. Published studies that evaluated the diagnostic performance of RTE in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and using the histopathology of the radical prostatectomy specimen as a reference standard were included. Sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and area under the curve were calculated to examine the accuracy of RTE. A total of seven studies that included 508 patients were analyzed. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of prostate cancer by RTE were 0.72 (95% confidence interval: 0.70-0.74) and 0.76 (0.74-0.78), respectively. The summary diagnostic odds ratio was 12.59 (7.26-21.84), and the area under the curve was 0.841 (Q* = 0.773). In conclusion, RTE imaging has high accuracy in the detection of prostate cancers using the histopathology of the radical prostatectomy specimen as the reference standard and may reduce the number of core biopsies in the future.
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An applied anatomical study on the external laryngeal nerve loop and the superior thyroid artery in the neck surgical region.
Anat Sci Int
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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This study was conducted to investigate the topographic relationship between the external laryngeal nerve (ELN) loop and the superior thyroid artery (STA), in order to provide the anatomical foundations for protecting the ELN during surgery. In the present study, 48 adult human cadavers were dissected and analyzed. For the 21 (21.9 %) low-position ELN loops observed, the neurovascular relationship between the STA and the nerve was classified into four types: (1) the artery overlapped the nerve; (2) the artery passed through the ELN loop; (3) the muscular branch of the ELN loop and the laryngeal branch of the STA coursed together; and (4) the branches of the STA and the ELN loop were interlaced. Our study suggested that the patterns of ELN loops are so complicated that they have not been statistically defined in any previous study, which should be kept in mind when attempting to protect the nerve from injury. Also, because of the variable morphology of the ELN loop and its complicated topographic relationship to the STA, the vessels should be individually isolated and then ligated during thyroidectomy. When ligating the laryngeal branch of the STA during larynx surgery, special attention should be paid to avoiding damage to the muscular branch of the ELN/ELN loop.
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Clinical features of coronary artery ectasia in the elderly.
J Geriatr Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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To investigate the incidence, imaging and clinical characteristics in elderly patients with coronary artery ectasia (CAE).
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Prognostic role of microRNA-210 in various carcinomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Many studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) could play a potential role as prognostic biomarkers of tumors. The aim of this study is to summarize the global predicting role of microRNA-210 (miR-210) for survival in patients with a variety of carcinomas.
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An attenuated duck plague virus (DPV) vaccine induces both systemic and mucosal immune responses to protect ducks against virulent DPV infection.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Duck plague (DP) is a severe disease caused by DP virus (DPV). Control of the disease is recognized as one of the biggest challenges in avian medicine. Vaccination is an efficient way to control DPV, and an attenuated vaccine is the main routine vaccine. The attenuated DPV vaccine strain CHa is a modified live vaccine, but the systemic and mucosal immune responses induced by this vaccine have been poorly understood. In this study, the immunogenicity and efficacy of the vaccine were evaluated after subcutaneous immunization of ducks. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were counted by flow cytometry, and humoral and mucosal Ig antibodies were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that high levels of T cells and Ig antibodies were present postimmunization and that there were more CD4(+) T cells than CD8(+) T cells. Titers of humoral IgG were higher than those of humoral IgA. Local IgA was found in each sample, whereas local IgG was found only in the spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, harderian gland, liver, bile, and lung. In a protection assay, the attenuated DPV vaccine completely protected ducks against 1,000 50% lethal doses (LD50) of the lethal DPV strain CHv via oral infection. These data suggest that this subcutaneous vaccine elicits sufficient systemic and mucosal immune responses against lethal DPV challenge to be protective in ducks. This study provides broad insights into understanding the immune responses to the attenuated DPV vaccine strain CHa through subcutaneous immunization in ducks.
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IL-10 Deficiency Increases Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.
Nephron Exp. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Background: Renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a frequent cause of acute kidney injury, which results in high morbidity and mortality. Inflammation is an important factor that is involved in kidney repair after renal IR injury. IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine that inhibits inflammatory pathways, but the role of IL-10 in repairing renal IR injury is not known. Here, we investigated the role of IL-10 in kidney repair after renal IR injury. Methods: We used an IL-10(-/-) mouse model and examined the serologic and histomorphology of kidney after IR injury. We also measured ki67, TNF-?, IL-6, and macrophages with immunohistochemistry or Western blotting. Results: There was a greater increase in serum creatinine in IL-10(-/-) mice than in wild-type (WT) mice. And compared with WT mice, IL-10(-/-) mice had increased histologic renal injury and decreased proliferation. Moreover, the expression of TNF-?, IL-6 and macrophages was clearly increased in IL-10(-/-) mice compared with the WT mice. Conclusion: These data reveal an important role for IL-10 in the improvement of renal IR injury, acting through suppression of inflammatory mediators, and that IL-10 would be a crucial target for the treatment of IR injury. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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The Rho GTPase RhoE is a p53-regulated candidate tumor suppressor in cancer cells.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Previous studies have shown that RhoE, an atypical member of the Rho GTPase family, may play an opposite role to RhoA in regulating cell proliferation and invasion. To explore the relationship between RhoE and the malignant phenotypes of human cancer, we have determined the expression patterns of RhoE in varying grade of human cancer tissues and tested the effects of RhoE expression in several RhoE underexpressing cancer cell lines. Systemic immunocytochemistry analyses of gastric, colorectal, lung and breast carcinomas, respectively, showed that RhoE protein expression was significantly decreased in most cancer cases compared with that of adjacent normal tissues. Enhanced RhoE expression could markedly inhibit proliferation, migration and invasion and induce apoptosis of the cancer cells which have relatively low levels of endogenous RhoE expression. Wild-type p53 (wt-p53) could strongly increase RhoE expression in p53-transfected cells. Furthermore, the luciferase assays indicated that wt-p53 significantly enhanced the activities of RhoE promoter compared with mutant p53 (mt-p53) in PC3 cells (p53 null). Collectively, data are presented showing that RhoE may participate in human cancer progression and act as a candidate target of p53, and these findings also strongly suggest that RhoE may be a new candidate tumor suppressor and could serve as a potential target in the gene therapy of cancer.
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miR-21 and miR-375 microRNAs as candidate diagnostic biomarkers in squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx: association with patient survival.
Am J Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The dismal outcome of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients highlights the need for novel prognostic biomarkers. The involvement of microRNAs in cancer and their potential as biomarkers of diagnosis and prognosis are becoming increasingly appreciated. We sought to identify microRNAs that exhibit altered expression in laryngeal SCC and to determine whether microRNA (miRNA) expression is predictive of disease progression and/or patient survival. The expression of two miRNAs, miR-21 and miR-375, was evaluated using total RNA isolated from freshly-frozen primary tumors and non-cancerous laryngeal squamous epithelial tissues and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. We further analyzed the association between the expression of miRNAs and the clinicopathological features. A marked difference in the microRNA expression pattern was observed between tumors and non-cancerous tissue. MiR-21 and miR-375 were expressed at higher and lower levels, respectively, in the laryngeal SCC samples, compared to the normal samples (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). There was no correlation between characteristics such as age, sex, clinical stage, and alcohol use, and the expression level of mir-21. The relative expression of mir-375 in laryngeal SCC was shown to be associated with localization of the tumor in these patients (p = 0.037) and with alcohol use (p < 0.05). Patients with high miR-21 or low miR-375 expression in tumor tissues had poorer prognoses compared to patients with lower miR-21 or higher miR-375 expression. Furthermore, the miR-21/miR-375 expression ratio was highly sensitive (0.94) and specific (0.94) for disease prediction. These data suggest that the pattern of microRNA expression in primary laryngeal SCC tissues is reflective of the disease status and that miR-21 and miR-375 expression levels, in particular, may serve as potential biomarkers with applications in the clinical setting.
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Methoprene-tolerant (Met) knockdown in the adult female cockroach, Diploptera punctata completely inhibits ovarian development.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Independent of the design of the life cycle of any insect, their growth and reproduction are highly choreographed through the action of two versatile hormones: ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JH). However, the means by which JH can target tissues and exert its pleiotropic physiological effects is currently still not completely elucidated. Although the identity of the one JH receptor is currently still elusive, recent evidence seems to point to the product of the Methoprene-tolerant gene (Met) as the most likely contender in transducing the action of JH. Studies on the role of this transcription factor have mostly been focused on immature insect stages. In this study we used the viviparous cockroach Diploptera punctata, a favorite model in studying JH endocrinology, to examine the role of Met during reproduction. A tissue distribution and developmental profile of transcript levels was determined for Met and its downstream partners during the first gonadotropic cycle of this cockroach. Using RNA interference, our study shows that silencing Met results in an arrest of basal oocyte development; vitellogenin is no longer transcribed in the fat body and no longer taken up by the ovary. Patency is not induced in these animals which fail to produce the characteristic profile of JH biosynthesis typical of the first gonadotropic cycle. Moreover, the ultrastructure of the follicle cells showed conspicuous whorls of rough endoplasmic reticulum and a failure to form chorion. Our study describes the role of Met on a cellular and physiological level during insect reproduction, and confirms the role of Met as a key factor in the JH signaling pathway.
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Pulsed electromagnetic field improves cardiac function in response to myocardial infarction.
Am J Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Extracorporeal pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has been shown the ability to improve regeneration in various ischemic episodes. Here, we examined whether PEMF therapy facilitate cardiac recovery in rat myocardial infarction (MI), and the cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying PEMF-related therapy was further investigated. The MI rats were exposed to active PEMF for 4 cycles per day (8 minutes/cycle, 30 ± 3 Hz, 5 mT) after MI induction. The data demonstrated that PEMF treatment significantly inhibited cardiac apoptosis and improved cardiac systolic function. Moreover, PEMF treatment increased capillary density, the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxic inducible factor-1? in infarct border zone. Furthermore, the number and function of circulating endothelial progenitor cells were advanced in PEMF treating rats. In vitro, PEMF induced the degree of human umbilical venous endothelial cells tubulization and increased soluble pro-angiogenic factor secretion (VEGF and nitric oxide). In conclusion, PEMF therapy preserves cardiac systolic function, inhibits apoptosis and trigger postnatal neovascularization in ischemic myocardium.
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Pattern of cerebral hyperperfusion in Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment using voxel-based analysis of 3D arterial spin-labeling imaging: initial experience.
Clin Interv Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A three-dimensional (3D) continuous pulse arterial spin labeling (ASL) technique was used to investigate cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and age- and sex-matched healthy controls.
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Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ? 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task.
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Chemo-immunotherapy with oxaliplatin and interleukin-7 inhibits colon cancer metastasis in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Combination of immunotherapy and chemotherapy has shown promise for cancer. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) can potentially enhance immune responses against tumor, while oxaliplatin (OXP), a platinum-based drug, can promote a favorable immune microenvironment and stimulate anticancer immune responses. We evaluated the anti-tumor activity of IL-7 combining OXP against a murine colon carcinoma in vitro and in vivo and studied the tumor immune microenvironment to investigate whether the combined treatment affects on the local immune cell populations. Utilizing lung and abdomen metastasis models by inoculation of CT26 mice colon cancer cells, we evaluated the anti-tumor efficacy of combining IL-7 and OXP in mice models. Tumor immune microenvironment was evaluated by flow cytometric analysis and immunohistochemical staining. Our study showed that the in vivo administration of IL-7 combined with OXP markedly inhibited the growth of tumors in lung and abdomen metastasis models of colon cancer. IL-7 alone had no effect on tumor growth in mice and IL-7 did not alter cell sensitivity to OXP in culture. The antitumor effect of combining IL-7 and OXP correlated with a marked increase in the number of tumor-infiltrating activated CD8+ T cells and a marked decrease in the number of regulatory T (Treg) cells in spleen. Our data suggest that OXP plus IL-7 treatment inhibits tumor cell growth by immunoregulation rather than direct cytotoxicity. Our findings justify further evaluation of combining IL-7 and chemotherapy as a novel experimental cancer therapy.
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[Selection pressure analysis of H3N2 influenza virus from China between 1992 and 2012].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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In order to investigate the relationship between selection pressure and the prevalence of antigenic clusters, we sequenced and analyzed the H3N2 influenza virus from China between 1992 and 2012.
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Separating the attractant from the toxicant improves attract-and-kill of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).
J. Econ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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The behavior of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), responding to three attract-and-kill devices was compared in flight tunnel experiments measuring attraction and duration of target contact. Placing a 7.6 by 12.6 cm card immediately upwind of a rubber septum releasing pheromone, dramatically increased the duration on the target to > 60 s. In this setting, nearly all the males flew upwind, landed on the card first, and spent the majority of time searching the card. In contrast, male codling moths spent < 15 s at the source if given the lure only. In a forced contact bioassay, knockdown rate or mortality of male codling moths increased in direct proportion to duration of contact on a lambda-cyhalothrin-loaded filter paper. When this insecticide-treated paper was placed immediately upwind of the lure in the flight tunnel, > 90% of males contacting the paper were knocked down 2 h after voluntary exposure. These findings suggest that past attempts to combine insecticide directly with sex pheromones into a small paste, gel, or other forms of dollops are ill-advised because moths are likely over-exposed to pheromone and vacate the target before obtaining a lethal dose of insecticide. It is better to minimize direct contact with the concentrated pheromone while enticing males to extensively search insecticide-treated surface nearby the lure.
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Magnetic field sensing based on singlemode-multimode-singlemode fiber structures using magnetic fluids as cladding.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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Magnetic field sensing based on magnetic fluid (MF) and a singlemode-multimode-singlemode (SMS) fiber structure is proposed. The sensitivity of the proposed sensing system can be enhanced by corroding the cladding of the multimode fiber of the SMS fiber structure. The achieved maximum magnetic field sensitivity of our experimental structures is -16.86 pm/Oe as the fiber is corroded for 1680 s. The visibility of the interference dip for the MF-clad SMS fiber structure decreases with corrosion time. Considering the trade-off between sensitivity and visibility, the figure of merit of the sensing system is employed to evaluate the sensing performance comprehensively. In our experiments, the structure corroded for ~1620 s is found to have maximum sensing performance.
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AP-1 regulates sphingosine kinase 1 expression in a positive feedback manner in glomerular mesangial cells exposed to high glucose.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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Our previous studies have confirmed that the sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1)-sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling pathway in the kidney under diabetic conditions is closely correlated with the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The activation of SphK1-S1P pathway by high glucose (HG) can increase the expression of fibronectin (FN), an important fibrotic component, in glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) by promoting the DNA-binding activity of the transcription factor AP-1. However, the mechanism responsible for the sustained activation of SphK1-S1P pathway remains unclear. Given the binding motifs for AP-1 within the first intron of the SphK1 gene, we speculated that the activated AP-1 in the kidney under HG condition possibly regulates SphK1 expression in a positive feedback manner, thereby promoting the sustained activation of SphK1-S1P pathway and mediating the pathological progression of DN. Here, we observed the effect of AP-1 on SphK1 expression in GMCs and explored the molecular mechanism involved in the sustained activation of SphK1-S1P pathway. We found two consensus binding motifs for AP-1 in the promoter sequences and non-coding region downstream of the transcriptional initiation of the rat SphK1 gene by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The treatment of GMCs with both HG and S1P significantly increased the protein expression of c-Jun and c-Fos, and obviously enhanced the phosphorylation of c-Jun at Ser63 and Ser73, and c-Fos at Ser32. Knockdown of c-Jun and c-Fos with siRNAs substantially inhibited the expression of SphK1 and FN, whereas overexpression of c-Jun and c-Fos significantly increased the expression of SphK1 and FN. Curcumin treatment greatly decreased the levels of c-Jun, c-Fos, SphK1, and FN in the kidney tissues of diabetic rats. SiRNAs targeting SphK1 and S1P2 receptor respectively inhibited the phosphorylation of c-Jun (ser63 and ser73) and c-Fos (ser32), as well as FN expression under both normal and HG conditions. Our data demonstrate that the activated SphK1-S1P signaling pathway in GMCs under diabetic conditions is closely associated with AP-1 to form a positive feedback loop. This positive feedback loop functions as an important molecular basis for the sustained activation of the SphK1-S1P pathway and increased FN expression that lead to the initiation and progression of DN.
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Effects of local myopic defocus on refractive development in monkeys.
Optom Vis Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Visual signals that produce myopia are mediated by local, regionally selective mechanisms. However, little is known about spatial integration for signals that slow eye growth. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the effects of myopic defocus are integrated in a local manner in primates.
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[Reverse genetics platform construction of influenza pandemic virus strain].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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Reverse genetics was used to construct the platform of flu pandemic strain A/California/07/2009 (H1N1).
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Primary mediastinal sarcoma: surgical outcomes of 21 cases.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Primary sarcomas of the mediastinum are relatively rare. This article reviews the surgical outcomes of 21 cases diagnosed with localized mediastinal sarcomas receiving multidisciplinary treatment modalities in Sichuan province, China, from January 1996 to January 2011.
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Chiral bis(imidazolinyl)phenyl NCN pincer rhodium(III) catalysts for enantioselective allylation of aldehydes and carbonyl-ene reaction of trifluoropyruvates.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Chiral NCN pincer rhodium(III) complexes with bis(imidazolinyl)phenyl ligands were found to be effective catalysts for the allylation of a variety of electronically and structurally diverse aldehydes with allyltributyltin, giving the corresponding optically active homoallylic alcohols in high yields with enantioselectivities of up to 97% ee. These complexes were also applied in the carbonyl-ene reaction of ethyl or methyl trifluoropyruvate with various 2-arylpropenes. With the aid of silver trifluoromethanesulfonate, the pincer rhodium(III) catalysts could catalyze the reaction to provide the corresponding chiral ?-hydroxy-?-trifluoromethyl esters in good yields with high stereoselectivities (up to 95% ee).
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[Development of a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay for detection of E119V amino acid change in neuraminidase of influenza A (H3N2) using the TaqMan-MGB probe].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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To develop a rapid duplex Real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) method to detect E119V mutation on neuraminidase (NA) of influenza A(H3N2) subtype with drug resistance to oseltamivir.
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[Virological characterization of influenza A(H3N2) virus in Mainland China during 2011-2012].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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To study the prevalence and variation of influenza A(H3N2) viruses, the antigenic and genetic characteristics of influenza A(H3N2) viruses circulating in Mainland China during April 2011 to March 2012 were analyzed. The results showed that influenza A(H3N2) viruses increased gradually since 2012 and became the dominant strain since March. The viruses were antigenically closely related to the vaccine strain A/PER/16/09 (87.2%) and the representative virus A/FJ/196/09 (76.0%) in Mainland China. The genetic characteristics analysis results showed that recently isolated viruses belonged to the Vic/208 clade, and most of the low reaction strains also fell into the same clade. Crystal structure analysis of HA protein found that, compared with the vaccine strain A/PER/16/09, the recently isolated viruses had amino acid substitutions in the antigenic site A, B and C areas, in addition to gaining potential glycosylation sites at the amino acid position of 45 of HA and 367 of NA. Although the majority of circulating influenza A (H3N2) viruses in 2011-2012 season in Mainland China were antigeniclly matched by current influenza vaccine strain and the selected representative viruses, low reaction strains have increased since 2012, therefore it is necessary to strengthen the surveillance on the variation of influenza virus and to provide solid information for the vaccine strain selection.
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Protective effects of extracts from Fructus rhodomyrti against oxidative DNA damage in vitro and in vivo.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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To evaluate the potential protective effects of extracts from Fructus rhodomyrti (FR) against oxidative DNA damage using a cellular system and the antioxidant ability on potassium bromate- (KBrO3-) mediated oxidative stress in rats.
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[Emerged Pdm09 influenza virus increased purifying selection of seasonal H1N1 influenza virus].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Pdm09 virus outbreak occurred in Mainland China in May 2009, a few months later, the prevalence of seasonal H1N1(sH1N1) influenza virus that already circulated in human for tens of years began to decline and disappeared afterwards. To identify the reason for the rapid decline of sH1N1 in mainland China, we sequenced the HA1 of sH1N1 during 2006-2011, and then analyzed the selective pressure in different phases. Our results showed before Pdm09 outbreak, the omega value was 0. 36 while after Pdm09 outbreak the omega value was 0. 28 and significant difference (t test, P<0. 05) was identified. We concluded that sH1N1 obtained stronger purifying selection after Pdm09 outbreak in China. This might one of the major reasons causing the disappearance of sH1N1 in human.
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Sequencing and validation of housekeeping genes for quantitative real-time PCR during the gonadotrophic cycle of Diploptera punctata.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Quantitative RT-PCR (q-RT-PCR) is a powerful tool that allows for the large scale analysis of small changes in gene expression. Accurate and reliable results depend on the use of stable reference genes for normalization. However, the expression of some widely used housekeeping genes can vary under different experimental setups. To our knowledge, no validation studies have been reported for reference genes in cockroaches. The aim of the current study is the identification and validation of a set of eight housekeeping genes during the first gonadotrophic cycle of the cockroach, Diploptera punctata. This study made use of two different algorithms (geNorm and Normfinder) to evaluate the stability of gene expression.
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Small molecule drug screening in Drosophila identifies the 5HT2A receptor as a feeding modulation target.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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Dysregulation of eating behavior can lead to obesity, which affects 10% of the adult population worldwide and accounts for nearly 3 million deaths every year. Despite this burden on society, we currently lack effective pharmacological treatment options to regulate appetite. We used Drosophila melanogaster larvae to develop a high-throughput whole organism screen for drugs that modulate food intake. In a screen of 3630 small molecules, we identified the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) receptor antagonist metitepine as a potent anorectic drug. Using cell-based assays we show that metitepine is an antagonist of all five Drosophila 5-HT receptors. We screened fly mutants for each of these receptors and found that serotonin receptor 5-HT2A is the sole molecular target for feeding inhibition by metitepine. These results highlight the conservation of molecular mechanisms controlling appetite and provide a method for unbiased whole-organism drug screens to identify novel drugs and molecular pathways modulating food intake.
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Integration of auditory and tactile inputs in musical meter perception.
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Musicians often say that they not only hear but also "feel" music. To explore the contribution of tactile information to "feeling" music, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter-recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, "duple" (march-like rhythms) and "triple" (waltz-like rhythms), presented in three conditions: (1) unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone); (2) various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts; and (3) bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70-85 %) when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70-90 %) when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60 % when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90 %). Performance dropped dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10 %), as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60 %), demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. These observations support the notion that meter perception is a cross-modal percept with tactile inputs underlying the perception of "feeling" music.
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The internalization and lysosomal degradation of brain AQP4 after ischemic injury.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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The membrane-bound water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) plays a significant role in maintaining brain water homeostasis. In ischemic brain, changes in the expression level of AQP4 have been reported. Previous studies suggest that the internalization of several membrane-bound proteins, including AQP4, may occur with or without lysosomal degradation. In this study, the internalization of AQP4 was detected in the ischemic rat brain via double immunofluorescence labeling. Specifically, AQP4 and early endosome antigen-1 (EEA1) co-localized after 1 h post-ischemic injury. Moreover, the co-expression of AQP4 and lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP1) was observed after 3 h post-ischemia. These findings suggest that AQP4 is internalized and the lysosome is involved in degrading the internalized AQP4 in the ischemic brain. AQP4 is known to be downregulated by the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in vivo and in vitro. The results in this study displayed that PMA infusion could decrease brain edema accompanied by AQP4 downregulation in ischemic brain. However, compared with vehicle infusion, PKC activator infusion did not increase the ratio of internalized or lysosomal degraded AQP4. That is, we have not found out evidence to prove protein kinase C activator PMA can promote the internalization or lysosomal degradation of AQP4 in the ischemic brain.
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[A case of tympanic foreign body].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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A 22 years old male was hospitalized with 1 month history of endaural foreign body retention at 7th May, 2011. Patient complained an invicible bug was placed into right outer ear canal. The foreign body could not be taken out because of the intoleration to pain under the local anesthesia, and major symptoms were swell-sore, fullness, and obvious hearing loss. Physical examination showed congestion and swelling in right ear canal, and only 3mm diameter for the stenosis ear canal. The incrustation make the invicible foreign body and the tympanic membrane. CT showed the foreign body retention near tympanic membrane left ear was normal. After hospitalization, the patient received an exploratory operation under the general anesthesia. The foreign body incarceration was found near the tympanic ring which in the tympanic cavity.
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Influencing factors of the quality of life in Chinese burn patients: Investigation with adapted Chinese version of the BSHS-B.
Burns
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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The study aims to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) in burn patients in China and find out principal influencing factors, so as to provide evidence for interventions.
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Demyelination Initiated by Oligodendrocyte Apoptosis through Enhancing Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondria Interactions and Id2 Expression after Compressed Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.
CNS Neurosci Ther
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Demyelination is one of the most important pathological factors of spinal cord injury. Oligodendrocyte apoptosis is involved in triggering demyelination. However, fewer reports on pathological changes and mechanism of demyelination have been presented from compressed spinal cord injury (CSCI). The relative effect of oligodendrocyte apoptosis on CSCI-induced demyelination and the mechanism of apoptosis remain unclear.
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Diploptera punctata as a model for studying the endocrinology of arthropod reproduction and development.
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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The Pacific beetle cockroach, Diploptera punctata, has proven to be a valuable model insect in the study of the dynamics regulating juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis and metabolism, particularly during late nymphal development and reproduction. This stems in part from its unusual mode of reproduction, adenotrophic viviparity, in which females give birth to live young that have been nourished throughout embryonic development by a protein-rich milk secreted by the wall of the brood sac or uterus. In this animal, as in most insects, JH regulates both vitellogenin production and its uptake by developing oocytes. However, JH has an antagonistic effect on embryonic development and following oviposition of the fertilized oocytes into the brood sac, JH production halts, in part through the action of a peptide family, the FGLa allatostatins. JH production remains at a low level throughout pregnancy and is only reinstated at the end of gestation, at which time, the next wave of oocytes begins to develop and enter vitellogenesis. Thus, JH production in this species is precisely regulated, since the appearance of JH at inappropriate times would result in abortion of the embryos. Numerous factors are responsible for the regulation of JH biosynthesis, including peptides, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, ecdysteroids and second messenger effectors. In this review, we discuss these factors and highlight potentially fruitful areas of future research. Although several of the enzymes of the biosynthetic pathway have been cloned, the precise points of rate limitation remain uncertain. The dissection of the biosynthetic pathway and its control awaits the completion of the genome and transcriptome of this important model insect.
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Negative lens-induced myopia in infant monkeys: effects of high ambient lighting.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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To determine whether high light levels, which have a protective effect against form-deprivation myopia, also retard the development of lens-induced myopia in primates.
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[Virological characterization of influenza B virus in mainland China during 2011-2012].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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In order to understand the prevalence and variation of influenza B viruses, the antigenic and genetic characteristics of influenza B viruses circulating in Mainland China during April, 2011 to March, 2012 were analyzed. The results showed the B Victoria lineage viruses were much more prevalent than B Yamagata lineage during this period, phylogenetic analysis showed vast majority of Victoria lineage viruses belong to genetic group 1, intra-clade reassortant between HA1 and NA gene was identified in a minor proportion of the viruses. 72.8% of the B/Victoria-lineage viruses were antigenically closely related to the vaccine strain B/Brisbane/60/2008. B Yamagata component was not included in the trivalent influenza vaccine in China during the study period, however vast majority of B Yamagata lineage viruses were antigenically and genetically closely related to the representative virus B/Hubei-Wujiagang/158/2009(97.8%) and B/Sichuan-Anyue/139/2011(85.2%) in China, reassortant between HA1 and NA was not identified in B Yamagata lineage viruses. Overall, the predominant circulating influenza B viruses in 2011-2012 season in China were matched by current influenza vaccine and the selected representative viruses were proved to represent the antigenic and genetic characteristics of the circulating viruses.
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[Optimizing remediation conditions of non-thermal plasma for DDTs heavily contaminated soil].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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A series of experiments were carried out in a non-thermal reactor to remove DDTs in heavily contaminated soil by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The study aims to investigate the effects of soil properties (including soil particle size and soil water content) and equipment working parameters (e. g. the plasma power, the processing time and discharge atmosphere) on the removal of DDTs from soil. The results showed that DDTs in soil were significantly degraded by the non-thermal plasma produced by dielectric barrier discharge. Removal rate of DDTs increased with increasing processing time. The removal efficiency of DDTs ranged from 95.3% to 99.9% in 20 minutes. The optimum conditions were as follows: 1 kW of the plasma power, 20 minutes of processing time in air discharge atmosphere, 0-0.9 mm soil particle size and 4.5% -10.5% of soil moisture content. The results also showed that o,p-DDE might be the intermediate dechlorination and dehydrogenation product of the o,p-DDT after the oxidization.
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Role of glucose transporters in the intestinal absorption of gastrodin, a highly water-soluble drug with good oral bioavailability.
J Drug Target
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Gastrodin, a sedative drug, is a highly water-soluble phenolic glucoside with poor liposolubility but exhibits good oral bioavailability. The current study aims to investigate whether glucose transporters (GLTs) are involved in the intestinal absorption of gastrodin. The intestinal absorption kinetics of gastrodin was determined using the rat everted gut sac model, the Caco-2 cell culture model and the perfused rat intestinal model. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies using diabetic rats with high GLT expression were performed. Saturable intestinal absorption of gastrodin was observed in rat everted gut sacs. The apparent permeability (Papp) of gastrodin from the apical (A) to basolateral (B) side in Caco-2 cells was two-fold higher than that from B to A. Glucose or phlorizin, a sodium-dependent GLT (SGLT) inhibitor, reduced the absorption rates of gastrodin from perfused rat intestines. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies showed that the time of maximum plasma gastrodin concentration (Tmax) was prolonged from 28 to 72 min when orally co-administered with four times higher dose of glucose. However, the Tmax of gastrodin in diabetic rats was significantly lowered to 20 min because of the high intestinal SGLT1 level. In conclusion, our findings indicate that SGLT1 can facilitate the intestinal absorption of gastrodin.
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Genome-wide association analysis of ten chilling tolerance indices at the germination and seedling stages in maize.
J Integr Plant Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Maize seedlings are very sensitive to chilling, especially during the transition phase from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth. Genetic dissection of the genetic basis of chilling tolerance would provide useful information for genetic improvement of maize inbreds. In this study, genome-wide association analysis was conducted to explore the genetic architecture of maize chilling tolerance at the seed germination and seedling stages with an association panel of 125 inbreds. Ten tolerance indices (ratios of the performance of 10 germination rates and seedling growth-related traits under chilling stress and control conditions) were investigated to assess the ability of chilling tolerance of the inbreds, and a total of 43 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with chilling tolerance were detected, with none of them being related to chilling tolerance at both the germination and seedling stages simultaneously. Correlation analysis also revealed that the genetic basis of chilling tolerance at the seed germination stage is generally different from that at the seedling stage. In addition, a total of 40 candidate genes involving 31 of the 43 single nucleotide polymorphisms were predicted, and were grouped into five categories according to their functions. The possible roles of these candidate genes in chilling tolerance were also discussed.
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Relationship between tone perception and production in prelingually deafened children with cochlear implants.
Otol. Neurotol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Performance in tone perception and production are correlated in prelingually deafened pediatric cochlear implant (CI) users across individuals. Demographic variables, such as age at implantation, contribute to the performance variability.
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Berberine ameliorates experimental diabetes-induced renal inflammation and fibronectin by inhibiting the activation of RhoA/ROCK signaling.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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The accumulation of glomerular extracellular matrix proteins, especially fibronectin (FN), is a critical pathological characteristic of diabetic renal fibrosis. Inflammation mediated by nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). RhoA/ROCK signaling is responsible for FN accumulation and NF-?B activation. Berberine (BBR) treatment significantly inhibited renal inflammation and thus improved renal damage in diabetes. Here, we study whether BBR inhibits FN accumulation and NF-?B activation by inhibiting RhoA/ROCK signaling and the underlying mechanisms involved. Results showed that BBR effectively inhibited RhoA/ROCK signaling activation in diabetic rat kidneys and high glucose-induced glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) and simultaneously down-regulated NF-?B activity, which was accompanied by reduced intercellular adhesionmolecule-1, transforming growth factor-beta 1 and FN overproduction. Furthermore, we observed that BBR abrogated high glucose-mediated reactive oxygen species generation in GMCs. BBR and N-acetylcysteine inhibited RhoA/ROCK signaling activation in high glucose-exposed GMCs. Collectively, our data suggest that the renoprotective effect of BBR on DN partly depends on RhoA/ROCK inhibition. The anti-oxidative stress effect of BBR is responsible for RhoA/ROCK inhibition in DN.
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General combining ability of most yield-related traits had a genetic basis different from their corresponding traits per se in a set of maize introgression lines.
Genetica
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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Evaluation of combining ability is a crucial process in hybrid breeding, and dissection of the genetic basis of combining ability will facilitate hybrid breeding. In this study, molecular markers significantly associated with general combining ability (GCA) of seven yield-related traits and the traits per se were detected in a set of maize introgression lines (ILs) under three environments. Totally 25 and 31 significant loci for GCA and the traits per se were commonly detected under multiple environments, respectively. Correlation analysis and comparison among these significant loci revealed that the genetic basis of GCA of these yield-related traits was generally different from that of the traits per se except for the trait of ear row number. In addition, GCA of the ILs was positively and significantly correlated to the total relative effects of significant GCA loci in the ILs in general, implying that the GCA loci identified in this study would be useful in molecular breeding. Correlation analysis also showed that the GCA of yield per plant was strongly correlated to the GCA of kernel number per row, ear length and 100-kernel-weight, thus these traits were more important in genetic improvement for GCA. Results in this study would provide useful information for hybrid breeding in maize.
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Connective tissue growth factor induces osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells through ERK signaling.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by promoting vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth, migration, apoptosis, adhesion and the secretion of matrix components. The osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs is essential in the development of vascular calcification. However, the role of CTGF in the transdifferentiation and calcification of VSMCs is unclear. In the present study, we examined whether CTGF stimulates VSMC transdifferentiation. Primary VSMCs were obtained from mouse thoracic aortas by enzymatic digestion and identified by immunostaining for smooth muscle specific ?-actin antibody (?-SMA). VSMC calcification was induced by the addition of CTGF to the osteogenic mediaum containing 5-10% FBS in the presence of 0.25 mM ascorbic acid and 10 mM ?-glycerophosphate for 14 days. Calcified cells were determined by Alizarin Red S staining. Our results revealed that CTGF induced the expression of several bone markers, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and core-binding factor subunit ?1 (Cbf?1)/runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), as well as calcification. However, the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity using the ERK-specific inhibitor, PD98059, blocked the induction of these proteins and VSMC calcification. Based on these data, we conclude that CTGF stimulates the transdifferentiation of VSMCs into osteoblasts and that the ERK signaling pathway appears to play a critical role in this process.
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Intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for stage I-II natural killer/T-cell lymphoma nasal type: dosimetric and clinical results.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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This study was to compare radiotherapy treatment planning and treatment outcomes following three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in stage I-II natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.