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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Infections in status epilepticus: a retrospective 5-year cohort study.
Seizure
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Status epilepticus (SE) has attracted renewed interest lately, and efforts are made to optimize every treatment stage. For refractory SE, optimal supporting care involves mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Infections often complicate SE and recently a single-centre observational study demonstrated an association between infections and poor short-term outcome of SE in a cohort of severely ill patients. We have here attempted to replicate those findings in a different cohort.
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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors prolong seizures - preliminary results from an observational study.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are often used in the treatment of depressive disorders in patients with epilepsy. Pro- and anti-convulsive effects of SSRIs are discussed controversially. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible impact of SSRIs-treatment on duration of EEG and clinical features in epilepsy patients.
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Midbrain-hindbrain malformations in patients with malformations of cortical development and epilepsy: a series of 220 patients.
Epilepsy Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Midbrain-hindbrain malformations (MHM) may coexist with malformations of cortical development (MCD). This study represents a first attempt to investigate the spectrum of MHM in a large series of patients with MCD and epilepsy. We aimed to explore specific associations between MCD and MHM and to compare two groups of patients: MCD with MHM (wMHM) and MCD without MHM (w/oMHM) with regard to clinical and imaging features. Two hundred and twenty patients (116 women/104 men, median age 28 years, interquartile range 20-44 years at the time of assessment) with MCD and epilepsy were identified at the Departments of Neurology and Pediatrics, Innsbruck Medical University, Austria. All underwent high-resolution MRIs (1.5-T) between 01.01.2002 and 31.12.2011. Midbrain-hindbrain structures were visually assessed by three independent raters. MHM were seen in 17% (38/220) of patients. The rate of patients wMHM and w/oMHM differed significantly (p=0.004) in three categories of MCD (category I - to abnormal neuronal proliferation; category II - to abnormal neuronal migration; and category III - due to abnormal neuronal late migration/organization): MCD due to abnormal neuronal migration (31%) and organization (23%) were more commonly associated with MHM compared to those with MCD due to abnormal neuronal proliferation (9%). Extensive bilateral MCD were seen more often in patients wMHM compared to those w/oMHM (63% vs. 36%; p=0.004). In wMHM group compared to w/oMHM group there were higher rates of callosal dysgenesis (26% vs. 4%; p<0.001) and hippocampal abnormalities (52% vs. 27%; p<0.001). Patients wMHM were younger (median 25 years vs. 30 years; p=0.010) at the time of assessment and had seizure onset at an earlier age (median 5 years vs. 12 years; p=0.043) compared to those w/oMHM. Patients wMHM had higher rates of learning disability (71% vs. 38%; p<0.001), delayed developmental milestones (68% vs. 35%; p<0.001) and neurological deficits (66% vs. 47%; p=0.049) compared to those w/oMHM. The groups (wMHM and w/oMHM) did not differ in their response to antiepileptic treatment, seizure outcome, seizure types, EEG abnormalities and rate of status epilepticus. Presence of MHM in patients with MCD and epilepsy is associated with severe morphological and clinical phenotypes.
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Standardized computer-based organized reporting of EEG: SCORE.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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The electroencephalography (EEG) signal has a high complexity, and the process of extracting clinically relevant features is achieved by visual analysis of the recordings. The interobserver agreement in EEG interpretation is only moderate. This is partly due to the method of reporting the findings in free-text format. The purpose of our endeavor was to create a computer-based system for EEG assessment and reporting, where the physicians would construct the reports by choosing from predefined elements for each relevant EEG feature, as well as the clinical phenomena (for video-EEG recordings). A working group of EEG experts took part in consensus workshops in Dianalund, Denmark, in 2010 and 2011. The faculty was approved by the Commission on European Affairs of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The working group produced a consensus proposal that went through a pan-European review process, organized by the European Chapter of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. The Standardised Computer-based Organised Reporting of EEG (SCORE) software was constructed based on the terms and features of the consensus statement and it was tested in the clinical practice. The main elements of SCORE are the following: personal data of the patient, referral data, recording conditions, modulators, background activity, drowsiness and sleep, interictal findings, "episodes" (clinical or subclinical events), physiologic patterns, patterns of uncertain significance, artifacts, polygraphic channels, and diagnostic significance. The following specific aspects of the neonatal EEGs are scored: alertness, temporal organization, and spatial organization. For each EEG finding, relevant features are scored using predefined terms. Definitions are provided for all EEG terms and features. SCORE can potentially improve the quality of EEG assessment and reporting; it will help incorporate the results of computer-assisted analysis into the report, it will make possible the build-up of a multinational database, and it will help in training young neurophysiologists.
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Intravenous lacosamide in status epilepticus and seizure clusters.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2011
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Status epilepticus (SE) and seizure clusters (SC) represent neurologic emergencies with a case fatality rate up to 34%, depending on cause and comorbidity. As SE becomes more refractory to treatment over time, appropriate medication is important. This study aimed to investigate efficacy and tolerability of intravenous (IV) lacosamide (LCM) in treatment of SC and SE. Data of patients with SE or SC who were treated with IV LCM between December 2009 and February 2011 in two Austrian centers were analyzed retrospectively. Clinical information was extracted from patients charts. Forty-eight patients (26f/22m) aged median 62 years (range 17-95 years) were identified. Thirty-five percent of patients (17 of 48) had SC and 65% (31 of 48) had SE. SE was nonconvulsive in 10 (32%), convulsive in 11 (36%), and focal in 10 (32%) patients. SE was acute symptomatic in six (20%) and remote symptomatic in 11 (35%) patients. Fourteen (45%) had preexisting epilepsy. Median initial bolus dose was 200 mg (range 200-400 mg) in patients with SE and 200 mg in patients with SC. Maximum infusion rate was 60 mg/min. Cessation was observed in 42 patients (88%). Success rate in patients with SE receiving LCM as first or second drug was 100% (8 of 8), as third drug 81% (11 of 15), and as fourth or later drug 75% (6 of 8). There were no side effects observed except for pruritus and skin rash in two patients. These data support use of IV LCM as a potential alternative to standard antiepileptic drugs for acute treatment of seizure emergency situations, although randomized controlled studies are needed.
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Frame-based vs frameless placement of intrahippocampal depth electrodes in patients with refractory epilepsy: a comparative in vivo (application) study.
Neurosurgery
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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Despite progress in imaging technologies, documentation of unifocal electrical excitability is pivotal in patient selection for epilepsy surgery.
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Video-EEG monitoring: safety and adverse events in 507 consecutive patients.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2010
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Video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring plays a central role in the presurgical evaluation of medically refractory epilepsies and the diagnosis of nonepileptic attack disorders (NEADs). The aim of this study was to analyze safety and adverse events (AEs) during video-EEG monitoring.
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Complete removal of vagus nerve stimulator generator and electrodes.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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Vagus nerve stimulation has become widely used in the palliative treatment of refractory epilepsy. Removal of a vagus nerve stimulator may be desirable or even necessary due to lack of efficacy, intolerable side effects, signs of infection, or failure of the device. Unless the lead or the helical electrodes are defective, only the generator is explanted and the electrodes are usually left behind for fear of damaging nerve or surrounding structures. The authors review their experience with complete removal of the stimulating electrodes and pacemaker-like generator device in 9 consecutive patients, 3 of whom were children. Using microsurgical techniques, the authors were able to completely remove the stimulator, including electrodes in all patients. All nerves remained morphologically intact. One case of temporary and one of permanent clinically silent ipsilateral vocal cord paresis were observed.
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Successful surgery in late onset epilepsy with tuberous sclerosis complex.
Epileptic Disord
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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[Case records of Epileptic Disorders. Anatomo-electro clinical correlations. Case 01-2009]. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem genetic disorder with variable phenotypic expression, caused by mutations in one of the two tumor suppressor genes, TSC1 or TSC2. Epilepsy is the most common neurological presentation and seizures are often medically intractable. Definition of the epileptogenic zone during presurgical evaluation is challenging given the multiple potentially epileptogenic lesions visible on MRI. However, TSC patients may nevertheless achieve seizure freedom, when preoperative evaluation yields concordant results. The strategies used in these patients vary substantially among different epilepsy surgery centres. We present a 21-year-old right-handed, intellectually not impaired woman with TSC and medically intractable seizures since the age of 15 years. Careful multi-stage presurgical evaluation, including prolonged video-EEG-monitoring, cerebral high resolution MRI, ictal and interictal [99m Tc]HMPAO-SPECT, [18 F]FDG-PET and further invasive recordings with subdural and depth electrodes led to the identification of an epileptogenic tuber with concordant seizure onset zone in the right neocortical temporal lobe. A tailored resection was performed leading to excellent surgical outcome (follow-up 12 months, Engel class I).
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Asymmetric seizure termination in primary and secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2009
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In temporal lobe epilepsies an asymmetric termination (AST) of the clonic phase of secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (sGTCS) reliably lateralizes the side of seizure onset. The last clonic activity occurs ipsilateral to the side of the seizure onset zone. We compared the prevalence and lateralizing value of AST in sGTCS of frontal and temporal lobe origin as well as in primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (pGTCS).
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New treatment options in status epilepticus: a critical review on intravenous levetiracetam.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2009
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The effectiveness of Levetiracetam (LEV) in the treatment of focal and generalised epilepsies is well established. LEV has a wide spectrum of action, good tolerability and a favourable pharmacokinetic profile. An injectable formulation has been released as an intravenous (IV) infusion in 2006 for patients with epilepsy when oral administration is temporarily not feasible. Bioequivalence to the oral preparation has been demonstrated with good tolerability and safety enabling a smooth transition from oral to parenteral formulation and vice versa. Although IV LEV is not licensed for treatment of status epilepticus (SE), open-label experience in retrospective case series is accumulating. Until now (August 2008) 156 patients who were treated with IV LEV for various forms of SE have been reported with an overall success rate of 65.4%. The most often used initial dose was 2000-3000 mg over 15 minutes. Adverse events were reported in 7.1%, and were mild and transient. Although IV LEV is an interesting alternative for the treatment of SE due to the lack of centrally depressive effects and low potential of drug interactions, one has to be aware of the nonrandomised retrospective study design, the heterogenous patient population and treatment protocols, and the publication bias inherent in these type of studies. Only a large randomised controlled trial with an adequate comparator will reveal the efficacy and effectiveness of this promising new IV formulation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.