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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
p53-mediated Regulation of Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase (PHGDH) is crucial for the Apoptotic Response Upon Serine Starvation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Although p53 is frequently mutated in human cancers, about 80% of human melanomas retain wild-type p53. Here, we report that PHGDH, the key metabolic enzyme that cata-lyzes the rate-limiting step of serine biosynthesis pathway, is a target of p53 in human melanoma cells. p53 suppresses its expression and inhibits de novo serine biosynthesis. Notably, upon serine starvation, p53-mediated cell death is dramatically enhanced in response to Nutlin-3 treatment. Moreover, PHGDH is recently found to be frequently amplified in human melanomas. We found that PHGDH overexpression significantly suppresses the apoptotic response, whereas RNAi-mediated knock-down of endogenous PHGDH promotes apoptosis under the same treatment. These results demonstrate an important role of p53 in regulating serine biosynthesis pathway through suppressing PHGDH expression and reveal serine deprivation as a novel approach to sensitize p53-mediated apoptotic responses in human melanoma cells.
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Pseudomonas stutzeri Necrotizing Pneumonia in Pre-existing Pulmonary Tuberculosis.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Pseudomonas stutzeri (P. stutzeri) is a Gram-negative, non-fermenting rod. It is a rare pathogen; therefore, its isolation is often associated with colonization or contamination. We herein describe the first reported case of necrotizing pneumonia caused by P. stutzeri in a non-HIV infected patient with previously undiagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis. The isolate was found to be antibiotic resistant, which led to the failure of the initial treatment. This case highlights the unique presentation of necrotizing pneumonia caused by P. stutzeri and the importance of emerging antimicrobial resistance in P. stutzeri.
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Postoperative hypocaloric peripheral parenteral nutrition with branched-chain-enriched amino acids provides no better clinical advantage than fluid management in nonmalnourished colorectal cancer patients.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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To assess clinical efficacy of using postoperative branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)-enriched nutritional support in lower gastrointestinal cancer patients, we conducted a retrospective observational study comparing this regimen with traditional fluid management. Sixty-one eligible colorectal cancer patients consecutively admitted in the Colorectal Surgery Ward to receive postoperative hypocaloric peripheral parenteral nutrition (HPPN) were categorized into dextrose-only control group (n = 20), dextrose plus low-dose BCAA fat group (n = 20), and dextrose plus high-dose BCAA fat group (n = 21). Nutritional, clinical, and biochemical outcomes were collected on the day before and 7 days after surgery. Patients were nonmalnourished. Over the 7-day observation period, the control group had a significantly higher reduction in body mass index than the lower dose and the higher dose BCAA groups (P = 0.023 and P = 0.002, respectively). Compared to high-dose BCAA group, the control group also had a lower nitrogen excretion (P < 0.0001) and less reduction in nitrogen balance (P < 0.0001). There were no differences between study groups in biochemical measures, phlebitis, postoperative hospital stay, and in-hospital mortality. We found no better clinical advantage to the postoperative administration of BCAA-enriched HPPN than fluid management in nonmalnourished colorectal cancer patients.
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Bilobulated paraclinoid aneurysm mimics double aneurysms: A comparison of endovascular coiling and surgical clipping treatments.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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This report presents two cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by rupture of paraclinoid aneurysms. Both aneurysms presented a bilobulated appearance upon image study. Both cases were treated successfully, the first with surgical clipping and the second with endovascular coiling. The special bilobulated feature of paraclinoid aneurysm in this particular anatomic location suggests its close relationship with the carotid dural ring. This relationship caused varying degrees of difficulty in both coiling and clipping the aneurysm. We compared the limitations and advantages of both treatments, and suggest that surgical clipping may be the treatment of choice in this region.
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Antroquinonol blocks Ras and Rho signaling via the inhibition of protein isoprenyltransferase activity in cancer cells.
Biomed. Pharmacother.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Antroquinonol is the smallest anticancer molecule isolated from Antrodia camphorata thus far. The ubiquinone-like structure of Antroquinonol exhibits a broad spectrum of activity against malignancies in vivo and in vitro. However, the mechanism of action of Antroquinonol remains unclear. Here, we provide evidence that Antroquinonol plays a role in the inhibition of Ras and Ras-related small GTP-binding protein functions through the inhibition of protein isoprenyl transferase activity in cancer cells. Using cell line-based assays, we found that the inactive forms of Ras and Rho proteins were significantly elevated after treatment with Antroquinonol. We also demonstrated that Antroquinonol binds directly to farnesyltransferase and geranylgeranyltransferase-I, which are key enzymes involved in activation of Ras-related proteins, and inhibits enzymes activities in vitro. Furthermore, a molecular docking analysis illustrated that the isoprenoid moiety of Antroquinonol binds along the hydrophobic cavity of farnesyltransferase similar to its natural substrate, farnesyl pyrophosphate. In contrast, the ring structure of Antroquinonol lies adjacent to the Ras-CAAX motif-binding site on farnesyltransferase. The molecular docking study also showed a reasonable correlation with the IC50 values of Antroquinonol analogues. We also found that the levels of LC3B-II and the autophagosome-associated LC3 form were also significantly increased in H838 after Antroquinonol administration. In conclusion, Antroquinonol inhibited Ras and Ras-related GTP-binding protein activation through inhibition of protein isoprenyl transferase activity, leading to activation of autophagy and associated mode of cell death in cancer cells.
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To be, or not to be: functional dilemma of p53 metabolic regulation.
Curr Opin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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In recent years, the emerging role of p53 in metabolic regulation has been a topic of great interest. Although apoptotic and growth arrest functions of p53 remain as important mechanisms for preserving genomic stability, metabolic functions of p53 show increasing potential in contributing to p53-mediated tumor suppression. Numerous recent studies provided further insights into the metabolic functions of p53 and their implications in tumorigenesis.
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Fluorescence-assisted visualization of facial nerve during mastoidectomy: A novel technique for preventing iatrogenic facial paralysis.
Auris Nasus Larynx
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Mastoidectomy can be risky due to the chance of iatrogenic facial nerve dysfunction. Avoiding injuries to the mastoid segment of the facial nerve is mandatory when drilling the bone. With advancements in intraoperative near-infrared indocyanine green (ICG) video angiography, we describe the application of a novel fluorescent guidance technique during mastoidectomies to identify the facial canal with safety.
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Increased risk of stroke among patients with ulcerative colitis: a population-based matched cohort study.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and the development of atherosclerosis are increased in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one type of IBD; however, there is controversy in the literature regarding the association between UC and stroke. The present cohort study estimated the risk of subsequent stroke among UC patients compared with that among matched comparison subjects drawn from a population-based data set in Taiwan.
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Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic colorectal polyps in taiwan.
Gastroenterol Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Purpose. To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of hyperplastic and adenomatous colorectal polyps in a Taiwanese general population. Methods. From January 2009 to December 2011, consecutive asymptomatic subjects undergoing a routine health check-up were evaluated by colonoscopy. The colorectal polyps were assessed, and medical history and demographic data were obtained from each patient. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to search the independent risk factors for asymptomatic hyperplastic and adenomatous colorectal polyps. Results. Of the 1899 asymptomatic subjects, the prevalences of hyperplastic polyps and adenomatous polyps were 11.1% and 16.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that high body mass index (BMI > 25: OR, 1.32, 95% CI, 1.05-1.71) and current smoking (OR, 1.87, 95% CI, 1.42-2.71) were independent predictors for hyperplastic colorectal polyps. Age over 60 years old (OR, 3.49, 95% CI, 1.86-6.51), high body mass index (BMI > 25: OR, 1.75, 95% CI, 1.21-2.71), heavy alcohol consumption (OR, 2.01, 95% CI, 1.02-3.99), and current smoking (OR, 1.31, 95% CI, 1.04-1.58) were independent predictors for adenomatous colorectal polyps. Conclusion. High BMI and smoking are common risk factors for both adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. Old age and alcohol consumption are additional risk factors for the development of adenomatous polyps.
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Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis reveals recurrent genomic alterations associated with histopathologic features in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent studies indicate that genomic alterations (GAs) are associated with many human malignancies. Genome-wide analysis of GAs involved in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and association with histopathologic features are limited. To help characterize this relatively rare neoplasm, we collected 32 frozen tissue samples of ICC to study GAs and molecular karyotypes by using single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Recurrent GAs occurring in at least 40% of the patients were further correlated with histopathologic features. Gain of 1q21.3-q23.1 and losses of 1p36.33-p35.3 and 3p26.3-p13 were significantly associated with larger tumor size more than 5 cm in diameter; and loss of 4q13.2-q35.2 with tumor multiplicity. Moreover, losses of 1p36.32-p35.3, 3p26.3-p22.2, 4q13.1-q21.23, 4q31.3-q34.3 and 4q34.3-35.2 were inclined to be associated with high histological grade. As to tumor vascular invasion, gain of 1q21.3-q23.1 and losses of 3p22.1-p12.3 and 4q13.2-q35.2 were significantly associated with tumor vascular invasion. Some regions were concurrently associated with multiple histopathologic characteristics, including loss of 4q13.2-q35.2 associated with larger tumor size, high histological grade and vascular invasion; losses of 1p36.33-p35.3 and 3p26.3-p22.2 with larger tumor size and high histological grade; and gain of 1q21.3-q23.1 with larger tumor size and vascular invasion. Our study indicates that complex chromosomal instability is characteristic of ICC. Detecting crucial GAs will enable risk stratification and development of personalized therapies.
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Mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphisms and mycobacterial lymphadenitis in young patients.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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Tuberculosis (TB) has recently re-emerged as a major public health threat worldwide. There is strong evidence that host genetic factors influence individual susceptibility to TB and that, once infected, young children and immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for mycobacterial disease and progression to extrapulmonary lymphadenitis.
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Scoring functions for prediction of protein-ligand interactions.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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The scoring functions for protein-ligand interactions plays central roles in computational drug design, virtual screening of chemical libraries for new lead identification, and prediction of possible binding targets of small chemical molecules. An ideal scoring function for protein-ligand interactions is expected to be able to recognize the native binding pose of a ligand on the protein surface among decoy poses, and to accurately predict the binding affinity (or binding free energy) so that the active molecules can be discriminated from the non-active ones. Due to the empirical nature of most, if not all, scoring functions for protein-ligand interactions, the general applicability of empirical scoring functions, especially to domains far outside training sets, is a major concern. In this review article, we will explore the foundations of different classes of scoring functions, their possible limitations, and their suitable application domains. We also provide assessments of several scoring functions on weakly-interacting protein-ligand complexes, which will be useful information in computational fragment-based drug design or virtual screening.
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Observation of Dirac node formation and mass acquisition in a topological crystalline insulator.
Science
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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In topological crystalline insulators (TCIs), topology and crystal symmetry intertwine to create surface states with distinct characteristics. The breaking of crystal symmetry in TCIs is predicted to impart mass to the massless Dirac fermions. Here, we report high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy studies of a TCI, Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Se that reveal the coexistence of zero-mass Dirac fermions protected by crystal symmetry with massive Dirac fermions consistent with crystal symmetry breaking. In addition, we show two distinct regimes of the Fermi surface topology separated by a Van-Hove singularity at the Lifshitz transition point. Our work paves the way for engineering the Dirac band gap and realizing interaction-driven topological quantum phenomena in TCIs.
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Increased risk of stroke among patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a population-based matched-cohort study.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease. Although two prior studies detected increased prevalence ratios of cerebrovascular disease among AS patients, the results of the two studies investigating AS and stroke are in conflict. Therefore, the present cohort study set out to estimate the risk of subsequent stroke in AS patients compared with matched controls using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. This investigation analyzed administrative claims data sourced from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database. Our study consisted of a study cohort comprising 1,479 AS patients and a comparison cohort of 5,916 subjects without AS. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to estimate the risk of subsequent stroke during the follow-up period. We also conducted additional analyses investigating the risk of subsequent stroke by gender and pharmaceutical prescription. After adjusting for chronic lower respiratory diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, renal disease, coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, income, and urbanization, compared with comparison patients, the hazard ratio for subsequent stroke among patients with AS was 2.3 (95 % CI 1.9-2.8). We also stratified our results by both gender and pharmaceutical prescription, but did not find a statistically significant difference for the risk of subsequent stroke either between men and women, or between AS patients taking various pharmaceutical regimens and the overall AS population. This is the first study to report an increased hazard ratio for subsequent stroke among AS patients when compared with matched comparison patients without AS.
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Drainage placement through the extraperitoneal tunnel can prevent its postoperative dislodgement effectively in laparoscopic rectal surgery.
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Drainage placement is frequently used in laparoscopic rectal surgery, and dislodgement is common in conventional transperitoneal drainage placement. We proposed that extraperitoneal tunnel for drainage placement is useful to prevent the dislodgement.
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Detection of resectable recurrences in colorectal cancer patients with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography.
Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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To evaluate the usefulness of 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in the early detection of resectable recurrences of colorectal cancer (CRC) and the impacts on the clinical disease management.
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Correlation of virulence genes to clinical manifestations and outcome in patients with Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis bacteremia.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) is increasingly recognized as a human pathogen responsible for invasive infection and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). The pathogen possesses virulence genes that resemble those found in Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS). We analyzed the association between these specific toxic genes, clinical presentations, and outcome in patients with SDSE infections.
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The Clinical Investigation of Disparity of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in a Chinese Occupational Population in Taipei, Taiwan: Experience at a Teaching Hospital.
Asia Pac J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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The authors sought to explore the prevalence and factors related to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among occupational population in Taipei, Taiwan. A total of 8347 healthy adults voluntarily admitted to annual physical check-up. Blood samples and ultrasound-proved fatty liver sonography results were collected. The results showed that the prevalence of NAFLD was 48.4% and revealed a statistically significant increase with increasing population age. Males exhibited a greater prevalence of NAFLD than did females (57.8% vs 32.4%, P < .001). Using multiple logistic regression analysis, in addition to male gender, older age, higher body mass index, higher aspartate aminotransferase level, higher alanine aminotransferase level, presence of hypertension, presence of hyperuricemia, presence of hypercholesterolemia, higher fasting plasma glucose, and presence of hypertriglyceridemia were the significant factors associated with NAFLD. The differences in occupational professions were revealed. In conclusion, occupational populations are asymptomatic, and the diagnosis of NAFLD should be considered with older age, hyperuricemia, higher aspartate aminotransferase level, higher alanine aminotransferase level, and metabolic risk factors.
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HuR cytoplasmic expression is associated with increased cyclin A expression and inferior disease-free survival in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs).
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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HuR is an RNA-binding protein that post-transcriptionally modulates the expression of various target genes involved in carcinogenesis, such as CCNA2, which encodes cyclin A. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of HuR expression and subcellular localization in a large cohort of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs).
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Reversal of the circular dichroism in angle-resolved photoemission from Bi2Te3.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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The helical Dirac fermions at the surface of topological insulators show a strong circular dichroism which has been explained as being due to either the initial-state spin angular momentum, the initial-state orbital angular momentum, or the handedness of the experimental setup. All of these interpretations conflict with our data from Bi(2)Te(3) which depend on the photon energy and show several sign changes. Our one-step photoemission calculations coupled to ab initio theory confirm the sign change and assign the dichroism to a final-state effect. Instead, the spin polarization of the photoelectrons excited with linearly polarized light remains a reliable probe for the spin in the initial state.
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p53-Dependent regulation of metabolic function through transcriptional activation of pantothenate kinase-1 gene.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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It is well established that the p53 tumor suppressor plays a crucial role in controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis upon various types of stress. There is increasing evidence showing that p53 is also critically involved in various metabolic pathways, both in tumor and normal cells. Here, we have identified a novel p53 metabolic target pantothenate kinase-1 (PANK1) via ChIP-on-chip. PanK1 catalyzes the rate-limiting step for CoA synthesis and, therefore, controls intracellular CoA content; Pank1-knockout mice exhibit defect in ?-oxidation and gluconeogenesis in the liver after starvation due to insufficient CoA levels. We demonstrated that PANK1 gene is a direct transcriptional target of p53. Although DNA damage-induced p53 upregulates PanK1 expression, depletion of PanK1 expression does not affect p53-dependent growth arrest or apoptosis. Interestingly, upon glucose starvation, PanK1 expression is significantly reduced in HCT116 p53 (-/-) but not in HCT116 p53 (+/+) cells, suggesting that p53 is required to maintain PanK1 expression under metabolic stress conditions. Moreover, by using p53-mutant mice, we observed that, similar to the case in Pank1-knockout mice, gluconeogenesis is partially impaired in p53-null mice. Together, our findings show that p53 plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis through transcriptional control of PANK1, independent of its canonical functions in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.
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Tuberculous arthritis--unexpected extrapulmonary tuberculosis detected by FDG PET/CT.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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FDG PET/CT imaging has been used in various medical fields, including neoplastic and infectious diseases, for a long time. We reported a 62-year-old man with fever, chronic cough, arthralgia of the left side of the hip, and body weight loss. Chest radiograph showed increased infiltration in both upper lungs, and the acid-fast stain of sputum was positive. Whole-body PET/CT scan revealed a lesion with intense FDG uptake in the joint of the side left of the hip. Osteoarthritis of the hip was initially impressed by an orthopedist. However, tuberculous arthritis was subsequently confirmed by deep pus culture.
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Robust scoring functions for protein-ligand interactions with quantum chemical charge models.
J Chem Inf Model
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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Ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression has been used widely for constructing the scoring functions for protein-ligand interactions. However, OLS is very sensitive to the existence of outliers, and models constructed using it are easily affected by the outliers or even the choice of the data set. On the other hand, determination of atomic charges is regarded as of central importance, because the electrostatic interaction is known to be a key contributing factor for biomolecular association. In the development of the AutoDock4 scoring function, only OLS was conducted, and the simple Gasteiger method was adopted. It is therefore of considerable interest to see whether more rigorous charge models could improve the statistical performance of the AutoDock4 scoring function. In this study, we have employed two well-established quantum chemical approaches, namely the restrained electrostatic potential (RESP) and the Austin-model 1-bond charge correction (AM1-BCC) methods, to obtain atomic partial charges, and we have compared how different charge models affect the performance of AutoDock4 scoring functions. In combination with robust regression analysis and outlier exclusion, our new protein-ligand free energy regression model with AM1-BCC charges for ligands and Amber99SB charges for proteins achieve lowest root-mean-squared error of 1.637 kcal/mol for the training set of 147 complexes and 2.176 kcal/mol for the external test set of 1427 complexes. The assessment for binding pose prediction with the 100 external decoy sets indicates very high success rate of 87% with the criteria of predicted root-mean-squared deviation of less than 2 Å. The success rates and statistical performance of our robust scoring functions are only weakly class-dependent (hydrophobic, hydrophilic, or mixed).
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Biocompatible transferrin-conjugated sodium hexametaphosphate-stabilized gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2011
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The feasibility of using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for biomedical applications has led to considerable interest in the development of novel synthetic protocols and surface modification strategies for AuNPs to produce biocompatible molecular probes. This investigation is, to our knowledge, the first to elucidate the synthesis and characterization of sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP)-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au-HMP) in an aqueous medium. The role of HMP, a food additive, as a polymeric stabilizing and protecting agent for AuNPs is elucidated. The surface modification of Au-HMP nanoparticles was carried out using polyethylene glycol and transferrin to produce molecular probes for possible clinical applications. In vitro cell viability studies performed using as-synthesized Au-HMP nanoparticles and their surface-modified counterparts reveal the biocompatibility of the nanoparticles. The transferrin-conjugated nanoparticles have significantly higher cellular uptake in J5 cells (liver cancer cells) than control cells (oral mucosa fibroblast cells), as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This study demonstrates the possibility of using an inexpensive and non-toxic food additive, HMP, as a stabilizer in the large-scale generation of biocompatible and monodispersed AuNPs, which may have future diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
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Trends and nutritional status for magnesium in Taiwan from NAHSIT 1993 to 2008.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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Data from nationwide population-based nutrition surveys in Taiwan were used to investigate trends and nutritional status for magnesium from 1993 to 2008. Dietary magnesium intake was estimated from 24-hour dietary recalls. Serum and urinary magnesium were also measured. In Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 2005-2008, average magnesium intake was 305 mg and 259 mg for adult males and females, respectively, which is equivalent to 82-85% of relevant Taiwanese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). After correcting intra-individual variation, 74-81% of adult subjects dietary magnesium was estimated as sub-optimal. Mean serum magnesium concentration was 0.866 mmol/L and 0.861 mmol/L for the males and females, respectively. The prevalence of low serum magnesium (<0.8 mmol/L) was 12.3% and 23.7% for the males and females, respectively. There was positive association among dietary magnesium, blood magnesium, and urinary magnesium/creatinine ratio. From NAHSIT 1993-1996 to NAHSIT 2005-2008, dietary magnesium significantly increased (p<0.05), the blood magnesium and urinary magnesium/creatinine ratio decreased (p<0.05). The findings suggest that the relationships between dietary magnesium and biochemical markers among different nutrition and health surveys are not straightforward and need to be further clarified.
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Imaging doped holes in a cuprate superconductor with high-resolution Compton scattering.
Science
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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The high-temperature superconducting cuprate La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO(4) (LSCO) shows several phases ranging from antiferromagnetic insulator to metal with increasing hole doping. To understand how the nature of the hole state evolves with doping, we have carried out high-resolution Compton scattering measurements at room temperature together with first-principles electronic structure computations on a series of LSCO single crystals in which the hole doping level varies from the underdoped (UD) to the overdoped (OD) regime. Holes in the UD system are found to primarily populate the O 2p(x)/p(y) orbitals. In contrast, the character of holes in the OD system is very different in that these holes mostly enter Cu d orbitals. High-resolution Compton scattering provides a bulk-sensitive method for imaging the orbital character of dopants in complex materials.
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Factors that influence survival in unresectable metastatic or locally advanced colorectal cancer.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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Half of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) have metastasis during the whole course of the disease. Fewer than 10% of those are still alive at 5 years. Locally advanced CRC accounts for 7% to 33% of CRC relapses. Of these, only a small number of patients are resectable with a curative intent. Management of unresectable metastatic or locally advanced CRC is a significant challenge. In this study, we focus on patients with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic CRC and analyze survival rate and prognostic factors influencing the survival.
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Simplified radius, ulna, and short bone-age assessment procedure using grouped-Tanner-Whitehouse method.
Pediatr Int
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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The Tanner-Whitehouse III (TW3) method is popular for assessing childrens bone age, but it is time-consuming in clinical settings; to simplify this, a grouped-TW algorithm (GTA) was developed.
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First- or second-line gefitinib therapy in unknown epidermal growth factor receptor mutants of non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated in Taiwan.
Clin Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2011
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Gefitinib is effective in treating patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The response rate and improvement in survival are related to several aspects, including race, gender, smoking status, and histology; however, little is known about the relationship between survival and length of gefitinib treatment. We conducted this retrospective study to examine this relationship and identify the predictive factors influencing survival and tumor response in chemonaive and chemotherapy patients who had stage IIIb or IV NSCLC with unknown epidermal growth factor receptor mutants. This analysis was aimed to clarify the difference between first- and second-line gefitinib therapy. Among the 918 newly diagnosed, inoperable NSCLC patients from March 2003 to December 2006, 437 (47.6%) had ever received gefitinib therapy. One hundred forty-nine patients (34.0%) who selected gefitinib as first- or second-line therapy were included in the analysis. The overall survival rates of first- and second-line gefitinib therapy were 12.8 months and 20.7 months, respectively (P = .110). The shorter overall survival may be caused by the omission of platinum-based doublet chemotherapy in 37 patients from the first-line group (39.4%). There was also no significant difference in progression-free survival (6.8 months versus 4.9 months; P = .415), and the objective tumor response and disease control rates were similar. Better prognosis and tumor response was associated with female gender, adenocarcinoma, nonsmokers, and good performance status. The difference in overall survival between patients undergoing second-line treatment compared with those undergoing first-line treatment preceding chemotherapy was significant (P = .041). The overall survival, progression-free survival, and tumor response rates were similar in the patients who received gefitinib as initial therapy or after conventional chemotherapy.
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Phosphorylation of Tip60 by GSK-3 determines the induction of PUMA and apoptosis by p53.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Activation of p53 by DNA damage results in either cell-cycle arrest, allowing DNA repair and cell survival, or induction of apoptosis. As these opposite outcomes are both mediated by p53 stabilization, additional mechanisms to determine this decision must exist. Here, we show that glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is required for the p53-mediated induction of the proapoptotic BH3 only-protein PUMA, an essential mediator of p53-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of GSK-3 protected from cell death induced by DNA damage and promoted increased long-term cell survival. We demonstrate that GSK-3 phosphorylates serine 86 of the p53-acetyltransferase Tip60. A Tip60(S86A) mutant was less active to induce p53 K120 acetylation, histone 4 acetylation, and expression of PUMA. Our data suggest that GSK-3 mediated Tip60S86 phosphorylation provides a link between PI3K signaling and the choice for or against apoptosis induction by p53.
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Recombinant VP1, an Akt inhibitor, suppresses progression of hepatocellular carcinoma by inducing apoptosis and modulation of CCL2 production.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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The application of viral elements in tumor therapy is one facet of cancer research. Recombinant capsid protein VP1 (rVP1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus has previously been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines. Here, we aim to further investigate its apoptotic mechanism and possible anti-metastatic effect in murine models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most common human cancers worldwide.
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The effect of cerebral monitoring on recovery after sevoflurane anesthesia in ambulatory setting in children: a comparison among bispectral index, A-line autoregressive index, and standard practice.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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The bispectral index (BIS) and A-line autoregressive index (AAI) are electroencephalogram-derived monitoring indices of anesthesia. This study evaluated the efficacy of BIS- and AAI-guided sevoflurane anesthesia in children receiving ambulatory urologic surgeries.
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Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus LEF-2 is a capsid protein required for amplification but not initiation of viral DNA replication.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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The late expression factor 2 gene (lef-2) of baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) has been identified as one of the factors essential for origin-dependent DNA replication in transient expression assays and has been shown to be involved in late/very late gene expression. To study the function of lef-2 in the life cycle of AcMNPV, lef-2 knockout and repair bacmids were generated by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Growth curve analysis showed that lef-2 was essential for virus production. Interestingly, a DNA replication assay indicated that lef-2 is not required for the initiation of viral DNA replication and that, rather, it is required for the amplification of DNA replication. lef-2 is also required for the expression of late and very late genes, as the expression of these genes was abolished by lef-2 deletion. Temporal and spatial distributions of LEF-2 protein in infected cells were also analyzed, and the data showed that LEF-2 protein was localized to the virogenic stroma in the nuclei of the infected cells. Analysis of purified virus particles revealed that LEF-2 is a viral protein component of both budded and occlusion-derived virions, predominantly in the nucleocapsids of the virus particles. This observation suggests that LEF-2 may be required immediately after virus entry into host cells for efficient viral DNA replication.
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Novel antibody screening cells, MUT+Mur kodecytes, created by attaching peptides onto red blood cells.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2009
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Antibody screening and identification panels are generally limited by the natural antigenic phenotypes present in their source donor population. However, the recent ability to attach peptides to the surface of cells has opened up the opportunity to create red blood cells (RBCs) with antigen profiles specifically designed for antibody screening and identification in a target population.
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Endobronchial ultrasonography-guided transbronchial needle aspiration increases the diagnostic yield of peripheral pulmonary lesions: a randomized trial.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
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The diagnostic yield of endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) for peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs) has not been evaluated. The diagnostic impact of TBNA when the EBUS probe is adjacent to lesions remains to be determined.
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Optical detection of human papillomavirus type 16 and type 18 by sequence sandwich hybridization with oligonucleotide-functionalized Au nanoparticles.
IEEE Trans Nanobioscience
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2009
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The importance of detecting and subtyping human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in clinical and epidemiological studies has been well addressed. In detecting the most common types of HPV, type 16 (HPV-16) and type 18 (HPV-18), in the cervical mucous of patients in a simple and rapid manner, the assay of a label-free colorimetric DNA sensing method based on sequence sandwich hybridization with oligonucleotide-functionalized Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) was fabricated in this study. Specific oligonucleotide probes were designed for the sequence detection within the L1 gene of HPV-16 and HPV-18, and the probes were capped onto AuNPs, as AuNP probes. The target HPV sequences in clinical specimens were obtained by an asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with universal primers, which can amplify the target sequences from several HPV serotypes, including HPV-16 and HPV-18. The DNA sandwich hybridization between the target sequences and the specific AuNP probes was performed at a temperature closer to the theoretical melting temperature of the DNA hybridization. Next, the procedure of increasing salt concentration and cooling the hybridizing solution was immediately utilized to discriminate the target sequences of HPV-16 or HPV-18. If the target sequences were not complementary to sequences of AuNP probes, the AuNPs would aggregate because no duplex DNA formation occurred such that the color of the reaction solution changed from red to purple. If the AuNP probes were a perfect match to the target sequences and a full DNA sandwich hybridization occurred, the reaction solution maintained its red color. A total of 70 mucous specimens from patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia were tested by the AuNP probes sandwich hybridization. The results show that there were 33, 16, 5, and 16 cases detected with HPV-16, HPV-18, both HPV-16 and HPV-18 (HPV-16/HPV-18), and neither HPV-16 nor HPV-18, respectively.
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Acute rectocolitis following endoscopy in health check-up patients--glutaraldehyde colitis or ischemic colitis?
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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Acute rectocolitis is a rare complication that follows endoscopy. It could be caused by glutaraldehyde or ischemic injury. The clinical, endoscopic, radiological, and pathological features of glutaraldehyde-induced colitis may mimic those of ischemic colitis. We reported our experiences regarding this problem.
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New image characteristics in endobronchial ultrasonography for differentiating peripheral pulmonary lesions.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2009
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Endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) rapidly and accurately localizes peripheral pulmonary lesions. It can aid differential diagnosis by characterizing lesions and discriminating between neoplastic and non-neoplastic disease. From July 2005 through December 2006, patients with peripheral lesions underwent EBUS examination in a tertiary-referral teaching hospital. Image characteristics were subsequently correlated with definite histopathologic diagnosis. Three current-issued image patterns of EBUS were assayed from 40 initial patients, including (a) hypoechoic areas, (b) anechoic areas and (c) luminant areas around the probe. Excluding 22 cases because of inconsistent typing, 193 patients possessing definite diagnoses were enrolled in the investigation, of which 107 cases (55.4%) were neoplastic diseases. Hypoechoic areas appeared to be unrelated to the nature of the lesions (p = 0.288). Most lesions with anechoic areas were neoplasms (18 of 21 cases, 85.7%) and lesions without luminant areas suggested non-neoplastic disease (19 of 24 cases, 79.2%). Anechoic and luminant areas were significantly different between neoplasm and non-neoplasm groups (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001, respectively). The average additional time for EBUS required was 3.85 +/- 2.36 min (range 1 to 13 min). In conclusion, this uncomplicated and time-saving method of using EBUS image patterns could provide additional information to facilitate differential diagnoses.
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Factors that influence 12 or more harvested lymph nodes in early-stage colorectal cancer.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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The number of lymph nodes required for accurate staging is a critical component in early-stage (stage A and B) colorectal cancer (CRC). Current guidelines demand at least 12 lymph nodes to be retrieved. Results of previous studies were contradictory in factors, which influenced the number of harvested lymph nodes. This study was designed to determine the factors that influence the number of harvested lymph nodes (> or =12) in early-stage CRC in a single institution.
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MicroRNA-122, a tumor suppressor microRNA that regulates intrahepatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are inhibitors of gene expression, participate in diverse biological functions and in carcinogenesis. In this study, we show that liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122) is significantly down-regulated in liver cancers with intrahepatic metastasis and negatively regulates tumorigenesis. Restoration of miR-122 in metastatic Mahlavu and SK-HEP-1 cells significantly reduced in vitro migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth as well as in vivo tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, and intrahepatic metastasis in an orthotopic liver cancer model. Because an inverse expression pattern is often present between an miRNA and its target genes, we used a computational approach and identified multiple miR-122 candidate target genes from two independent expression microarray datasets. Thirty-two target genes were empirically verified, and this group of genes was enriched with genes regulating cell movement, cell morphology, cell-cell signaling, and transcription. We further showed that one of the miR-122 targets, ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17) is involved in metastasis. Silencing of ADAM17 resulted in a dramatic reduction of in vitro migration, invasion, in vivo tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, and local invasion in the livers of nude mice, which is similar to that which occurs with the restoration of miR-122. Conclusion: Our study suggests that miR-122, a tumor suppressor microRNA affecting hepatocellular carcinoma intrahepatic metastasis by angiogenesis suppression, exerts some of its action via regulation of ADAM17. Restoration of miR-122 has a far-reaching effect on the cell. Using the concomitant down-regulation of its targets, including ADAM17, a rational therapeutic strategy based on miR-122 may prove to be beneficial for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
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Shifting to first-line regimen after previous failure of irinotecan and oxaliplatin containing chemotherapies in unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer: a retrospective study of case analysis.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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Conventional use of FOLFIRI-FOLFOX or the reverse sequence is the optional regimen in metastatic unresectable colorectal cancer (CRC). We present our experience in chemotherapy (C/T) shifting to first-line regimen after previous failure of irinotecan and oxaliplatin containing regimens.
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Inhibitory effect of midazolam on MMP-9, MMP-1 and MMP-13 expression in PMA-stimulated human chondrocytes via recovery of NF-?B signaling.
Arch Med Sci
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Midazolam, a benzodiazepine, has a hypnotic effect and is widely used as an intravenous sedative. Past studies have clearly established that midazolam has beneficial effects in attenuating ischemia-reperfusion injury more than other currently used sedative drugs. However, the role of midazolam on chondroprotection via inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is warrant investigation. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms of action of midazolam on MMP expression via nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) signaling in activated chondrosarcoma cells maintained in vitro.
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Priming dose of intravenous rocuronium suppresses fentanyl-induced coughing.
Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan
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An intravenous bolus of fentanyl often induces a cough reflex. This study investigates whether priming with rocuronium can effectively attenuate fentanyl-induced coughing.
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Intraventricular antimicrobial therapy in postneurosurgical Gram-negative bacillary meningitis or ventriculitis: A hospital-based retrospective study.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
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BACKGROUND: Postneurosurgical Gram-negative bacillary meningitis (GNBM) or ventriculitis is a serious issue. Intraventricular (IVT) therapy has been applied; however, its effectiveness remains controversial, and the adverse drug effects are considerable. METHODS: The demographic data, treatment strategies, and clinical outcomes of patients with postneurosurgical GNBM or ventriculitis were recorded. RESULTS: From 2003 to 2011, data on 127 episodes of infection in 109 patients were collected, and 15 episodes in 14 patients were treated using a sequential combination of intravenous antibiotics and IVT therapy; others received intravenous antibiotics alone. The average age of patients who received a sequential combination with IVT therapy was 48.9 years, and 71.4% of the patients were men. The regimens used for IVT therapies included gentamicin (n = 4), amikacin (n = 7), and colistin (n = 4). After meningitis had been diagnosed, the average period that elapsed before initiation of IVT therapy was 25.4 days, and the average duration of IVT therapy was 13.3 days. The most frequently isolated pathogen from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was Acinetobacter baumannii, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens. The cure rate was 73.3%. Of note, the mean period to sterilize the CSF after appropriate IVT antibiotic treatment was 6.6 days. There were no incidents of seizure or chemical ventriculitis during this IVT therapy. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that IVT antibiotic therapy is a useful option in the treatment of postneurosurgical GNBM or ventriculitis, especially for those with a treatment-refractory state.
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A comparison of the feasibility of laparoscopic resection of the primary tumor in patients with stage IV colon cancer with early and advanced disease: the short- and long-term outcomes at a single institution.
Surg. Today
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The role of resection of the primary tumor in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC) remains controversial. Laparoscopic resection has become an accepted therapeutic option for treating early stage I-III CRC; however, it has not been evaluated for use in patients with advanced stage disease.
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Report of a 63-case series of Candida empyema thoracis: 9-year experience of two medical centers in central Taiwan.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
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BACKGROUND: Candida empyema thoracis is a serious complication of invasive candidiasis with high mortality. However, the treatment for Candida empyema remains controversial. We conducted a 9-year retrospective study to analyze the treatments and factors associated with the mortality of patients with Candida empyema thoracis in two medical centers in central Taiwan. METHODS: The medical records of all patients with positive Candida culture from pleural effusion between October 2002 and September 2011 were reviewed. The demographic data, treatment regimens, and factors associated with mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: During the period of this study, 102 patients were identified. Sixty-three of these patients fulfilled the enrollment criteria, and their data were analyzed. Three-quarters of these patients were male, and the median age of these patients was 69. Thirty-five (55.6%) patients had contiguous infection. The crude mortality rate was 61.9%. Candida albicans was the most common isolate, and malignancy was the most common underlying disease. Patients with advanced age, a higher Charlsons score, shock status, respiratory failure, and noncontiguous infection had a higher mortality rate. Those who had received surgical intervention had a better outcome. In multivariate analysis, the shock status, respiratory failure, and noncontiguous infection source were associated with a higher mortality risk. CONCLUSION: Candida empyema thoracis is a severe invasive candidiasis with high mortality rate. Shock status, respiratory failure, and noncontiguous infection were factors associated with a higher mortality rate. Surgical intervention or drainage may improve the treatment outcome, especially in patients with contiguous infection.
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Oxaliplatin-induced severe anaphylactic reactions in metastatic colorectal cancer: case series analysis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
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To investigate oxaliplatin-induced severe anaphylactic reactions (SAR) in metastatic colorectal cancer in a retrospective case series analysis and to conduct a systemic literature review.
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Laparoscopic excision of mesenteric duplication enteric cyst embedded in sigmoid mesocolon mimicking retroperitoneal neurogenic tumor in adults.
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
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Mesenteric cysts are rare abdominal tumors with an incidence of 1/105,000 to 250,000 hospitalized adult surgical patients. These cysts may occur in every part of the mesentery, from duodenum to rectum. Most frequently, cysts are localized in small bowel mesentery. They usually present during the first decade of life, mostly occurring in pediatric patients. These lesions characteristically arise from the mesenteric border of the bowel. The majority are asymptomatic and, if found, are discovered incidentally during abdominal exploration or radiologic examination. Traditionally, the treatment of mesenteric cyst is surgical excision by laparotomy. However, in 1993, Mackenzie described the first laparoscopic excision of a mesenteric cyst. Since then, several cases have been reported but mainly in small intestine. Here, we reported an adult patient of a mesenteric duplication enteric cyst embedded in sigmoid mesocolon mimicking retroperitoneal neurogenic tumor, which was completely excised using the laparoscopic approach (Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/SLE/A73).
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Factors that influence survival in colorectal cancer with synchronous distant metastasis.
J Chin Med Assoc
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Treatments for the purposes of curing or more effectively managing metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) are evolving. Our study focused on patients with primary CRC with synchronous distant metastasis, and we analyzed the factors influencing patient survival.
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Phase transformation and lithiation effect on electronic structure of Li(x)FePO4: an in-depth study by soft X-ray and simulations.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
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Through soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy, hard X-ray Raman scattering, and theoretical simulations, we provide the most in-depth and systematic study of the phase transformation and (de)lithiation effect on electronic structure in Li(x)FePO(4) nanoparticles and single crystals. Soft X-ray reveals directly the valence states of Fe 3d electrons in the vicinity of Fermi level, which is sensitive to the local lattice distortion, but more importantly offers detailed information on the evolution of electronic states at different electrochemical stages. The soft X-ray spectra of Li(x)FePO(4) nanoparticles evolve vividly with the (de)lithiation level. The spectra fingerprint the (de)lithiation process with rich information on Li distribution, valency, spin states, and crystal field. The high-resolution spectra reveal a subtle but critical deviation from two-phase transformation in our electrochemically prepared samples. In addition, we performed both first-principles calculations and multiplet simulations of the spectra and quantitatively determined the 3d valence states that are completely redistributed through (de)lithiation. This electronic reconfiguration was further verified by the polarization-dependent spectra collected on LiFePO(4) single crystals, especially along the lithium diffusion direction. The evolution of the 3d states is overall consistent with the local lattice distortion and provides a fundamental picture of the (de)lithiation effects on electronic structure in the Li(x)FePO(4) system.
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Enhancement of initial equivalency for protein structure alignment based on encoded local structures.
IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed
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Most alignment algorithms find an initial equivalent residue pair followed by an iterative optimization process to explore better near-optimal alignments in the surrounding solution space of the initial alignment. It plays a decisive role in determining the alignment quality since a poor initial alignment may make the final alignment trapped in an undesirable local optimum even with an iterative optimization. We proposed a vector-based alignment algorithm with a new initial alignment approach accounting for local structure features called MIRAGE-align. The new idea is to enhance the quality of the initial alignment based on encoded local structural alphabets to identify the protein structure pair whose sequence identity falls in or below twilight zone. The statistical analysis of alignment quality based on Match Index (MI) and computation time demonstrated that MIRAGE-align algorithm outperformed four previously published algorithms, i.e., the residue-based algorithm (CE), the vector-based algorithm (SSM), TM-align, and Fr-TM-align. MIRAGE-align yields a better estimate of initial solution to enhance the quality of initial alignment and enable the employment of a non-iterative optimization process to achieve a better alignment.
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Quantitative evaluation of papilledema from stereoscopic color fundus photographs.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
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To derive a computerized measurement of optic disc volume from digital stereoscopic fundus photographs for the purpose of diagnosing and managing papilledema.
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idTarget: a web server for identifying protein targets of small chemical molecules with robust scoring functions and a divide-and-conquer docking approach.
Nucleic Acids Res.
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Identification of possible protein targets of small chemical molecules is an important step for unravelling their underlying causes of actions at the molecular level. To this end, we construct a web server, idTarget, which can predict possible binding targets of a small chemical molecule via a divide-and-conquer docking approach, in combination with our recently developed scoring functions based on robust regression analysis and quantum chemical charge models. Affinity profiles of the protein targets are used to provide the confidence levels of prediction. The divide-and-conquer docking approach uses adaptively constructed small overlapping grids to constrain the searching space, thereby achieving better docking efficiency. Unlike previous approaches that screen against a specific class of targets or a limited number of targets, idTarget screen against nearly all protein structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). We show that idTarget is able to reproduce known off-targets of drugs or drug-like compounds, and the suggested new targets could be prioritized for further investigation. idTarget is freely available as a web-based server at http://idtarget.rcas.sinica.edu.tw.
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Automated quantification of volumetric optic disc swelling in papilledema using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
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To develop an automated method for the quantification of volumetric optic disc swelling in papilledema subjects using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and to determine the extent that such volumetric measurements correlate with Frisén scale grades (from fundus photographs) and two-dimensional (2-D) peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and total retinal (TR) thickness measurements from SD-OCT.
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The fabrication and preservation of nanostructures on silicon wafers with a native oxide layer.
Scanning
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This study used nano-oxidation lithography to create oxidized circular nanostructures on a silicon wafer with a native oxide layer (NOL). We also investigated the impact of wet etching on the size of circular oxidized nanostructures and examined how the method and duration of preservation affect them. Experimental results show that the height and width of oxidized circular nanostructures increase proportionally with applied voltage. After wet etching, an increase in applied voltage resulted in a marked increase in the width of the circular nanostructures, a decrease in the inner diameter, and little variation in height. We further demonstrated that in a moist environment, the oxidation process continues, resulting in a further increase in height and width. During the initial stages of preservation, these changes occurred rapidly; however, the increase was negligible after 30 days. We propose the concept of reaction area (RA) ratio to explain the above phenomenon and provide evidence to support these claims. Our results led us to a simple and yet effective method of preserving oxidized circular nanostructures, called the electrostatic patch preservation (EPP) method, to overcome problems associated with changes in size occurring during the preservation of silicon nanostructure molds.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.