To retrospectively assess the use of a combination of cancellous bone reconstructions (CBR) and multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs) for the detection of bone metastases at thoracoabdominal computed tomography (CT) compared with the use of MPRs alone.
In cases of "spina bifida," a detailed prenatal imaging assessment of the exact morphology of neural tube defects (NTD) is often limited. Due to the diverse clinical prognosis and prenatal treatment options, imaging parameters that support the prenatal differentiation between open and closed neural tube defects (ONTDs and CNTDs) are required. This fetal MR study aims to evaluate the clivus-supraocciput angle (CSA) and the maximum transverse diameter of the posterior fossa (TDPF) as morphometric parameters to aid in the reliable diagnosis of either ONTDs or CNTDs.
The period of event-free survival (EFS) within the same histopathological glioma grades may have high variability, mainly without a known cause. The purpose of this study was to reveal the prognostic value of quantified tumor blood flow (TBF) values obtained by arterial spin labeling (ASL) for EFS in patients with histopathologically proven astrocytomas independent of WHO (World Health Organization) grade. Twenty-four patients with untreated gliomas underwent tumor perfusion quantification by means of pulsed ASL in 3T. The clinical history of the patients was retrospectively extracted from the local database. Six patients had to be excluded due to insufficent follow-up data for further evaluation or histopathologically verified oligodendroglioma tumor components. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to define an optimal cut-off value of maximum TBF (mTBF) values for subgrouping in low-perfused and high-perfused gliomas. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard regression model were used to determine the prognostic value of mTBF for EFS. An optimal mTBF cut-off value of 182 ml/100 g/min (sensitivity ?=?83%, specificity ?=?100%) was determined. Patients with low-perfused gliomas had significantly longer EFS compared to patients with high-perfused gliomas (p?=?0.0012) independent of the WHO glioma grade. Quantified mTBF values obtained by ASL offer a new and totally non-invasive marker to prognosticate the EFS, independently on histopathological tumor grading, in patients with gliomas.
Brain metastases are generally considered to be well demarcated from the surrounding brain parenchyma, although infiltrative growth patterns have been observed. We systemically investigated infiltration patterns and expression of adhesion molecules in a large and well-defined series of autopsy cases of brain metastases.
Herein, we report an exceptional case of a young female patient with progressive enlargement of a sellar mass, clinically suggestive of pituitary adenoma. Histopathology, however, demonstrated Rathkes cleft cyst associated with salivary gland remnants. In contrast to the majority of prior reports, the ectopic salivary glands were found in close proximity to the anterior pituitary lobe and showed active production of mucous secret, which caused progressive growth and symptoms in this patient. We further demonstrate nerve fibers surrounding the ectopic salivary glands, thereby suggesting parasympathetic innervation as a plausible mechanism triggering seromucous secretion. Neurosurgeons and neuropathologists need to be aware of this rare clinical condition expanding the spectrum of differential diagnoses of sellar masses.
Objectives: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a reliable and non-invasive method with which to localize language function in pre-surgical planning. In clinical practice, visual stimulus presentation is often difficult or impossible, due to the patients restricted language or attention abilities. Therefore, our aim was to investigate modality-specific differences in visual and auditory stimulus presentation. Methods: Ten healthy subjects participated in an fMRI study comprising two experiments with visual and auditory stimulus presentation. In both experiments, two language paradigms (one for language comprehension and one for language production) used in clinical practice were investigated. In addition to standard data analysis by the means of the general linear model (GLM), independent component analysis (ICA) was performed to achieve more detailed information on language processing networks. Results: GLM analysis revealed modality-specific brain activation for both language paradigms for the contrast visual > auditory in the area of the intraparietal sulcus and the hippocampus, two areas related to attention and working memory. Using group ICA, a language network was detected for both paradigms independent of stimulus presentation modality. The investigation of language lateralization revealed no significant variations. Visually presented stimuli further activated an attention-shift network, which could not be identified for the auditory presented language. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the visually presented language stimuli additionally activate an attention-shift network. These findings will provide important information for pre-surgical planning in order to preserve reading abilities after brain surgery, significantly improving surgical outcomes. Our findings suggest that the presentation modality for language paradigms should be adapted on behalf of individual indication.
Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed.
Myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE) is a rare tumor of the distal spinal cord. Despite benign histopathology, local recurrences occur in ~30 % of patients and distant metastases have been described in few cases. MPE tumor cells typically express glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), which could be released to the circulation. In this current report, we investigated circulating plasma-GFAP in a series of MPE patients. We analyzed circulating plasma-GFAP using a commercially available ELISA kit in 3 patients with completely resected MPE, 1 patient with locally advanced MPE and 2 patients with pleuropulmonary metastases of MPE. As controls we used blood samples of age and gender-matched healthy volunteers (n = 3), 6 glioblastoma patients with known plasma-GFAP status (positive for 3 and negative for 3 patients) and 3 brain metastases patients with known plasma-GFAP negativity. We found very high concentrations of plasma-GFAP in two MPE patients with pleuropulmonary metastases, while in none of the other MPE patients circulating plasma-GFAP was detectable. Circulating GFAP could be useful as marker for early detection or follow-up of distant metastases in MPE patients.
To retrospectively assess the detection rate for intracranial hematomas achieved with use of curved maximum intensity projections (MIPs) that parallel the inner table of the skull compared with the rate achieved by reading transverse sections of computed tomography (CT) only.
Stereotactic biopsies represent a routine neurosurgical procedure for the diagnosis of intracranial lymphomas and selected diffusely infiltrating gliomas. Acquisition of tissue samples that do not allow correct tumor typing and grading is, however, not uncommon. Five-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has been shown to accumulate in malignant tumor tissue. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the clinical usability of 5-ALA for intraoperative detection of representative tissue in stereotactic tumor biopsies. Fifty consecutive patients underwent frameless stereotactic biopsy for a suspected brain tumor. 5-ALA was administered 4 h before anesthesia. Serial biopsy samples were obtained and intraoperatively checked for 5-ALA fluorescence (strong, vague, or none) using a modified neurosurgical microscope. All samples were examined for the presence of representative tumor tissue according to neuroimaging (MRI, positron emission tomography, and/or chemical shift imaging) and histopathological parameters. Visible 5-ALA fluorescence was observed in 43/50 patients (strong in 39 and vague fluorescence in four cases). At biopsy target, 52/53 samples of glioblastomas, 9/10 samples of gliomas grade III, and 14/16 samples of lymphomas revealed strong 5-ALA fluorescence. Samples with strong 5-ALA fluorescence were only observed at, but not outside the biopsy target. All tissue samples with strong 5-ALA fluorescence were representative according to our neuroimaging and histopathological criteria (positive predictive value of 100%). Our data indicate that strong 5-ALA fluorescence is a reliable and immediately available intraoperative marker of representative tumor tissue of malignant gliomas and intracranial lymphomas in stereotactic biopsies. Thereby, the application of 5-ALA in stereotactic brain tumor biopsies may in future reduce costs for operating room and neuropathology and may decrease procedure-related morbidity.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) comprises a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders associated with spastic paraparesis (pure HSP) with or without additional neurological symptoms (complicated HSP). Here we present a case of an adult-onset, apparently autosomal-dominant, complicated form of HSP. Onset of clinical symptoms was at the age 40 years and characterised by slowly progressive corticospinal tract dysfunction, dysarthria, disorientation, extrapyramidal symptoms, and bilateral ptosis. Cranial MRI revealed hyperintensities on T2-weighted sequences mostly in the posterior limb of the internal capsule. The proband deceased at the age of 64 years. As morphological substrate for the slowly progressive clinical symptoms, comprehensive neuropathological and ultrastructural evaluation revealed a novel oligodendrogliopathy with distinctive, partly ubiquitinated and p62 positive fibrillar inclusions evolving into crystalloid deposits, containing elements of the oligodendroglial cytoskeleton (?- and ?-tubulin, TPPP/p25). In the central nervous system, accumulation of crystalloid structures has been related to histiocytes but not to glial cells. This study has implications for the understanding on how the human central nervous system reacts to protracted dysfunction and disruption of the oligodendroglial cytoskeleton, including development of crystalloid structures, which have not yet been reported in neurodegenerative diseases including HSP.
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