Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS) is accompanied by evidence of a vigorous adaptive immune response, and emerging studies demonstrate that some nasal polyps manifest a polyclonal autoantibody response. We previously found that antibodies against BP180, a component of the hemidesmosome complex and the dominant epitope in autoimmune bullous pemphigoid, were found at elevated levels in nasal polyp tissue. Given the critical role of hemidesmosomes in maintaining epithelial integrity, we sought to investigate the distribution of BP180 in nasal tissue and evaluate for evidence of systemic autoimmunity against this antigen in CRS.
Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (ICI) have been identified in ciliated bronchial epithelium of Kawasaki disease (KD) patients using a synthetic antibody derived from acute KD arterial IgA plasma cells; ICI may derive from the KD etiologic agent.
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) gene transfer is being developed as a treatment for Parkinsons disease (PD). Due to the potential for side effects, external transgene regulation should enhance this strategys safety profile. Here, we demonstrate dynamic control during long-term expression of GDNF using a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-based bicistronic tetracycline (tet)-off construct. Nigrostriatal GDNF overexpression induces body weight alterations in rodents, enabling longitudinal in vivo tracking of GDNF expression after nigral vector delivery. Regulated GDNF expression was highly sensitive to dietary doxycycline (DOX), displaying undetectable striatal GDNF levels at serum DOX levels below those required for antimicrobial activity. However, in the absence of DOX, striatal GDNF levels exceeded levels required for efficacy in PD models. We also demonstrate the absence of a series of known GDNF-associated side effects when using direct intrastriatal vector delivery. Therefore, this single rAAV vector system meets most of the requirements for an experimental reagent for treatment of PD.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an unremitting disease defined by a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance leading to right-sided heart failure. Using mice with genetic deletions of caveolin 1 (Cav1) and eNOS (Nos3), we demonstrate here that chronic eNOS activation secondary to loss of caveolin-1 can lead to PH. Consistent with a role for eNOS in the pathogenesis of PH, the pulmonary vascular remodeling and PH phenotype of Cav1-/- mice were absent in Cav1-/-Nos3-/- mice. Further, treatment of Cav1-/- mice with either MnTMPyP (a superoxide scavenger) or l-NAME (a NOS inhibitor) reversed their pulmonary vascular pathology and PH phenotype. Activation of eNOS in Cav1-/- lungs led to the impairment of PKG activity through tyrosine nitration. Moreover, the PH phenotype in Cav1-/- lungs could be rescued by overexpression of PKG-1. The clinical relevance of the data was indicated by the observation that lung tissue from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension demonstrated increased eNOS activation and PKG nitration and reduced caveolin-1 expression. Together, these data show that loss of caveolin-1 leads to hyperactive eNOS and subsequent tyrosine nitration-dependent impairment of PKG activity, which results in PH. Thus, targeting of PKG nitration represents a potential novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PH.
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