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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Distinct differences in gene expression patterns in pulmonary arteries of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with pulmonary hypertension.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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The development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased morbidity.
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Health-related on-pack communication and nutritional value of ready-to-eat breakfast cereals evaluated against five nutrient profiling schemes.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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There is an ongoing debate regarding health-related on-pack information appearing on products with low nutritional quality. The purpose of the study was to contribute to this discussion by examining the relationship between health-related on-pack information and the overall nutritional value of highly processed ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (RTECs).
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Diphenyl diselenide administration enhances cortical mitochondrial number and activity by increasing hemeoxygenase type 1 content in a methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity mouse model.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Interest in biochemistry of organoselenium compound has increased in the last decades, mainly due to their chemical and biological activities. Here, we investigated the protective effect of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 (5 ?mol/kg), in a mouse model of methylmercury (MeHg)-induced brain toxicity. Swiss male mice were divided into four experimental groups: control, (PhSe)2 (5 ?mol/kg, subcutaneous administration), MeHg (40 mg/L, in tap water), and MeHg + (PhSe)2. After the treatment (21 days), the animals were killed and the cerebral cortex was analyzed. Electron microscopy indicated an enlarged and fused mitochondria leading to a reduced number of organelles, in the MeHg-exposed mice. Furthermore, cortical creatine kinase activity, a sensitive mitochondrial oxidative stress sensor, was almost abolished by MeHg. Subcutaneous (PhSe)2 co-treatment rescued from MeHg-induced mitochondrial alterations. (PhSe)2 also behaved as an enhancer of mitochondrial biogenesis, by increasing cortical mitochondria content in mouse-receiving (PhSe)2 alone. Mechanistically, (PhSe)2 (1 ?M; 24 h) would trigger the cytoprotective Nrf-2 pathway for activating target genes, since astroglial cells exposed to the chalcogen showed increased content of hemeoxygenase type 1, a sensitive marker of the activation of this via. Thus, it is proposed that the (PhSe)2-neuroprotective effect might be linked to its mitoprotective activity.
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A new class of synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide peptides inhibits influenza A virus replication by blocking cellular attachment.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Influenza A viruses are a continuous threat to human health as illustrated by the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Since circulating influenza virus strains become increasingly resistant against currently available drugs, the development of novel antivirals is urgently needed. Here, we have evaluated a recently described new class of broad-spectrum antiviral peptides (synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide peptides; SALPs) for their potential to inhibit influenza virus replication in vitro and in vivo. We found that particularly SALP PEP 19-2.5 shows high binding affinities for the influenza virus receptor molecule, N-Acetylneuraminic acid, leading to impaired viral attachment and cellular entry. As a result, replication of several influenza virus subtypes (H7N7, H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1) was strongly reduced. Furthermore, mice co-treated with PEP 19-2.5 were protected against an otherwise 100% lethal H7N7 influenza virus infection. These findings show that SALPs exhibit antiviral activity against influenza viruses by blocking virus attachment and entry into host cells. Thus, SALPs present a new class of broad-spectrum antiviral peptides for further development for influenza virus therapy.
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Transcriptional regionalization of the fruit fly's airway epithelium.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Although airway epithelia are primarily devoted to gas exchange, they have to fulfil a number of different tasks including organ maintenance and the epithelial immune response to fight airborne pathogens. These different tasks are at least partially accomplished by specialized cell types in the epithelium. In addition, a proximal to distal gradient mirroring the transition from airflow conduction to real gas exchange, is also operative. We analysed the airway system of larval Drosophila melanogaster with respect to region-specific expression in the proximal to distal axis. The larval airway system is made of epithelial cells only. We found differential expression between major trunks of the airways and more distal ones comprising primary, secondary and terminal ones. A more detailed analysis was performed using DNA-microarray analysis to identify cohorts of genes that are either predominantly expressed in the dorsal trunks or in the primary/secondary/terminal branches of the airways. Among these differentially expressed genes are especially those involved in signal transduction. Wnt-signalling associated genes for example are predominantly found in secondary/terminal airways. In addition, some G-protein coupled receptors are differentially expressed between both regions of the airways, exemplified by those activated by octopamine or tyramine, the invertebrate counterparts of epinephrine and norepinephrine. Whereas the OAMB is predominantly found in terminal airway regions, the oct3?R has higher expression levels in dorsal trunks. In addition, we observed a significant association of both, genes predominantly expressed in dorsal trunks or in primary to terminal branches branches with those regulated by hypoxia. Taken together, this observed differential expression is indicative for a proximal to distal transcriptional regionalization presumably reflecting functional differences in these parts of the fly's airway system.
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Non-circadian expression masking clock-driven weak transcription rhythms in U2OS cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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U2OS cells harbor a circadian clock but express only a few rhythmic genes in constant conditions. We identified 3040 binding sites of the circadian regulators BMAL1, CLOCK and CRY1 in the U2OS genome. Most binding sites even in promoters do not correlate with detectable rhythmic transcript levels. Luciferase fusions reveal that the circadian clock supports robust but low amplitude transcription rhythms of representative promoters. However, rhythmic transcription of these potentially clock-controlled genes is masked by non-circadian transcription that overwrites the weaker contribution of the clock in constant conditions. Our data suggest that U2OS cells harbor an intrinsically rather weak circadian oscillator. The oscillator has the potential to regulate a large number of genes. The contribution of circadian versus non-circadian transcription is dependent on the metabolic state of the cell and may determine the apparent complexity of the circadian transcriptome.
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Overexpression of Sir2 in the adult fat body is sufficient to extend lifespan of male and female Drosophila.
Aging (Albany NY)
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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Sir2 is the most intensively discussed longevity gene in current aging research. Although, the gene encoding a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase initially was found to extend lifespan of various organisms ranging from yeast to mammals, serious doubts regarding its role in longevity have been expressed recently. In this study, we tested whether tissue-specific overexpression of Sir2 in the adult fat body can extend lifespan when compared to genetically identical controls. We also wanted to elucidate the mechanisms by which fat body Sir2 promotes longevity by studying the phenotypic and transcriptional changes in the fat body. We found that moderate (3-fold) Sir2 overexpression in the fat body during adulthood only can promote longevity in both sexes by roughly 13 %. In addition, we obtained transcriptional profiles elicited by this overexpression and propose a role for Sir2 in lipid droplet biology especially under conditions of starvation. Furthermore, our data do not support the idea of Sir2 mediating the response to dietary restriction (DR) because transcriptional profiles of fat bodies after DR or Sir2 overexpression do not match. This study provides additional independent evidence for the concept of Sir2 as a longevity gene and as a promising pharmacological target to cure age-related diseases.
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Control of reflex reversal in stick insect walking: effects of intersegmental signals, changes in direction, and optomotor-induced turning.
J. Neurophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
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In many animals, the effects of sensory feedback on motor output change during locomotion. These changes can occur as reflex reversals in which sense organs that activate muscles to counter perturbations in posture control instead reinforce movements in walking. The mechanisms underlying these changes are only partially understood. As such, it is unclear whether reflex reversals are modulated when locomotion is adapted, such as during changes in walking direction or in turning movements. We investigated these questions in the stick insect Carausius morosus, where sensory signals from the femoral chordotonal organ are known to produce resistance reflexes at rest but assistive movements during walking. We studied how intersegmental signals from neighboring legs affect the generation of reflex reversals in a semi-intact preparation that allows free leg movement during walking. We found that reflex reversal was enhanced by stepping activity of the ipsilateral neighboring rostral leg, whereas stepping of contralateral legs had no effect. Furthermore, we found that the occurrence of reflex reversals was task-specific: in the front legs of animals with five legs walking, reflex reversal was generated only during forward and not backward walking. Similarly, during optomotor-induced curved walking, reflex reversal occurred only in the middle leg on the inside of the turn and not in the contralateral leg on the outside of the turn. Thus our results show for the first time that the nervous system modulates reflexes in individual legs in the adaptation of walking to specific tasks.
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EGCG downregulates IL-1RI expression and suppresses IL-1-induced tumorigenic factors in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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Human pancreatic cancer is currently one of the fifth-leading causes of cancer-related mortality with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Since pancreatic carcinoma is largely refractory to conventional therapies, there is a strong medical need for the development of novel and innovative therapeutic strategies. Increasing evidence suggests an association of carcinogenesis and chronic inflammation. Because IL-1 plays a crucial role in inflammation-associated carcinogenesis, we analyzed the biological effects of IL-1 and its modulation by the chemopreventive green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in the human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Colo357. Proinflammatory IL-6 and PGHS-2 as well as proangiogenic IL-8 and VEGF were induced by IL-1, whereas the secretion of invasion-promoting MMP-2 remained unaffected. IL-1 responsiveness and constitutive MMP-2 release in Colo357 were downregulated by EGCG in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, EGCG reduced cell viability via induction of apoptosis in Colo357. Since EGCG effects on cytokine production precede reduction in cell viability, we hypothesize that these findings are not only a result of cell death but also depend on alterations in the IL-1 signaling cascade. In this context, we found for the first time an EGCG-induced downregulation of the IL-1RI expression possibly being caused by NF-?B inhibition and causative for its inhibitory action on the production of tumorigenic factors. Thus, our data might have future clinical implications with respect to the development of novel approaches as an adjuvant therapy in high-risk patients with human pancreatic carcinoma.
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Involvement of mast cells in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats.
Respir. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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Mast cells (MCs) are implicated in inflammation and tissue remodeling. Accumulation of lung MCs is described in pulmonary hypertension (PH); however, whether MC degranulation and c-kit, a tyrosine kinase receptor critically involved in MC biology, contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of PH has not been fully explored.
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Sildenafil preserves lung endothelial function and prevents pulmonary vascular remodeling in a rat model of diastolic heart failure.
Circ Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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Pulmonary hypertension as a frequent complication of left heart disease (PH-LHD) is characterized by lung endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling. Although PH-LHD contributes to morbidity and mortality in heart failure, established therapies for PH-LHD are lacking. We tested the effect of chronic sildenafil treatment in an experimental model of PH-LHD.
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Combination of clopidogrel and everolimus dramatically reduced the development of transplant arteriosclerosis in murine aortic allografts.
Transpl. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
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Our group has shown that platelet inhibition with clopidogrel, an antagonist of the P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate receptor on platelets, reduced the formation of transplant arteriosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combination of cyclosporin or everolimus with clopidogrel has a beneficial effect on the development of transplant arteriosclerosis. Fully MHC mismatched C57Bl/6 (H2(b)) donor aortas were transplanted into CBA.J (H2(k)) recipients and mice received either clopidogrel alone (1 mg/kg/day) or in combination with cyclosporin (2 mg/kg/day) or everolimus (0.05 mg/kg/day). Grafts were analysed by histology and morphometry on day 30 after transplantation. In mice treated with clopidogrel alone, transplant arteriosclerosis was significantly reduced [intima proliferation 56 +/- 11% vs. 81 +/- 7% (control)/n = 7]. Daily application of everolimus reduced the development of transplant arteriosclerosis compared with untreated controls [intima proliferation of 29 +/- 9% vs. 81 +/- 7% (control)/n = 7]. Strikingly, combination of clopidogrel and everolimus almost abolished the formation of transplant arteriosclerosis [intima proliferation: 11 +/- 8% vs. 81 +/- 7% (control)/n = 7]. By contrast, combination of cyclosporin and clopidogrel compared with clopidogrel alone showed no additive effect. These results demonstrate that combination of platelet- and mammalian target of Rapamycin-inhibition can dramatically reduce the development of transplant arteriosclerosis.
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Lung endothelial dysfunction in congestive heart failure: role of impaired Ca2+ signaling and cytoskeletal reorganization.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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Congestive heart failure (CHF) frequently results in remodeling and increased tone of pulmonary resistance vessels. This adaptive response, which aggravates pulmonary hypertension and thus, promotes right ventricular failure, has been attributed to lung endothelial dysfunction.
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Negative pressure wound therapy for post-sternotomy mediastinitis reduces mortality rate and sternal re-infection rate compared to conventional treatment.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
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Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a recently introduced treatment modality for post-sternotomy mediastinitis. The aim of this study was to compare the mortality rate, the sternal re-infection rate and the length of hospital stay in patients with post-sternotomy mediastinitis after NPWT and conventional treatment.
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A new C-terminal cleavage product of procaspase-8, p30, defines an alternative pathway of procaspase-8 activation.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2009
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Caspase-8 is the main initiator caspase in death receptor-induced apoptosis. Procaspase-8 is activated at the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC). Previous studies suggested a two-step model of procaspase-8 activation. The first cleavage step occurs between the protease domains p18 and p10. The second cleavage step takes place between the prodomain and the large protease subunit (p18). Subsequently, the active caspase-8 heterotetramer p18(2)-p10(2) is released into the cytosol, starting the apoptotic signaling cascade. In this report, we have further analyzed procaspase-8 processing upon death receptor stimulation directly at the DISC and in the cytosol. We have found an alternative sequence of cleavage events for procaspase-8. We have demonstrated that the first cleavage can also occur between the prodomain and the large protease subunit (p18). The resulting cleavage product, p30, contains both the large protease subunit (p18) and the small protease subunit (p10). p30 is further processed to p10 and p18 by active caspases. Furthermore, we show that p30 can sensitize cells toward death receptor-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest an alternative mechanism of procaspase-8 activation at the DISC.
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Attenuation of transplant arteriosclerosis by oral feeding of major histocompatibility complex encoding chitosan-DNA nanoparticles.
Transpl. Immunol.
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One promising approach for the induction of transplant tolerance is the pre-treatment of transplant recipients with donor MHC-alloantigen. Our study focuses on the oral delivery of MHC-antigen encoding genes via chitosan-DNA nanoparticles to modulate the alloimmune response in order to reduce the development of transplant arteriosclerosis, the hallmark feature of chronic rejection after heart transplantation. Therefore, we performed fully allogeneic mouse abdominal aortic transplants using C57BL/6 (H2(b)) mice as donors and CBA.J (H2(k)) mice as recipients. Aortic grafts were analyzed by histology and morphometry on day 30 after transplantation, levels of circulating alloantibodies were detected by FACS analysis. Pre-treatment of recipient mice with chitosan-DNA nanoparticles encoding for K(b), one of the MHC-I molecules of the donor, resulted in a significant reduction of intimal proliferation compared to untreated controls. When Ovalbumin was fed instead of K(b) encoding nanoparticles (K(b)-NP) or Balb/c (H2(d)) grafts were used instead of C57BL/6 (H2(b)) grafts as antigen controls, both groups showed no reduction of intimal thickness indicating an antigen-specific mechanism. In addition, analysis of peripheral blood of the transplanted mice showed significant suppression of alloantibody formation in the K(b)-NP fed group compared to all other allogeneic transplanted groups suggesting modulation of the humoral immune response. These results demonstrate the potential of chitosan-DNA nanoparticles to induce K(b)-specific tolerance and to reduce the development of transplant arteriosclerosis.
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Reduction of transplant arteriosclerosis after treatment with mycophenolate mofetil and ganciclovir in a mouse aortic allograft model.
Exp Clin Transplant
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Transplant arteriosclerosis is a major obstacle for long-term allograft survival in heart transplant. The aim of this study was to investigate potential synergistic effects of combined treatment with mycophenolate mofetil and ganciclovir on the development of transplant arteriosclerosis, presence of regulatory T cells, and expression of donor specific alloantibodies.
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Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction requires connexin 40-mediated endothelial signal conduction.
J. Clin. Invest.
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Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is a physiological mechanism by which pulmonary arteries constrict in hypoxic lung areas in order to redirect blood flow to areas with greater oxygen supply. Both oxygen sensing and the contractile response are thought to be intrinsic to pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Here we speculated that the ideal site for oxygen sensing might instead be at the alveolocapillary level, with subsequent retrograde propagation to upstream arterioles via connexin 40 (Cx40) endothelial gap junctions. HPV was largely attenuated by Cx40-specific and nonspecific gap junction uncouplers in the lungs of wild-type mice and in lungs from mice lacking Cx40 (Cx40-/-). In vivo, hypoxemia was more severe in Cx40-/- mice than in wild-type mice. Real-time fluorescence imaging revealed that hypoxia caused endothelial membrane depolarization in alveolar capillaries that propagated to upstream arterioles in wild-type, but not Cx40-/-, mice. Transformation of endothelial depolarization into vasoconstriction involved endothelial voltage-dependent ?1G subtype Ca2+ channels, cytosolic phospholipase A2, and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Based on these data, we propose that HPV originates at the alveolocapillary level, from which the hypoxic signal is propagated as endothelial membrane depolarization to upstream arterioles in a Cx40-dependent manner.
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Apolipoprotein B100 is a suppressor of Staphylococcus aureus-induced innate immune responses in humans and mice.
Eur. J. Immunol.
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Plasma lipoproteins such as LDL (low-density lipoprotein) are important therapeutic targets as they play a crucial role in macrophage biology and metabolic disorders. The impact of lipoprotein profiles on host defense pathways against Gram-positive bacteria is poorly understood. In this report, we discovered that human serum lipoproteins bind to lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus and thereby alter the immune response to these bacteria. Size-exclusion chromatography and solid-phase-binding analysis of serum revealed the direct interaction of LTA with apolipoproteins (Apo) B100, ApoA1, and ApoA2. Only ApoB100 and the corresponding LDL exerted biological effects as this binding significantly inhibited LTA-induced cytokine releases from human and murine immune cells. Serum from hypercholesterolemic mice or humans significantly diminished cytokine induction in response to S. aureus or its LTA. Sera taken from the patients with familial hypercholesterolemia before and after ApoB100-directed immuno-apheresis confirmed that ApoB100 inhibited LTA-induced inflammation in humans. In addition, mice in which LDL secretion was pharmacologically inhibited, displayed significantly increased serum cytokine levels upon infection with S. aureus in vivo. The present study identifies ApoB100 as an important suppressor of innate immune activation in response to S. aureus and its LTA.
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Are temporomandibular disorder symptoms and diagnoses associated with pubertal development in adolescents? An epidemiological study.
J Orofac Orthop
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In addition to low back pain, temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are the most prevalent pain- and disability-related musculoskeletal conditions. However, the influence of pubertal development on TMD diagnoses remains unknown.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.