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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Evaluation of p16(INK4a) overexpression in a large series of cervical carcinomas: concordance with SPF10-LiPA25 PCR.
Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The aims of this study were to assess the overexpression of p16 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical carcinoma tissue blocks and to determine its concordance with the human papillomavirus (HPV) status using the SPF10-LiPA25 polymerase chain reaction System and its correlation with the histologic type of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and individual HPV genotypes. A total of 205 retrospectively collected ICC cases were analyzed by p16 immunohistochemistry. HPV detection was performed by polymerase chain reaction using SPF10 broad-spectrum primers, followed by deoxyribonucleic acid enzyme immunoassay and genotyping by reverse hybridization line probe assay (LiPA25). Of 205, 188 analyzed (91.7%) ICC cases showed p16 overexpression, whereas 181 (83.3%) cases were HPV positive using HPV LiPA testing. One hundred and seventy four (84.9%) cases were both p16 and HPV LiPA positive, indicating a positive concordance of 89.9% between both techniques (? index agreement of 0.43; P<0.001), and no statistically significant difference (McNemar test, P>0.05). Squamous cell carcinomas were strongly positive compared with the adenocarcinomas (93.6% vs. 75% of the cases, respectively). When performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical tissue specimens, the higher positivity rate of p16 immunohistochemistry as compared with HPV DNA testing may allow identifying HPV-related ICC cases in which HPV testing was negative.
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Time trends of human papillomavirus types in invasive cervical cancer, from 1940 to 2007.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Contribution over time of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in human cancers has been poorly documented. Such data is fundamental to measure current HPV vaccines impact in the years to come. We estimated the HPV type-specific distribution in a large international series of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) over 70 years prior to vaccination. Paraffin embedded ICC cases diagnosed between 1940 and 2007 were retrieved from eleven countries in Central-South America, Asia and Europe. Included countries reported to have low-medium cervical cancer screening uptake. Information on age at and year of diagnosis was collected from medical records. After histological confirmation, HPV DNA detection was performed by SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 (version1). Logistic regression models were used for estimating the adjusted relative contributions (RC) of HPV16 and of HPV18 over time. Among 4,771 HPV DNA positive ICC cases, HPV16 and HPV18 were the two most common HPVs in all the decades with no statistically significant variations of their adjusted-RC from 1940-59 to 2000-07 (HPV16-from 61.5 to 62.1%, and HPV18-from 6.9 to 7.2%). As well, the RC of other HPV types did not varied over time. In the stratified analysis by histology, HPV16 adjusted-RC significantly increased across decades in adenocarcinomas. Regarding age, cases associated to either HPV16, 18 or 45 were younger than those with other HPV types in all the evaluated decades. The observed stability on the HPV type distribution predicts a high and stable impact of HPV vaccination in reducing the cervical cancer burden in future vaccinated generations.
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Human papillomavirus genotype distribution in cervical cancer cases in Spain. Implications for prevention.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is critical to guide the introduction and to assess the impact of HPV prophylactic vaccines. This study aims to provide specific information for Spain.
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Human papillomavirus genotype attribution in invasive cervical cancer: a retrospective cross-sectional worldwide study.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2010
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Knowledge about the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in invasive cervical cancer is crucial to guide the introduction of prophylactic vaccines. We aimed to provide novel and comprehensive data about the worldwide genotype distribution in patients with invasive cervical cancer.
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Impact of CYP1A1 and COMT genotypes on breast cancer risk in Mexican women: a pilot study.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
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Data suggest that estrogen-metabolizing genes may be involved in breast cancer carcinogenesis.
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Biomarkers of cell damage induced by oxidative stress in Parkinsons disease and related models.
Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2010
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One of the common features occurring in several experimental models of neurodegenerative disorders is oxidative/nitrosative stress (OS/NS). This event induces a series of deleterious actions involving the primary formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), affecting both the structure and function of different biological molecules, and leading to specific toxic processes that compromise cell redox status. Biomarkers are important indicators of normal and abnormal biological processes. Specific biochemical and genetic changes observed in different pathologies bring us comprehensive information regarding the nature of any particular disorder. Parkinsons disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder difficult to study, given the intricate events occurring in the pathology, and also because the resultant clinical phenotype fluctuates over time. At present, we have no definitive diagnostic test, and thus for clinicians there is still expectation that biomarkers will eventually help to diagnose symptomatic and presymptomatic disease, or provide surrogated end-points to demonstrate clinical efficacy of new treatments and neuroprotective therapies. In this review we explore current information on some potential biomarkers of OS/NS in PD models, with special emphasis on the most-recent findings on this topic.
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Early toxic effect of 6-hydroxydopamine on extracellular concentrations of neurotransmitters in the rat striatum: an in vivo microdialysis study.
Neurotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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The early effects of 6-OHDA as a Parkinsonian model in rodents are relevant since pharmacological and toxicological points of view, as they can explain the acute and chronic deleterious events occurring in the striatum. In this study, we focused our attention on the neurochemical and motor dysfunction produced after a pulse infusion of 6-OHDA, paying special attention to the capacity of this molecule to induce neurotransmitter release and behavioural alterations. Extracellular levels of dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, glycine and GABA were all assessed in striatal dialysates in freely moving rats immediately after exposed to a single pulse of 6-OHDA in dorsal striatum, and major behavioural markers of motor alterations were simultaneously explored. Enhanced release of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine was found immediately after 6-OHDA pulse. Delayed glutamate and glycine release were detected and a biphasic effect on GABA was observed. Mostly serotonin and dopamine outflow, followed by glutamate, correlated with wet dog shakes and other behavioural qualitative alterations. Early dopamine release, accompanied by other neurotransmitters, can generate an excitatory environment affecting the striatal neurons with immediate consequences for behavioural performance. In turn, these changes might be accounting for later features of toxicity described in this model.
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A new electrocardiographic algorithm to locate the occlusion in left anterior descending coronary artery.
Clin Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2009
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Early prediction of proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion is essential from a clinical point of view
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6-OHDA-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction are mediated by early modulation of intracellular signals and interaction of Nrf2 and NF-?B factors.
Toxicology
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6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a neurotoxin that generates an experimental model of Parkinsons disease in rodents and is commonly employed to induce a lesion in dopaminergic pathways. The characterization of those molecular mechanisms linked to 6-OHDA-induced early toxicity is needed to better understand the cellular events further leading to neurodegeneration. The present work explored how 6-OHDA triggers early downstream signaling pathways that activate neurotoxicity in the rat striatum. Mitochondrial function, caspases-dependent apoptosis, kinases signaling (Akt, ERK 1/2, SAP/JNK and p38) and crosstalk between nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) and nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were evaluated at early times post-lesion. We found that 6-OHDA initiates cell damage via mitochondrial complex I inhibition, cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) release, as well as activation of caspases 9 and 3 to induce apoptosis, kinase signaling modulation and NF-?B-mediated inflammatory responses, accompanied by inhibition of antioxidant systems regulated by the Nrf2 pathway. Our results suggest that kinases SAP/JNK and p38 up-regulation may play a role in the early stages of 6-OHDA toxicity to trigger intrinsic pathways for apoptosis and enhanced NF-?B activation. In turn, these cellular events inhibit the activation of cytoprotective mechanisms, thereby leading to a condition of general damage.
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S-allyl cysteine protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in the rat striatum: involvement of Nrf2 transcription factor activation and modulation of signaling kinase cascades.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
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Pharmacological activation at the basal ganglia of the transcription factor Nrf2, guardian of redox homeostasis, holds a strong promise for the slow progression of Parkinsons disease (PD). However, a potent Nrf2 activator in the brain still must be found. In this study, we have investigated the potential use of the antioxidant compound S-allyl cysteine (SAC) in the activation of Nrf2 in 6-hydoxydopamine (6-OHDA)-intoxicated rats. In the rat striatum, SAC by itself promoted the Nrf2 dissociation of Keap-1, its nuclear translocation, the subsequent association with small MafK protein, and further binding of the Nrf2/MafK complex to ARE sequence, as well as the up-regulation of Nrf2-dependent genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes HO-1, NQO-1, GR, and SOD-1. In vivo and in vitro experiments to identify signaling pathways activated by SAC pointed to Akt as the most likely kinase participating in Nrf2 activation by SAC. In PC12 cells, SAC stimulated the activation of Akt and ERK1/2 and inhibited JNK1/2/3 activation. In the rat striatum, the SAC-induced activation of Nrf2 is likely to contribute to inhibit the toxic effects of 6-OHDA evidenced by phase 2 antioxidant enzymes up-regulation, glutathione recovery, and attenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and lipid peroxides formation. These early protective effects correlated with the long-term preservation of the cellular redox status, the striatal dopamine (DA) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels, and the improvement of motor skills. Therefore, this study indicates that, in addition to direct scavenging actions, the activation of Nrf2 by SAC might confer neuroprotective responses through the modulation of kinase signaling pathways in rodent models of PD, and suggests that this antioxidant molecule may have a therapeutic value in this human pathology.
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Structural and functional characterization of Nrf2 degradation by the glycogen synthase kinase 3/?-TrCP axis.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
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The transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a master regulator of a genetic program, termed the phase 2 response, that controls redox homeostasis and participates in multiple aspects of physiology and pathology. Nrf2 protein stability is regulated by two E3 ubiquitin ligase adaptors, Keap1 and ?-TrCP, the latter of which was only recently reported. Here, two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and site-directed mutagenesis allowed us to identify two serines of Nrf2 that are phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) in the sequence DSGISL. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies defined key residues of this phosphosequence involved in docking to the WD40 propeller of ?-TrCP, through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. We also identified three arginine residues of ?-TrCP that participate in Nrf2 docking. Intraperitoneal injection of the GSK-3 inhibitor SB216763 led to increased Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 levels in liver and hippocampus. Moreover, mice with hippocampal absence of GSK-3? exhibited increased levels of Nrf2 and phase 2 gene products, reduced glutathione, and decreased levels of carbonylated proteins and malondialdehyde. This study establishes the structural parameters of the interaction of Nrf2 with the GSK-3/?-TrCP axis and its functional relevance in the regulation of Nrf2 by the signaling pathways that impinge on GSK-3.
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Curcumin restores Nrf2 levels and prevents quinolinic acid-induced neurotoxicity.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
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Neurological diseases comprise a group of heterogeneous disorders characterized by progressive brain dysfunction and cell death. In the next years, these diseases are expected to constitute a world-wide health problem. Because excitotoxicity and oxidative stress are involved in neurodegenerative diseases, it becomes relevant to describe pharmacological therapies designed to activate endogenous cytoprotective systems. Activation of transcription factor Nrf2 stimulates cytoprotective vitagenes involved in antioxidant defense. In this work, we investigated the ability of the antioxidant curcumin to induce transcription factor Nrf2 in a neurodegenerative model induced by quinolinic acid in rats. Animals were administered with curcumin (400 mg/kg, p.o.) for 10 days, and then intrastriatally infused with quinolinic acid (240 nmol) on day 10 of treatment. Curcumin prevented rotation behavior (6 days post-lesion), striatal morphological alterations (7 days post-lesion) and neurodegeneration (1 and 3 days post-lesion) induced by quinolinic acid. Curcumin also reduced quinolinic acid-induced oxidative stress (measured as protein carbonyl content) at 6 h post-lesion. The protective effects of curcumin were associated to its ability to prevent the quinolinic acid-induced decrease of striatal intra-nuclear Nrf2 levels (30 and 120 min post-lesion), and total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities (1 day post-lesion). Therefore, results of this study support the concept that neuroprotection induced by curcumin is associated with its ability to activate the Nrf2 cytoprotective pathway and to increase the total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities.
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Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the penis with papillary features: a clinicopathologic study of 12 cases.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
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There are 3 distinct variants of penile squamous cell carcinoma frequently associated with human papillomavirus (HPV): basaloid, warty-basaloid, and warty carcinomas. Considering the high incidence rates of penile cancer in some countries, a large international study was designed to evaluate the presence of HPV, its genotype distribution, and its association with histologic types of penile cancer. In this international review of >900 cases, we found a group of highly distinct papillary neoplasms composed of basophilic cells resembling urothelial tumors but frequently associated with HPV. Macroscopically, tumors were exophytic or exoendophytic. Microscopically, there was a papillomatous pattern of growth with a central fibrovascular core and small basophilic cells lining the papillae. Positivity for HPV was present in 11 of 12 tumors (92%). Single genotypes found were HPV-16 in 9 tumors and HPV-51 in 1 tumor. Multiple genotypes (HPV-16 and HPV-45) were present in another case. Overexpression of p16 was observed in all cases. Uroplakin-III was negative in all cases. The differential diagnosis was with basaloid, warty-basaloid, warty, and papillary squamous cell carcinoma and with urothelial carcinomas. Local excision (4 cases), circumcision (3 cases), or partial penectomy (5 cases) were preferred treatment choices. Tumor thickness ranged from 1 to 15 mm (average, 7 mm). Two patients with tumors invading 11 and 15 mm into the corpus spongiosum developed inguinal nodal metastasis. Of 11 patients followed up (median 48 mo), 7 were alive with no evidence of metastatic disease, 3 died from causes other than penile cancer, and another died postoperatively. This morphologically distinct tumor probably represents a papillary variant of basaloid carcinomas (papillary-basaloid carcinomas). Unlike typical basaloid carcinomas, the overall prognosis was excellent. However, deeply invasive tumors were associated with regional nodal metastasis indicating a potential for tumor-related death.
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Comparison of 2 different PCR-based technologies for the detection of human papilloma virus from paraffin-embedded tissue: genómica clinical arrays versus SPF(10)-LiPA(25).
Diagn. Mol. Pathol.
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The great interest in molecular epidemiology of human papilloma virus (HPV) in cervical cancer led us to perform a thorough evaluation of 2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for the detection of HPV in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare HPV detection in FFPE samples that have histopathologic diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer using SPF10 broad-spectrum primers PCR followed by DNA enzyme immunoassay and LiPA25 (version 1: Labo Biomedical products, Rijswijk, The Netherlands version 1) and the Papillomavirus Clinical Arrays technique (Genómica, Tres Cantos, Madrid, Spain). In this study, 235 biopsies with histopathologic diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer were analyzed for the detection and genotyping of HPV by LiPA25 SPF10-PCR System (version 1) and Papillomavirus Clinical Arrays technique. The detection of HPV DNA with Genómica technique was 75.1%, and 91.9% with LiPA25 SPF10-PCR. The Genómica technique detected a higher percentage of multiple infections (35%) than LiPA25 (8.9%), with a very low agreement for the detection of multiple infections between them (P>0.05). Our study highlights an important difference between 2 PCR-based methods for detection and genotyping of HPV. LiPA25 SPF10-PCR technology may be more adequate than Genómica for the detection of HPV DNA when using FFPE tissue.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.