JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A Lewis acid activated reaction of Zn with EtI to promote highly enantioselective alkyne additions to aldehydes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An easily available BINOL-Ti(O(i)Pr)4 catalyst system is found to activate the reaction of Zn powder with EtI for the asymmetric alkyne addition to aldehydes at room temperature. It allows the synthesis of a number of synthetically useful chiral propargylic alcohols with both high yields and high enantioselectivity (up to >96% ee).
Related JoVE Video
A regenerable cobalt oxide loaded magnetosphere catalyst from fly ash for mercury removal in coal combustion flue gas.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To remove Hg0 in coal combustion flue gas and eliminate secondary mercury pollution of spent catalyst, a new regenerable magnetic catalyst based on cobalt oxide loaded magnetospheres from fly ash (Co-MF) was developed. The catalyst with optimal loading 5.8% cobalt species attained approximately 95% Hg0 removal efficiency at 150? under simulated flue gas atmosphere. O2 could enhance the Hg0 removal activity of magnetospheres catalyst via Mars-Maessen mechanism. SO2 displayed inhibitive effect on Hg0 removal capacity. NO with lower concentration could promote the Hg0 removal efficiency. However, when increased the NO concentration to 300ppm, a slightly inhibitive effect of NO was observed. In the presence of 10 ppm HCl, above 95.5% Hg0 removal efficiency was attained, which was attributed to the formation of active chlorine species on the surface. H2O presented seriously inhibitive effect on Hg0 removal efficiency. Repeated oxidation - regeneration cycles demonstrated that the spent Co-MF catalyst could be regenerated effectively via thermally treated at 400? for 2h.
Related JoVE Video
Three multi-nuclear clusters and one infinite chain induced by a pendant 4-butyl-1H-pyrazole ligand for modification of Keggin anions.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
By utilizing pendant 4-butyl-1H-pyrazole (Hbpz) with an alkyl "tail" -(CH2)3CH3, four Keggin-based complexes containing different transition metal multi-nuclear clusters and an infinite chain were hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized, [Cu(I)4(bpz)4(pz)2(H6PW11Cu(II)O39)2]·10H2O (), [Cu(II)2(bpz)2(H2O)2(H3PCu0.5Mo11.5O40)]·3H2O (), [Ag3(bpz)2(pz)(H4SiW12O40)]·4H2O () and [Ag5(bpz)4(H5/2PMo12O40)2]·6H2O () (pz = pyrazole). Compound contains a tetra-nuclear cluster [Cu(I)4(bpz)4(pz)2](2-), in which four Cu(I) ions are fixed by four bpz and two pz ligands. These clusters are linked by Keggin anion dimers to form a 2D layer. In compound , the ptz ligands fuse the Cu(II) ions and an infinite 1D metal-organic chain is constructed with the Keggin anions hanging up and down covalently. Compound has a planar triangle tri-nuclear cycle [Ag3(bpz)2(pz)] with three Ag(I) as cores. These cycles build a 3D framework of through the further linkages of Keggin anions and Ag-Ag bonds. In compound , there exist discrete [Ag5(bpz)4](+) clusters with four bpz ligands fused by five Ag(I) cores, which are linked by Keggin anions alternately to form a 1D chain. Adjacent chains share the Ag-O bonds and a 2D layer is constructed. The bpz ligand is firstly introduced into the POM field and its successive two N donors are essential for the construction of multi-nuclear clusters and an infinite chain of . Additionally, the electrochemical and photocatalytic properties of the title compounds have been investigated.
Related JoVE Video
AGEs-RAGE System Downregulates Sirt1 Through the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway to Promote FN and TGF-?1 Expression in Male Rat Glomerular Mesangial Cells.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We previously demonstrated that advanced glycation-end products (AGEs) promote the pathological progression of diabetic nephropathy by decreasing Sirt1 expression in glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). Here we investigated whether AGEs-RAGE system downregulated Sirt1 expression through ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and whether Sirt1 ubiquitination affected fibronectin (FN) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1-two fibrotic indicators in GMCs. Sirt1 was polyubiquitinated and subsequently degraded by proteasome. AGEs increased Sirt1 ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation, shortened Sirt1 half-life, and promoted FN and TGF-?1 expression. Ubiquitin-specific protease 22 (USP22) reduced Sirt1 ubiquitination and degradation and decreased FN and TGF-?1 expression in GMCs under both basal and AGEs-treated conditions. USP22 depletion enhanced Sirt1 degradation and displayed combined effects with AGEs to further promote FN and TGF-?1 expression. RAGE functioned crucial mediating roles in these processes via its C-terminal cytosolic domain. Inhibiting Sirt1 by EX-527 substantially suppressed the downregulation of FN and TGF-?1 resulting from USP22 overexpression under both normal and AGEs-treated conditions, eventually leading to their upregulation in GMCs. These results indicated that the AGEs-RAGE system increased the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation of Sirt1 by reducing USP22 level, and AGEs-RAGE-USP22-Sirt1 formed a cascade pathway that regulated FN and TGF-?1 level, which participated in the pathological progression of diabetic nephropathy.
Related JoVE Video
Rapid diversification of five Oryza AA genomes associated with rice adaptation.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Comparative genomic analyses among closely related species can greatly enhance our understanding of plant gene and genome evolution. We report de novo-assembled AA-genome sequences for Oryza nivara, Oryza glaberrima, Oryza barthii, Oryza glumaepatula, and Oryza meridionalis. Our analyses reveal massive levels of genomic structural variation, including segmental duplication and rapid gene family turnover, with particularly high instability in defense-related genes. We show, on a genomic scale, how lineage-specific expansion or contraction of gene families has led to their morphological and reproductive diversification, thus enlightening the evolutionary process of speciation and adaptation. Despite strong purifying selective pressures on most Oryza genes, we documented a large number of positively selected genes, especially those genes involved in flower development, reproduction, and resistance-related processes. These diversifying genes are expected to have played key roles in adaptations to their ecological niches in Asia, South America, Africa and Australia. Extensive variation in noncoding RNA gene numbers, function enrichment, and rates of sequence divergence might also help account for the different genetic adaptations of these rice species. Collectively, these resources provide new opportunities for evolutionary genomics, numerous insights into recent speciation, a valuable database of functional variation for crop improvement, and tools for efficient conservation of wild rice germplasm.
Related JoVE Video
p16 and gigaxonin are associated with the ubiquitination of NF?B in cisplatin induced senescence of cancer cells.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The molecular mechanism of p16 mediated senescence in cisplatin treated cancer cells is not fully understood. Here we show that cisplatin treatment of head and neck cancer cells results in nuclear transport of p16 leading to a molecular modification of NF?B. Chip (chromatin immunoprecipitation) assay shows that this modification is associated with the inhibition of NF?B interacting with its DNA binding sequences, leading to decreased expression of NF?B transcribed proteins. LCMS proteomic analysis of LAP-TAP purified proteins from HeLa cells containing a tetracycline inducible GFP-S peptide-NF?B expression system identified gigaxonin, a ubiquitin E3 ligase adaptor, as an NF?B interacting protein. Immunoblotting and siRNA studies confirmed NF?B- gigaxonin interaction and the dependence of this binding on p16-NF?B binding. Using gel shift assays, we have confirmed p16-NF?B and gigaxonin-NF?B interactions. Further, we have observed increased NF?B ubiquitination with cisplatin treatment that is abolished in the absence of p16 and gigaxonin expression. Analysis of 103 primary tumors has shown that increased nuclear p16 expression correlates with enhanced survival of head and neck cancer patients (p<0.0000542), indicating the importance of nuclear p16 expression in prognosis. Finally, p16 expression is associated with reduced cytokine expression and the presence of HPV in chemo-radiation sensitive basaloid tumors. However, absence of p16 expression is associated with enhanced cytokine expression and absence of HPV in aggressive tumors. These results clearly demonstrate that nuclear p16 and gigaxonin play an important role in chemo-sensitivity of head and neck cancers through ubiquitination of NF?B.
Related JoVE Video
Laparoscopic liver resection under hemihepatic vascular inflow occlusion using the lowering of hilar plate approach.
HBPD INT
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
With advances in technology, laparoscopic liver resection is widely accepted. Laparoscopic liver resection under hemihepatic vascular inflow occlusion has advantages over the conventional total hepatic inflow occlusion using the Pringle's maneuver, especially in patients with cirrhosis.
Related JoVE Video
Gene expression patterns, and protein metabolic and histological analyses for muscle development in Peking duck.
Poult. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, we aimed to use duck breast muscle and leg muscle, the 2 main productive muscle organs, as a model to elucidate the molecular mechanism controlling how the 2 muscles have different deposition capabilities, and to analyze the mechanisms facilitating duck muscle development posthatching. Peking duck breast muscle and leg muscle were collected 3, 7, and 16 wk posthatching. The morphology of the myofibers was observed by paraffin sectioning the muscles. The expression of genes involved in protein metabolism [mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), RPS6-p70-protein kinase (S6K), forkhead box O1 (FoxO1), muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1), and atrogin-1 (MAFbx)] was detected using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot assays, and the results indicated that breast muscle had a stronger capacity for both protein synthesis and protein degradation compared with leg muscle. Satellite cell frequency declined during muscle development in both tissues, and the expression of Pax3/7, satellite cell marker genes, was not significantly different between breast muscle and leg muscle. No notable apoptosis was observed in either tissue. The results of this study suggest that protein metabolism signaling is the main reason promoting duck skeletal muscle mass gain.
Related JoVE Video
Targeting GPR30 with G-1: a new therapeutic target for castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Endocr. Relat. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is an advanced-stage prostate cancer (PC) associated with high mortality. We reported that G-1, a selective agonist of G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), inhibited PC cell growth by inducing G2 cell cycle arrest and arrested PC-3 xenograft growth. However, the therapeutic actions of G-1 and their relationships with androgen in vivo are unclear. Using the LNCaP xenograft to model PC growth during the androgen-sensitive (AS) versus the castration-resistant (CR) phase, we found that G-1 inhibited growth of CR but not AS tumors with no observable toxicity to the host. Substantial necrosis (approximately 65%) accompanied by marked intratumoral infiltration of neutrophils was observed only in CR tumors. Global transcriptome profiling of human genes identified 99 differentially expressed genes with 'interplay between innate and adaptive immune responses' as the top pathway. Quantitative PCR confirmed upregulation of neutrophil-related chemokines and inflammation-mediated cytokines only in the G-1-treated CR tumors. Expression of murine neutrophil-related cytokines also was elevated in these tumors. GPR30 (GPER1) expression was significantly higher in CR tumors than in AS tumors. In cell-based experiments, androgen repressed GPR30 expression, a response reversible by anti-androgen or siRNA-induced androgen receptor silencing. Finally, in clinical specimens, 80% of CRPC metastases (n=123) expressed a high level of GPR30, whereas only 54% of the primary PCs (n=232) showed high GPR30 expression. Together, these results provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that GPR30 is an androgen-repressed target and G-1 mediates the anti-tumor effect via neutrophil-infiltration-associated necrosis in CRPC. Additional studies are warranted to firmly establish GPR30 as a therapeutic target in CRPC.
Related JoVE Video
Monocytic and Promyelocytic Myeloid-derived suppressor cells may contribute to G-CSF-induced immune tolerance in haplo-identical allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on monocytic (M), promyelocytic (P)and granulocytic (G) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) both in bone marrow and peripheral blood of 20 healthy donors and the association of MDSCs subgroups with acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD/cGvHD) in 62 patients who underwent haplo-identical allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Patients who received a higher absolute counts of M-MDSCs or P-MDSCs exhibited lower incidence of grade II-IV aGvHD (p=0.001; p=0.031) and extensive cGvHD (p=0.011; p=0.021). In the multivariate analysis, absolute counts of MDSCs in allografts emerged as independent factors that reduced the occurrence of grade II-IV aGvHD (M-MDSCs: HR=0.087, 95% CI=0.020-0.381, p=0.001; P-MDSCs: HR=0.357, 95% CI=0.139-0.922, p=0.033) and extensive cGvHD (M-MDSCs: HR=0.196, 95% CI=0.043-0.894, p=0.035; P-MDSCs: HR=0.257, 95% CI=0.070-0.942, p=0.04). Delayed M-MDSC reconstitution was associated with aGvHD onset. The 3-year cumulative incidence of transplant related mortality and relapse, 3-year probability of disease free survival and overall survival did not differ significantly between these subgroups. Our results suggested that G-CSF-induced immune tolerance may be mediated by M/P-MDSCs in allo-HSCT.
Related JoVE Video
The IRF5-TNPO3 association with systemic lupus erythematosus has two components that other autoimmune disorders variably share.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Exploiting genotyping, DNA sequencing, imputation and trans-ancestral mapping, we used Bayesian and frequentist approaches to model the IRF5-TNPO3 locus association, now implicated in two immunotherapies and seven autoimmune diseases. Specifically, in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we resolved separate associations in the IRF5 promoter (all ancestries) and with an extended European haplotype. We captured 3230 IRF5-TNPO3 high-quality, common variants across 5 ethnicities in 8395 SLE cases and 7367 controls. The genetic effect from the IRF5 promoter can be explained by any one of four variants in 5.7 kb (P-valuemeta = 6 × 10(-49); OR = 1.38-1.97). The second genetic effect spanned an 85.5-kb, 24-variant haplotype that included the genes IRF5 and TNPO3 (P-valuesEU = 10(-27)-10(-32), OR = 1.7-1.81). Many variants at the IRF5 locus with previously assigned biological function are not members of either final credible set of potential causal variants identified herein. In addition to the known biologically functional variants, we demonstrated that the risk allele of rs4728142, a variant in the promoter among the lowest frequentist probability and highest Bayesian posterior probability, was correlated with IRF5 expression and differentially binds the transcription factor ZBTB3. Our analytical strategy provides a novel framework for future studies aimed at dissecting etiological genetic effects. Finally, both SLE elements of the statistical model appear to operate in Sjögren's syndrome and systemic sclerosis whereas only the IRF5-TNPO3 gene-spanning haplotype is associated with primary biliary cirrhosis, demonstrating the nuance of similarity and difference in autoimmune disease risk mechanisms at IRF5-TNPO3.
Related JoVE Video
Haploidentical stem cell transplantation for the treatment of leukemia: current status.
Expert Rev Hematol
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT), either with T-cell depletion or T-cell replete, has been a reliable source of stem cells for patients with high-risk leukemia who do not have matched donors because it provides comparable outcomes to human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling donor transplantation, unrelated donor transplantation and umbilical cord blood transplantation. Factors, such as the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index, associated with transplant outcomes may help us design risk-stratification-directed intervention to improve the prognosis of leukemia patients. Preliminary results of novel protocols, including co-transplant of haploidentical allografts and cord blood, as well as human leukocyte antigen-mismatched stem cell microtransplantation, for leukemia have shown that these approaches are feasible. Several strategies for enhancing the graft-versus-leukemia effects significantly decreased the relapse rate after haplo-SCT. Future direction of research will focus on perfecting available haplo-SCT protocols and determining the optimal time of haplo-SCT for leukemia and 'fit' haploidentical transplant candidates.
Related JoVE Video
Association between germline single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway, obesity, and breast cancer disease-free survival.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obesity-related hormones and cytokines alter PI3 K-AKT-mTOR pathway activation in breast tumors contributing to poorer disease-free survival (DFS) and decreased responsiveness to tamoxifen and trastuzumab. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes in the PI3 K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway may act as genetic modifiers of breast cancer DFS. We analyzed the association of 106 tagging SNPs in 13 genes (ADIPOQ, IGF1, INS, IRS1, LEP, LEPR, LEPROT, PIK3CA, PIK3R5, PTEN, TSC1, TSC2, and AKT1) in the P13K-AKT-mTOR pathway with DFS in a sample of 1,019 women with stage I-II breast cancer. SNPs significantly associated with DFS in any genetic model (additive, dominant, or recessive) after correcting for false discovery rate (FDR = 0.10) were included in Cox proportional hazards multivariable analyses. After adjusting for race/ethnicity, age at diagnosis, tumor stage, and treatment, rs1063539 in ADIPOQ, rs11585329 in LEPR, and rs2519757 in TSC1 were associated with improved DFS, and rs1520220 in IGF1 and rs2677760 in PIK3CA were associated with worse DFS. The associations were not significantly modified by the type of systemic treatment received or body mass index. The SNPs were not associated with tumor characteristics such as tumor size, lymph node status, nuclear grade, or hormone receptor status. In this study, germline SNPs in the PI3 K-AKT-mTOR pathway were associated with breast cancer DFS and may be potential prognostic markers. Future studies are needed to replicate our results and to evaluate the relationship between these polymorphisms and activation of the PI3 K-AKT-mTOR pathway in breast tumors.
Related JoVE Video
Down-regulation of miRNA-452 is associated with adriamycin-resistance in breast cancer cells.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adriamycin (ADR) is an important chemotherapeutic agent frequently used in treatment of breast cancer. However, resistance to ADR results in treatment failure in many patients. Recent studies have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) may play an important role in such drug-resistance. In the present study, microRNA-452 (miR-452) was found to be significantly down-regulated in adriamycin-resistant MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/ADR) compared with the parental MCF-7 cells by miRNA microarray and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). MiR-452 mimics and inhibitors partially changed the adriamycin-resistance of breast cancer cells, as also confirmed by apoptosis assay. In exploring the potential mechanisms of miR-452 in the adriamycin-resistance of breast cancer cells, bioinformatics analysis, RT-qPCR and Western blotting showed that dysregulation of miR-452 played an important role in the acquired adriamycin-resistance of breast cancer, maybe at least in part via targeting insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R).
Related JoVE Video
Unprecedented application of flexible bis(pyridyl-tetrazole) ligands to construct helix/loop subunits to modify polyoxometalate anions.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
By introducing the unprecedented and flexible isomeric bis(pyridyl-tetrazole) ligands into a polyoxometalates (POMs) system, three POM-based compounds, {Ag2(4-bptzb)2(H2O)2[H2PMo12O40]2}·4-bptzb·5H2O (1), [Ag4(3-bptzb)2(PMo(V)Mo(VI)11O40)]·2H2O (2), and Ag3(3-bptzb)2.5(H2O)2[H3P2W18O62] (3) [4-bptzb = 1,4-bis(5-(4-pyridyl)tetrazolyl)butane and 3-bptzb =1,4-bis(5-(3-pyridyl)tetrazolyl)butane], were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Compound 1 exhibits a dimeric structure constructed from two Keggin [PMo12O40](3-) anions and a binuclear [Ag2(trans-4-bptzb)2](2+) subunit in which the trans-4-bptzb acts as a bidentate bridging ligand with one tetrazolyl group. In 2, the 3-bptzb acts as a tetradentate bridging ligand with the tetrazolyl and pyridyl groups linking Ag(I) ions to generate a 3D metal-organic framework (MOF), which contains charming meso-helix chains. The Keggin anions acting as bidentate inorganic ligands reside in the distorted tetragonal channels of the MOF. In compound 3, the 3-bptzb adopts versatile coordination modes linking Ag(I) ions to first construct loop connecting loop 1D chains, which are linked by {Ag[P2W18O62]}n zigzag chains to form a scarce hamburger-style 2D sheet. These adjacent sheets are further fused by 3-bptzb ligands to construct a 3D framework. The influences of isomeric bptzb ligands and POMs on the construction of Ag-bptzb subunits and the whole structures of the title compounds are discussed. The electrochemical behaviors and electrocatalytic activities of compounds 2 and 3 and their corresponding parent POMs as well as the fluorescent properties of the title compounds have been studied in detail. In addition, the photocatalytic activities of compounds 2 and 3 and their corresponding parent POMs for decomposition of methylene blue, rhodamine B, and methyl orange under UV irradiation have also been investigated.
Related JoVE Video
A Facile Asymmetric Approach to the Multicyclic Core Structure of Mangicol A.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chiral propargylic ether-based triene-ynes are synthesized with high enantiomeric purity by employing an asymmetric enyne addition to aldehydes catalyzed by 1,1'-bi-2-naphthol in combination with ZnEt2 , Ti(OiPr)4 and dicyclohexylamine at room temperature. These substrates are found to undergo a one-pot domino Pauson-Khand and Diels-Alder cycloaddition catalyzed by [RhCl(CO)2 ]2 under CO to generate a series of multicyclic products with high chemoselectivity and stereoselectivity. These products contain the multicyclic core structure of mangicol?A which could facilitate the synthesis and study of this class of natural products.
Related JoVE Video
Up-regulation of integrin ?6?4 expression by mitogens involved in dairy cow mammary development.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In dairy cows, the extracellular microenvironment varies significantly from the virgin state to lactation. The function of integrin ?6?4 is dependent on cell type and extracellular microenvironment, and the precise expression profile of ?6?4 and its effects on mammary development remain to be determined. In the present study, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expression and localization of integrin ?6?4 in Holstein dairy cow mammary glands. The effects of integrin ?6?4 on the proliferation induced by mammogenic mitogens were identified by blocking integrin function in purified dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs). The results showed that the localization of ?4 subunit and its exclusive partner the ?6 subunit were not consistent but were co-localized in basal luminal cells and myoepithelial cells, appearing to prefer the basal surface of the plasma membrane. Moreover, ?6 and ?4 subunit messenger RNA (mRNA) levels changed throughout the stages of dairy cow mammary development, reflected well by protein levels, and remained higher in the virgin and pregnancy states, with duct/alveolus morphogenesis and active cell proliferation, than during lactation, when growth arrest is essential for mammary epithelial cell differentiation. Finally, the upregulation of integrin expression by both mammogenic growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 and the inhibited growth of DCMECs by function-blocking integrin antibodies confirmed that integrin ?6?4 was indeed involved in dairy cow mammary development.
Related JoVE Video
Who is the best donor for a related HLA haplotype-mismatched transplant?
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The best donor for a related donor for a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype-mismatched transplant for hematological neoplasms is controversial. We studied outcomes in 1210 consecutive transplant recipients treated on a uniform protocol. Younger donors and male donors were associated with less nonrelapse mortality (NRM; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.01-0.39; P = .008 and HR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.49-0.85; P = .002) and better survival (HR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.54-0.97; P = .033 and HR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.59-0.91; P = .005). Father donors were associated with less NRM (HR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.45-0.95; P = .02), acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (HR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.55-0.86; P = .001), and better survival (HR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.50-0.87; P = .003) compared with mother donors. Children donors were associated with less acute GVHD than sibling donors (HR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.31-0.91; P = .01). Older sister donors were inferior to father donors with regard to NRM (HR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.10-3.20; P = .02) and survival (HR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.05-2.40; P = .03). Noninherited maternal antigen-mismatched sibling donors were associated with the lowest incidence of acute GVHD compared with parental donors and noninherited paternal antigen-mismatched sibling donors. Specific HLA disparities were not significantly correlated with transplant outcomes. Our data indicate which HLA haplotype-mismatched related donors are associated with the best transplant outcomes in persons with hematological neoplasms.
Related JoVE Video
Correlation of computed tomography angiography parameters and shock index to assess the transportation risk in aortic dissection patients.
Radiol Med
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aortic dissection (AD) is a serious, life-threatening disease. It is currently crucial for AD patients to be transferred to a specialised hospital in a safe and timely manner. For this reason, the search for clinical and imaging changes related to transportation risk is becoming increasingly important.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of growth?regulated oncogene?1, hepatocyte growth factor, platelet?derived growth factor?AA and soluble E?selectin and their association with high?risk human papillomavirus infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical significance and prognostic value of growth?regulated oncogene?1 (GRO?1), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), platelet?derived growth factor?AA (PDGF?AA), soluble E?selectin (sE?selectin) and high?risk human papillomavirus (HPV; types 16, 18/45, 31 and 33/52/58/67) infection in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). A total of 426 cases were enrolled in the present study, of which 292 cases were patients with CSCC, 43 were patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 91 were healthy controls. Luminex xMAP technology was used to detect the serum levels of GRO?1, HGF, PDGF?AA and sE?selectin in all cases and two?channel fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine HPV DNA in cervical scrapings from CSCC and CIN patients. The results demonstrated that the serum levels of GRO?1, HGF and sE?selectin were significantly higher in patients with CSCC compared with patients with CIN and the healthy controls (P<0.0001). Compared with the CIN patients, the HPV positive rate in the CSCC patients significantly increased (P=0.013). The four factors were correlated with certain clinicopathological variables of CSCC patients to a certain degree (P<0.05) and the levels of HGF were closely associated with HPV infection (P=0.039). The receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated that HGF obtained the highest diagnostic value compared with the other three factors. Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the serum levels of HGF (P<0.0001), FIGO stage (P<0.0001) and pelvic lymph node metastasis (P=0.001) were independent prognostic factors in patients with CSCC, while high?risk HPV infection did not show any significance in this analysis. These results demonstrated that HGF may be a useful prognostic biomarker rather than high?risk HPV types in patients with CSCC.
Related JoVE Video
Management of groundwater in farmed pond area using risk-based regulation.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Blackfoot disease (BFD) had occurred seriously in the Yichu, Hsuehchia, Putai, and Peimen townships of Chia-Nan District of Taiwan in the early days. These four townships are the districts of fishpond cultivation domestically in Taiwan. Groundwater becomes the main water supply because of short income in surface water. The problems of over pumping in groundwater may not only result in land subsidence and seawater intrusion but also be harmful to the health of human giving rise to the bioaccumulation via food chain in groundwater with arsenic (As). This research uses sequential indicator simulation (SIS) to characterize the spatial arsenic distribution in groundwater in the four townships. Risk assessment is applied to explore the dilution ratio (DR) of groundwater utilization, which is defined as the ratio showing the volume of groundwater utilization compared to pond water, for fish farming in the range of target cancer risk (TR) especially on the magnitude of 10(-4)~10(-6). Our study results reveal that the 50th percentile of groundwater DRs served as a regulation standard can be used to perform fish farm groundwater management for a TR of 10(-6). For a TR of 5?×?10(-6), we suggest using the 75th percentile of DR for groundwater management. For a TR of 10(-5), we suggest using the 95th percentile of the DR standard for performing groundwater management in fish farm areas. For the TR of exceeding 5?×?10(-5), we do not suggest establishing groundwater management standards under these risk standards. Based on the research results, we suggest that establishing a TR at 10(-5) and using the 95th percentile of DR are best for groundwater management in fish farm areas.
Related JoVE Video
Entecavir plus adefovir combination therapy versus lamivudine add-on adefovir for lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B: A meta-analysis.
J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine whether adefovir (ADV) in combination with entecavir (ETV) is more effective than with lamivudine (LAM) in patients with lamivudine-resistant chronic HBV infection, electronic databases were searched through May 10th, 2013 to obtain relevant trials which met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was performed on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized studies. Four trials containing a total of 323 patients were included. Serum HBV DNA reductions after 3 and 6 months of treatment in the ETV?+?ADV group were greater than that of LAM?+?ADV group (mean difference (MD)?=?0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-1.07, P?
Related JoVE Video
The key role of -CH3 steric hindrance in bis(pyrazolyl) ligand on polyoxometalate-based compounds.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Through using two kinds of bis(pyrazolyl) ligands, four polyoxometalate (POM)-based compounds were hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized, [Ag3(Hbhpe)2(H2O)(H2PMo12O40)]·H2O (1), [Ag(H2bdpm)2(H2PW12O40)]·4H2O (2), [Ag6(H2bdpm)6(HPW(VI)8W(V)4O40)]·2H2O (2) and [Ag4(H2bdpm)4(H2P2W18O62)]·3H2O (4) (H2bhpe = 1,2-bis(1-H-pyrazolate)ethane, H2bdpm = 1,1'-bis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazolate)methane). In compound 1, the Ag-Hbhpe subunit is a 2D layer containing large penta-membered cycles and small tri-nuclear Ag(I) clusters. The Keggin anions covalently float on the large cycles. In compound 2, the Keggin anions are fused by [Ag(H2bdpm)2](+) subunits to form a 1D chain. Compound contains hexa-membered metal-organic cycles, which are further linked by Keggin anions to build a 1D chain. Adjacent chains share the Ag(I) ions to construct a 3D framework of 3. Compound 4 exhibits a wavy double-track chain structure, with the Wells-Dawson anions covalently suspended up and down this chain. The steric hindrance of -CH3 groups in H2bdpm leads to the formation of mono-nuclear Ag(I) subunits in 2 - 4. The influence of -CH3 steric hindrance in bis(pyrazolyl) ligands on the structures of 1 - 4 is discussed. The electrochemical and photocatalytic properties of the title compounds have been studied.
Related JoVE Video
Non-traditional CD4+CD25-CD69+ regulatory T cells are correlated to leukemia relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Non-traditional CD4+CD25-CD69+ T cells were found to be involved in disease progression in tumor-bearing mouse models and cancer patients recently. We attempted to define whether this subset of T cells were related to leukemia relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HSCT).
Related JoVE Video
Plant regeneration of Korean wild ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) mutant lines induced by ?-irradiation ((60)Co) of adventitious roots.
J Ginseng Res
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An efficient in vitro protocol has been established for somatic embryogenesis and plantlet conversion of Korean wild ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer). Wild-type and mutant adventitious roots derived from the ginseng produced calluses on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.3 mg/L kinetin; 53.3% of the explants formed callus. Embryogenic callus proliferation and somatic embryo induction occurred on MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The induced somatic embryos further developed to maturity on MS medium with 5 mg/L gibberellic acid, and 85% of them germinated. The germinated embryos were developed to shoots and elongated on MS medium with 5 mg/L gibberellic acid. The shoots developed into plants with well-developed taproots on one-third strength Schenk and Hildebrandt basal medium supplemented with 0.25 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. When the plants were transferred to soil, about 30% of the regenerated plants developed into normal plants.
Related JoVE Video
Direct measurement of planar flow rate in an excised canine larynx model.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During phonation, skewing of the glottal flow waveform (Q) refers to a phenomenon that occurs when the flow decelerates more rapidly than it accelerates. This skewing is clinically important because it increases the glottal efficiency, which is defined by the acoustic intensity (sound pressure level) divided by the subglottal pressure. Current theoretical models predict that the only mechanism to cause skewing of Q involves changes in the vocal tract inertance. The purpose of the current work is to show that other factors at the vocal fold level can also cause skewing of Q and to determine if the acoustic intensity is correlated with maximum flow declination rate.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of low birth weight on childhood asthma: a meta-analysis.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Low birth weight is strongly correlated with an increased risk of adult diseases. Additionally, low birth weight might be a risk factor for asthma later in life.
Related JoVE Video
Association between an impaired bone marrow vascular microenvironment and prolonged isolated thrombocytopenia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prolonged isolated thrombocytopenia (PT) is a serious complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, it remains unclear whether abnormalities of the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment are involved in the pathogenesis of PT. This prospective, nested case-control study included 20 patients with PT, 40 matched patients with good graft function (GGF) after allo-HSCT, and 16 healthy donors (HDs). Cellular elements of the BM microenvironment, including BM endothelial cells (BMECs), perivascular cells, and endosteal cells, were analyzed via flow cytometry and via hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining in situ. Moreover, stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured in the plasma of BM via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No significant differences in endosteal cells (15 per high-power field [hpf] versus 16 per hpf versus 20 per hpf, P > .05) were demonstrated among the patients with PT, GGF, and the HDs. The PT patients exhibited remarkable decreases in cellular elements of the vascular microenvironment, including BMECs (.01% versus .18% versus .20%, P < .0001) and perivascular cells (.01% versus .12% versus .13%, P < .0001), compared with the GGF allo-HSCT recipients and the HDs, respectively. Moreover, significantly lower levels of SDF-1 (3163 pg/mL versus 3928 pg/mL, P = .0002) and VEGF (56 pg/mL versus 123 pg/mL, P < .0001) were found in the BM plasma of the PT patients compared with the BM of the GGF patients. A multivariate analysis revealed that BMECs (odds ratio [OR] = 171.57, P = .002) and cytomegalovirus infection after HSCT (OR = 4.35, P = .009) were independent risk factors for PT. Our data suggested that an impaired BM vascular microenvironment and megakaryocyte-active factors may contribute to the occurrence of PT after HSCT.
Related JoVE Video
[A new multi-factor risk score system for predicting the outcome after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to develop and investigate the significance of a new multi-factor risk score system to predict the outcome of patients with hematological malignancies received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The impact of pre-, peri-, and post-transplant factors on the outcome including overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), relapse and transplant-related mortality (TRM) after allo-HSCT were retrospectively analyzed in 122 patients with hematological malignancies at our center. A new risk score system based on the independent risk factors was established and tested. The results showed that absolute monocyte count at day 30 after transplantation (AMC-30, ? 536 cells/µl) [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.313, 95% confidential interval (CI):0.156-0.63], WT1( ? 1.0%) (HR = 3.268, 95% CI:1.644-6.499), pre-transplant risk grouping (HR = 1.999, 95% CI = 0.993-4.023) were independent prognostic factors of OS and DFS. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on the risk scoring system:group A (no risk factor; score 0), group B (1 risk factor; score 1) and group C (2-3 risk factors; score 2-3). OS at 5 years were 95.1% ± 3.4%, 62.9% ± 6.6% and 36.1% ± 9.6%, respectively (P < 0.0001). DFS at 5 years were 92.6% ± 4.9%, 60.4% ± 6.8% and 15.4% ± 7.1%, respectively (P < 0.0001). The akaike information criterion(AIC) value of the new score system for OS was 331, less than those of AMC-30, WT1, and pre-transplant risk group (346, 343, 346), AIC value for DFS and relapse were 378 and 231, both less than the three single elements(417, 397, 411 and 268, 238, 257). It is concluded that the risk scoring system based on AMC-30, WT1, pre-transplant risk grouping is more highly predictive for clinical outcomes of allo-HSCT than any one of the three single elements.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical manifestations of Parkinson disease and the onset of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To identify whether the presence and/or timing of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) onset were associated with differences in clinical features and sleep parameters of Parkinson disease (PD).
Related JoVE Video
MicroRNA-452 contributes to the docetaxel resistance of breast cancer cells.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNA-452 (miRNA-452) was overexpressed in docetaxel-resistant human breast cancer MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/DOC). However, its role in modulating the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to docetaxel (DOC) remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of miRNA-452 in the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to DOC.Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) were used to identify the differential expression of miRNA-452 between MCF-7/DOC and MCF-7 cells. MiRNA-452 mimic was transfected into MCF-7 cells and miRNA-452 inhibitor was transfected into MCF-7/DOC cells. The role of miRNA-452 in these transfected cells was evaluated using RT-qPCR, MTT assay, and flow cytometry assay. The relationship of miRNA-452 and its predictive target gene "anaphase-promoting complex 4" (APC4) was analyzed by RT-qPCR and Western blot.MiRNA-452 showed significantly higher expression (78.9-folds) in MCF-7/DOC cells compared to parental MCF-7 cells. The expression of miRNA-452 in the mimic transfected MCF-7 cells was upregulated 212.2-folds (P < 0.05) compared to its negative control (NC), and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of DOC (1.98 ± 0.15 ?M) was significantly higher than that in its NC (0.85 ± 0.08 ?M, P < 0.05) or blank control (1.01 ± 0.19 ?M, P < 0.05). Furthermore, its apoptotic rate (6.3 ± 1.3 %) was distinctly decreased compared with that in its NC (23.8 ± 6.6 %, P < 0.05) or blank control (18.6 ± 4.7 %, P < 0.05). In contrast, the expression of miRNA-452 in the inhibitor-transfected MCF-7/DOC cells was downregulated 0.58-fold (P < 0.05) compared to its NC, the IC50 value of DOC (44.5 ± 3.2 ?M) was significantly lower than that in its NC (107.3 ± 6.63 ?M, P < 0.05) or blank control (102.22 ± 11.34 ?M, P < 0.05), and the apoptotic rate (45.5 ± 10.8 %) was distinctly increased compared with its NC (9.9 ± 2.2 %, P < 0.05) and blank control (9.4 ± 2.5 %, P < 0.05). Further, there was an inverse association between miRNA-452 and APC4 expression in breast cancer cells in vitro.Dysregulation of miRNA-452 involved in the DOC resistance formation of breast cancer cells may be, in part, via targeting APC4.
Related JoVE Video
[Expression and function of killer immunologublin receptor and CD57 of natural killer cells].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the functional different natural killer (NK) cell subsets through the expression of killer immunoglobulin receptor (KIR) and CD57 on NK cells.
Related JoVE Video
Validation study of REM sleep behavior disorder questionnaire-Hong Kong (RBDQ-HK) in east China.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To validate the REM Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) Questionnaire-Hong Kong (RBDQ-HK) in polysomnography (PSG)-confirmed RBD and non-RBD subjects, and to evaluate its usefulness in different clinical populations.
Related JoVE Video
A genetic variant in MiR-146a modifies digestive system cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) negatively regulate gene expression and act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes in oncogenesis. The association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in miR-146a rs2910164 and susceptibility to digestive system cancers was inconsistent in previous studies. In this study, we conducted a literature search of PubMed to identify all relevant studies published before August 31, 2013. A total of 21 independent case-control studies were included in this updated meta-analysis with 9,558 cases and 10,614 controls. We found that the miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased risk of digestive system cancers in an allele model (OR=0.90, 95%CI 0.87-0.94), homozygote model (OR=0.84, 95%CI 0.77-0.91), dominant model (OR=0.90, 95%CI 0.84-0.96), and recessive model (OR=0.85, 95%CI 0.79-0.91), while in a heterozygous model (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.89-1.11) the association showed marginal significance. Subgroup analysis by cancer site revealed decreased risk in colorectal cancer above allele model (OR=0.90, 95%CI 0.83- 0.97) and homozygote model (OR=0.85, 95%CI 0.72-1.00). Similarly, decreased cancer risk was observed when compared with allele model (OR=0.87, 95%CI 0.81-0.93) and recessive model (OR=0.81, 95%CI 0.72-0.90) in gastric cancer. When stratified by ethnicity, genotyping methods and quality score, decreased cancer risks were also observed. This current meta-analysis indicated that miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism may decrease the susceptibility to digestive system cancers, especially in Asian populations.
Related JoVE Video
FOXA1: a promising prognostic marker in breast cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Accurate diagnosis and proper monitoring of cancer patients remain important obstacles for successful cancer treatment. The search for cancer biomarkers can aid in more accurate prediction of clinical outcome and may also reveal novel predictive factors and therapeutic targets. One such prognostic marker seems to be FOXA1. Many studies have shown that FOXA1 is strongly expressed in a vast majority of cancers, including breast cancer, in which high expression is associated with a good prognosis. In this review, we summarize the role of this transcription factor in the development and prognosis of breast cancer in the hope of providing insights into utility of FOXA1 as a novel biomarker.
Related JoVE Video
Direct simultaneous measurement of intraglottal geometry and velocity fields in excised larynges.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Current theories regarding the mechanisms of phonation are based on assumptions about the aerodynamics between the vocal folds during the closing phase of vocal fold vibration. However, many of these fundamental assumptions have never been validated in a tissue model. In this study, the main objective was to determine the aerodynamics (velocity fields) and the geometry of the medial surface of the vocal folds during the closing phase of vibration. The main hypothesis is that intraglottal vortices are produced during vocal fold closing when the glottal duct has a divergent shape and that these vortices are associated with negative pressures.
Related JoVE Video
Three 3D silver-bis(triazole) metal-organic frameworks stabilized by high-connected Wells-Dawson polyoxometallates.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Three silver-bis(triazole) three-dimensional (3D) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with Wells-Dawson type polyoxometalates (POMs) as high-connected inorganic ligands have been isolated: [Ag7(bte)4(H2O)(HP2W(VI)16W(V)2O62)]·2H2O (1), [Ag7(btp)5(HP2W(VI)16W(V)2O62)]·H2O (2) and [Ag4(btb)3.5(P2W18O62)](H2btb)·2H2O (3) (bte = 1,2-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)ethane, btp = 1,3-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-y1)propane, btb = 1,4-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-y1)butane). Compound 1 contains a 3D metal-organic subunit, which is constructed from 1D Ag/bte chains and 2D layers based on hexanuclear [Ag6(bte)2](6+) circuits. The [P2W18O62](8-) (P2W18) anions act as 10-dentate inorganic ligands incorporated into the channels of the 3D framework. In compound 2, the metal-organic subunits are a 2D layer constructed from the [Ag5(btp)2](5+) circuits and flexible Ag/btp helical chains. The P2W18 anions also act as 10-dentate inorganic ligands linking adjacent 2D layers to construct a 3D framework. Both 1 and 2 contain Ag-Ag bonds, which further stabilize the structures. Compared with 1 and 2, the metal-organic subunit of 3 is a 3D cage-like host architecture. Without the assistance of Ag-Ag bonds, two sets of these 3D MOFs interpenetrate each other to generate a 2-fold interpenetrating structure for stability, which are united by the 5-dentate P2W18 anions to construct an integrated 3D structure. The roles of coordination modes of silver centers and POMs, as well as the effects of organic ligand lengths on the metal-organic subunit and final structures, have been reported. In addition, the electrochemical properties, photochemical catalysis and antibacterial properties of title compounds have also been investigated.
Related JoVE Video
Improving cytomegalovirus-specific T cell reconstitution after haploidentical stem cell transplantation.
J Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and delayed immune reconstitution (IR) remain serious obstacles for successful haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT). CMV-specific IR varied according to whether patients received manipulated/unmanipulated grafts or myeloablative/reduced intensity conditioning. CMV infection commonly occurs following impaired IR of T cell and its subsets. Here, we discuss the factors that influence IR based on currently available evidence. Adoptive transfer of donor T cells to improve CMV-specific IR is discussed. One should choose grafts from CMV-positive donors for transplant into CMV-positive recipients (D+/R+) because this will result in better IR than would grafts from CMV-negative donors (D-/R+). Stem cell source and donor age are other important factors. Posttransplant complications, including graft-versus-host disease and CMV infection, as well as their associated treatments, should also be considered. The effects of varying degrees of HLA disparity and conditioning regimens are more controversial. As many of these factors and strategies are considered in the setting of haplo-SCT, it is anticipated that haplo-SCT will continue to advance, further expanding our understanding of IR and CMV infection.
Related JoVE Video
Pleural fluid prealbumin and C-reactive protein in the differential diagnosis of infectious and malignant pleural effusions.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Clinical history and physical examination are helpful in indicating the potential causes of pleural effusions (PEs). However, the accurate diagnosis and establishment of the causes of PE is an ongoing challenge in daily clinical practice. The primary aim of this study was to distinguish between infectious PE and malignant PE (MPE) by measuring two major acute phase response biomarkers: prealbumin (PA) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The study was a prospective trial involving 151 patients who were diagnosed with infectious PE or MPE. Patients with infectious PE were divided into two subgroups: tuberculous PE (TBPE) and parapneumonic PE (PNPE). A further 58 patients with PEs that showed no evidence of MPE, TBPE or PNPE were classified as the chronic non-specific PE (NSPE) group. Demographic characteristics and pleural fluids of the subjects were collected consecutively. The discriminative properties of pleural fluid routine biochemistries, and PA and CRP were evaluated. PA, CRP and classical fluid parameters were also applied to classify patients with infectious PE and MPE. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis established the cutoffs of PA and CRP for discriminating between groups. Pleural fluid PA levels were significantly higher in the MPE group (n=47) than in the infectious PE group (n=104). Pleural fluid CRP levels were significantly higher in the infectious PE group than in the MPE group. Pleural fluid PA levels were identified to be moderately negatively correlated with CRP levels in the MPE group, with a statistically significant correlation coefficient of -0.352. The ROC curve showed that the sensitivity and specificity of PA for the diagnosis of MPE were 0.851 and 0.548, respectively, at the cutoff of 28.3 mg/l. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.784 (95% CI, 0.707-0.861). Using CRP as a diagnostic parameter resulted in an comparable AUC of 0.810 (95% CI, 0.736-0.885), at the cutoff of 35.2 mg/l. Combinations of PA and CRP resulted in incrementally discriminating values for MPE, with a sensitivity of 0.617 and a specificity of 0.903. The measurement of PA and CRP levels in pleural fluid may be a useful adjunctive test in PE, as a potential differentiator between infectious PE and MPE.
Related JoVE Video
Monitoring mixed lineage leukemia expression may help identify patients with mixed lineage leukemia--rearranged acute leukemia who are at high risk of relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the prognostic value of the expression of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene for predicting the relapse of patients with MLL-rearranged acute leukemia (AL) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), the levels of MLL transcripts in bone marrow (BM) specimens were monitored serially by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) at predetermined time points in 40 patients with MLL-rearranged AL who were treated with allo-HSCT. These patients were followed for a median of 24.5 months (range, 8 to 60 months). A total of 236 BM samples were collected and analyzed. Of these, 230 were monitored concurrently for minimal residual disease (MRD) by flow cytometry (FCM) for leukemia-associated aberrant immune phenotypes and by RQ-PCR for the expression of the Wilms tumor (WT1) gene. The 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse in patients who experienced MLL-positive patients (MLL > .0000%) (n = 9) after HSCT was 93.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87% to 100%) compared with 12.5% (95% CI, 5.6% to 19.4%) for MLL-negative patients (n = 31) (P < .001). For these 2 patient groups, the 3-year overall survival (OS) was 12.5% (95% CI, .8% to 24.2%) and 77.8% (95% CI, 68.4% to 87.2%) (P < .001), respectively, and the 3-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) was 0% and 72.2% (95% CI, 61.1% to 83.3%), respectively (P < .001). MLL positivity was associated with a higher rate of relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 18.643; 95% CI, 3.449 to 57.025; P = .001), lower LFS (HR, 7.267; 95% CI, 2.038 to 25.916; P = .002), and lower OS (HR, 8.259; 95% CI, 2.109 to 32.336; P = .002), as determined by Cox multivariate analysis. The expression of the MLL gene had a higher specificity and sensitivity than WT1 or MRD monitored by FCM for predicting the relapse of the patients with MLL + AL. Our results suggest that monitoring the expression of the MLL gene may help to identify patients with MLL + AL who are at high risk of relapse after allo-HSCT and may provide a guide for suitable intervention.
Related JoVE Video
Detection of circulating vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in non-small cell lung cancer using Luminex multiplex technology.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It has been previously reported that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 are important for the occurrence and development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The present study was designed to detect the serum levels of VEGF and MMP-9 in NSCLC, and to explore their diagnostic and prognostic values. A total of 543 cases were involved, of which 332 were NSCLC (272 cases in the pretreatment group and 60 cases in the postoperative group), 91 were patients with benign lung diseases and 120 were healthy controls. The serum levels of VEGF and MMP-9 were determined by Luminex multiplex technology. The serum levels of VEGF and MMP-9 were found to be significantly higher in the pretreatment group than those in the patients with benign lung diseases and healthy controls (VEGF, P<0.0001; MMP-9, P<0.0001). Compared with the pretreatment group, the serum levels of VEGF and MMP-9 in the postoperative group were significantly decreased (VEGF, P=0.005; MMP-9, P=0.002), and the levels of VEGF and MMP-9 in the pretreatment group of patients with stages III and IV were higher than those with stages I and II (VEGF, P<0.0001; MMP-9, P=0.021). In addition, the levels of VEGF and MMP-9 were found to closely correlate with lymph node metastasis (VEGF, P<0.0001; MMP-9, P<0.0001) in the pretreatment group, while being independent of other clinicopathological parameters (P>0.05). Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between the serum levels of VEGF and MMP-9 (r=0.159; P=0.009). A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the diagnostic value of MMP-9 was higher than that of VEGF in the pretreatment group. The log-rank test indicated that the inoperable NSCLC patients with low levels of VEGF exhibited a significantly longer overall survival time than those with high VEGF levels (P<0.0001). Additionally, the serum levels of VEGF and lymph node metastasis were identified as independent prognostic factors of the inoperable NSCLC patients in a multivariate Cox regression analysis (P<0.05). These results indicated that VEGF and MMP-9 may be potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of NSCLC.
Related JoVE Video
Immunochip analysis identifies multiple susceptibility loci for systemic sclerosis.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, 1,833 systemic sclerosis (SSc) cases and 3,466 controls were genotyped with the Immunochip array. Classical alleles, amino acid residues, and SNPs across the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region were imputed and tested. These analyses resulted in a model composed of six polymorphic amino acid positions and seven SNPs that explained the observed significant associations in the region. In addition, a replication step comprising 4,017 SSc cases and 5,935 controls was carried out for several selected non-HLA variants, reaching a total of 5,850 cases and 9,401 controls of European ancestry. Following this strategy, we identified and validated three SSc risk loci, including DNASE1L3 at 3p14, the SCHIP1-IL12A locus at 3q25, and ATG5 at 6q21, as well as a suggested association of the TREH-DDX6 locus at 11q23. The associations of several previously reported SSc risk loci were validated and further refined, and the observed peak of association in PXK was related to DNASE1L3. Our study has increased the number of known genetic associations with SSc, provided further insight into the pleiotropic effects of shared autoimmune risk factors, and highlighted the power of dense mapping for detecting previously overlooked susceptibility loci.
Related JoVE Video
Functional analysis of FABP3 in the milk fat synthesis signaling pathway of dairy cow mammary epithelial cells.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Milk fat is the major energy component of milk, and regulation of its production relies on transcription factors sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?). As one of the target genes of SREBP1 and PPAR?, fatty acid-binding protein 3(FABP3) is the main protein allowing for rapid diffusion and selective targeting of long-chain fatty acids toward specific organelles for metabolism. Whether FABP3 plays an important role in milk fat synthesis signaling pathway is largely unknown. In this study, we observed the effects of FABP3 overexpression and gene silencing in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells, as well as the effects of oleic acid, stearic acid, and palmitic acid on the expressions of FABP3 and lipid droplet formation, by using quantitative reverse transcriptase (qRT)-PCR, Western blotting, and fluorescent immunostaining techniques. FABP3 upregulated the expression of SREBP1 and PPAR? to increase lipid droplet accumulation. Oleic acid, stearic acid, and palmitic acid also increased lipid droplet accumulation by affecting expression of FABP3. These findings shed new insights for understanding the mechanism of FABP3 in regulating milk fat synthesis.
Related JoVE Video
Blood-based candidate biomarkers of the presence of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus in children.
Lupus Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine select brain-reactive proteins for their usefulness to serve as blood-based biomarkers in the screening for neurocognitive deficits in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE-NCD).
Related JoVE Video
Exposure to bisphenol A correlates with early-onset prostate cancer and promotes centrosome amplification and anchorage-independent growth in vitro.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous. Animal studies found that BPA contributes to development of prostate cancer, but human data are scarce. Our study examined the association between urinary BPA levels and Prostate cancer and assessed the effects of BPA on induction of centrosome abnormalities as an underlying mechanism promoting prostate carcinogenesis. The study, involving 60 urology patients, found higher levels of urinary BPA (creatinine-adjusted) in Prostate cancer patients (5.74 µg/g [95% CI; 2.63, 12.51]) than in non-Prostate cancer patients (1.43 µg/g [95% CI; 0.70, 2.88]) (p?=?0.012). The difference was even more significant in patients <65 years old. A trend toward a negative association between urinary BPA and serum PSA was observed in Prostate cancer patients but not in non-Prostate cancer patients. In vitro studies examined centrosomal abnormalities, microtubule nucleation, and anchorage-independent growth in four Prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, C4-2, 22Rv1, PC-3) and two immortalized normal prostate epithelial cell lines (NPrEC and RWPE-1). Exposure to low doses (0.01-100 nM) of BPA increased the percentage of cells with centrosome amplification two- to eight-fold. Dose responses either peaked or reached the plateaus with 0.1 nM BPA exposure. This low dose also promoted microtubule nucleation and regrowth at centrosomes in RWPE-1 and enhanced anchorage-independent growth in C4-2. These findings suggest that urinary BPA level is an independent prognostic marker in Prostate cancer and that BPA exposure may lower serum PSA levels in Prostate cancer patients. Moreover, disruption of the centrosome duplication cycle by low-dose BPA may contribute to neoplastic transformation of the prostate.
Related JoVE Video
rs12904 polymorphism in the 3UTR of EFNA1 is associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility in a Chinese population.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Accumulated evidence has indicated that Ephrin A1 (EFNA1) is associated with angiogenesis and tumorigenesis in various types of malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC). In the current study, we performed an online search using the public microarray database to investigate whether EFNA1 expression might be altered in CRC tissues. We then conducted a case-control study including 306 subjects (102 cases and 204 well-matched controls) in Xiaoshan County to assess any association between genetic polymorphisms in EFNA1 and CRC susceptibility. Searches in the Oncomine expression profiling database revealed EFNA1 to be overexpressed in CRC tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue. The rs12904 G-A variant located in the 3 untranslated region (UTR) of EFNA1 was observed to be associated with CRC susceptibility. Compared with the AA homozygous genotype, those carrying GA genotype had a decreased risk of developing CRC (odds ratio (OR) =0.469, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.225-0.977, and P =0.043). The association was stronger among smokers and tea drinkers, however, no statistical evidence of interaction between rs12904 polymorphism and smoking or tea drinking on CRC risk was found. Our results suggest that EFNA1 is involved in colorectal tumorigenesis, and rs12904 A>G polymorphism in the 3 UTR of EFNA1 is associated with CRC susceptibility. Larger studies and further mechanistic investigations are warranted to confirm our findings.
Related JoVE Video
[Reconstitution kinetics of T helper cells subsets post unmanipulated allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the differences of the T helper cell reconstitution kinetics between HLA matched or HLA mismatched allo-HSCT through exploring the reconstitution kinetics of CD4+ CD25+Foxp3+ cells (CD4+ Treg), CD8+CD25+Foxp3+ cells (CD8+Treg), CD4+CD25-CD127+ conventional T cells (Tcon) and the secretion of IL-17a and IFN-? in CD4+ T cells (Th17 and Th1 cells) or CD8+ T cells (Tc17 and Tc17 cells) post allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (allo-HSCT).
Related JoVE Video
[Autophagy in lung tissue of rats exposed to silica dust].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the autophagy of effector cells in lung tissue at different time points when rats were exposed to free SiO2 dust.
Related JoVE Video
Ethnic disparities in adherence to breast cancer survivorship surveillance care.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adherence to guidelines for surveillance mammography and clinic visits is an important component of breast cancer survivorship care. Identifying ethnic disparities in adherence may lead to improved care delivery and outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
[Emission factors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residential coal combustion and its influence factors].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As the emission source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), domestic coal combustion has attracted increasing attention in China. According to the coal maturity, combustion form and stove type associated with domestic coal combustion, a large-size, full-flow dilution tunnel and fractional sampling system was employed to collect the emissions from five coals with various maturities, which were burned in the form of raw-coal-chunk (RCC)/honeycomb-coal-briquettes (HCB) in different residential stoves, and then the emission factors of PAHs (EF(PAHs)) were achieved. The results indicate that the EF(PAHs) of bituminous coal ranged from 1.1 mg x kg(-1) to 3.9 mg x kg(-1) for RCC and 2.5 mg x kg(-1) to 21. 1 mg x kg(-1) for HCB, and the anthracite EF(PAH8) were 0.2 mg x kg(-1) for RCC and 0.6 mg x kg(-1) for HCB, respectively. Among all the influence factors of emission factors of PAHs from domestic coal combustion, the maturity of coal played a major role, the range of variance reaching 1 to 2 orders of magnitude in coals with different maturity. Followed by the form of combustion (RCC/HCB), the EF(PAHs) of HCB was 2-6 times higher than that of RCC for the same geological maturity of the coal. The type of stove had little influence on EF(PAHs).
Related JoVE Video
Provider recognition and response to echocardiographic findings indicating pulmonary hypertension in the Veterans affairs medical center population.
Pulm Circ
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
PH occurs alone or in association with many disorders. Many patients with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) findings suggesting PH never receive additional evaluation. Patient characteristics and echocardiographic data associated with increased recognition of PH have not been fully evaluated. We evaluated TTE reports at the Cincinnati Veterans Affairs Medical Center from 2005 to 2006 retrospectively for findings highly indicative of PH: Estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) ?40 mmHg, increased right atrial or right ventricular (RV) size, or reduced RV function. Only patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ?50% and no known diagnosis of PH were included. Patient characteristics, TTE findings, provider recognition rates, and subsequent referral for additional evaluation were assessed. A total of 227 of 3,960 (5.7%) TTE reports revealed findings indicating possible PH. Providers acknowledged possible PH in 53 (23.4%) reports. Recognized PH was predicted by increased RV size (odds ratio (OR) = 5.07, P < 0.001), increased right atrial dimension (OR = 6.45, P < 0.001), decreased RV function (OR = 8.86, P < 0.001), and increased PAP (OR = 1.04 corresponding to each unit increase of PAP, P < 0.01). Patients with comorbid obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), interstitial lung disease, and dyspnea were also more likely to be recognized (OR = 3.63, P = 0.021; OR = 10.98, P = 0.004; OR = 2.39, P = 0.007, respectively). The 12-month mortality rate for recognized patients, 11.3% (7/53), was lower than for unrecognized patients, 25.3% (44/174; P = 0.03). Providers recognized less than one in four patients with echocardiographic evidence suggesting PH. Echocardiography reports revealing higher PAP and right heart dilation and dysfunction are associated with increased acknowledgement of possible PH.
Related JoVE Video
Two polyoxometalate-directed 3D metal-organic frameworks with multinuclear silver-ptz cycle/belts as subunits.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two new polyoxometalate (POM)-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) constructed from multinuclear silver-ptz cycle/belts, namely [Ag7(ptz)4(NO3)(H2O)][H4P2W18O62]·5H2O () and [Ag6(ptz)4(H2O)2][HPMo12O40]·3H2O () (ptzH = 5-(3-pyridyl)-1H-tetrazole), have been successfully synthesized under hydrothermal conditions via changing the polyoxoanions and adjusting the pH. Compound exhibits a 3D framework constructed from the Wells-Dawson [P2W18O62](6-) anion and a 2D layer based on two types of multinuclear Ag-ptz cycles. In compound , the 1D infinite multinuclear Ag-ptz belts consisting of repeated tetranuclear subunits [(Ag1)2(Ag2)2(ptz)4] are connected by Ag3 ions to form a 2D layer. The adjacent 2D layers are further linked by tetra-dentate Keggin [PMo12O40](3-) anions to construct a 3D framework. The structural analyses reveal that the different polyoxoanions have a great influence on the Ag(I)-ptz multinuclear cycle/belts and the whole structures. The influences of the pH and molar ratio of initial reactants in the hydrothermal process were also discussed. The electrochemical and photocatalytic properties of the title compounds have been studied in detail.
Related JoVE Video
[Association of the ratio of regulatory and effector T cells with recurrence and chronic graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the association of the ratio of regulatory and effector T cells with recurrence and chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT).
Related JoVE Video
Immune Reconstitution after Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers the benefits of rapid and nearly universal donor availability and has been accepted worldwide as an alternative treatment for patients with hematologic malignancies who do not have a completely HLA-matched sibling or who require urgent transplantation. Unfortunately, serious infections and leukemia relapse resulting from slow immune reconstitution remain the 2 most frequent causes of mortality in patients undergoing haploidentical HSCT, particularly in those receiving extensively T cell-depleted megadose CD34(+) allografts. This review summarizes advances in immune recovery after haploidentical HSCT, focusing on the immune subsets likely to have the greatest impact on clinical outcomes. The progress made in accelerating immune reconstitution using different strategies after haploidentical HSCT is also discussed. It is our belief that a predictive immune subset-guided strategy to improve immune recovery might represent a future clinical direction.
Related JoVE Video
In vitro and ex vivo angiogenic effects of roxarsone on rat endothelial cells.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Roxarsone, a feed additive, is being used worldwide to promote animal growth. However, the potential effect of roxarsone on angiogenesis has not been extensively characterized. We examined the ability of roxarsone to promote angiogenesis of rat endothelial cells in vitro and from rat aorta rings ex vivo. Endothelial cells from rats were exposed to 0.01-10.00?M roxarsone, 5ng/mL vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a positive control or phosphate buffer saline (PBS) as a negative control. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay, and the content of VEGF in supernatants was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting. A Matrigel-induced tube formation assay was used to evaluate the effects of roxarsone on endothelial cells. Additionally, the total number and length of microvessels sprouted from rat aortic rings were measured for ex vivo investigation of angiogenesis. Results showed that the cell viability and total number and length of capillary-like tube formations after roxarsone treatment was significantly higher than that of negative (P<0.05), with a maximum effect at 1.00?M exposure. Furthermore, the number of microvessels sprouted from aortic rings treated for 4h with 0.1-10.0?M roxarsone was significantly higher than that of PBS treatment, with a peak value of 1.0?M. These results further demonstrate the potential of roxarsone to promote angiogenesis in vitro and ex vivo.
Related JoVE Video
Measures to Reduce Mother-to-Child Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus in China: A Meta-Analysis.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the main mode of spread of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in China. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the effects of three measures for prevention of MTCT.
Related JoVE Video
Intracerebroventricular injection of stresscopin-related peptide enhances cardiovascular function in conscious rats.
Regul. Pept.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stresscopin-related peptide (SRP), which is a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family, is a high-affinity ligand for the type 2 corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRF-R2) and is involved in stress-coping responses. Central treatment with SRP suppresses food intake, delays gastric emptying and decreases heat-induced edema, but the effects of central administration of SRP on the cardiovascular system are unclear. Here we examined the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of SRP on cardiovascular function, and compared the cardiovascular effects of SRP and stresscopin (SCP). Our results showed that i.c.v. administration of SRP (0.5nmol) increased mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and heart rate (HR), but failed to increase plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine levels. Compared with an equivalent dose of SCP, the area under the curve (AUC) values for the changes in MABP and HR were significantly smaller with SRP, indicating that the cardiovascular effects of SRP were weaker than those mediated by SCP. Pre-treatment with a selective CRF-R2 antagonist, antisauvagine-30 (4nmol, i.c.v.) abolished the SRP and SCP induced changes in MABP and HR. These results indicate that central administration of SRP induces a weaker enhancement of cardiovascular function through CRF-R2 than that induced by SCP and that these effects are mediated without increasing plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine levels.
Related JoVE Video
Association of an impaired bone marrow microenvironment with secondary poor graft function after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Poor graft function (PGF) is a serious complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Whether abnormalities of the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment are involved in the pathogenesis of PGF is unclear. In the present prospective nested case-control study, 19 patients with secondary PGF, 38 matched patients with good graft function (GGF) after allo-HSCT, and 15 healthy donors (HDs) were enrolled. The cellular elements of the BM microenvironment, including endosteal cells, perivascular cells, and vascular cells, were analyzed by flow cytometry as well as hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining in situ. The median time to occurrence of secondary PGF was 90 days post-transplantation (range, 58 to 264 days). The patients with PGF showed markedly hypocellular marrow (10% versus 45% versus 45%; P < .0001) with scattered hematopoietic cells and significantly lower CD34(+) cells (0.07% versus 0.26% versus 0.26%; P < .0001), endosteal cells (4 per high-power field [hpf] versus 16 per hpf versus 20 per hpf; P < .001), perivascular cells (0.008% versus 0.10% versus 0.12%; P < .0001), and endothelial progenitor cells (0.008% versus 0.16% versus 0.18%; P < .0001) compared with GGF allo-HSCT recipients and HDs, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that endothelial progenitor cells (odds ratio, 150.72; P = .001) and the underlying disease (odds ratio, 18.52; P = .007) were independent risk factors for secondary PGF. Our results suggest that the impaired BM microenvironment may contribute to the occurrence of secondary PGF post-HSCT.
Related JoVE Video
40 Hz auditory steady state response to linguistic features of stimuli during auditory hallucinations.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The auditory steady state response (ASSR) may reflect activity from different regions of the brain, depending on the modulation frequency used. In general, responses induced by low rates (?40 Hz) emanate mostly from central structures of the brain, and responses from high rates (?80 Hz) emanate mostly from the peripheral auditory nerve or brainstem structures. Besides, it was reported that the gamma band ASSR (30-90 Hz) played an important role in working memory, speech understanding and recognition. This paper investigated the 40 Hz ASSR evoked by modulated speech and reversed speech. The speech was Chinese phrase voice, and the noise-like reversed speech was obtained by temporally reversing the speech. Both auditory stimuli were modulated with a frequency of 40 Hz. Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with hallucination symptom participated in the experiment. Results showed reduction in left auditory cortex response when healthy subjects listened to the reversed speech compared with the speech. In contrast, when the patients who experienced auditory hallucinations listened to the reversed speech, the auditory cortex of left hemispheric responded more actively. The ASSR results were consistent with the behavior results of patients. Therefore, the gamma band ASSR is expected to be helpful for rapid and objective diagnosis of hallucination in clinic.
Related JoVE Video
Public place smoke-free regulations, secondhand smoke exposure and related beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and practices among Chinese urban residents.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the association between smoke-free regulations in public places and secondhand smoke exposure and related beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and behavior among urban residents in China.
Related JoVE Video
Self-assembly of a molecular crown as a structural analogue of calix[4]arene to modify Keggin anions.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Four Ag(I) ions are linked by four 5-phenyl-1H-tetrazole (Hptz) units to form a molecular crown [Ag4(ptz)4] as a structural analogue of calix[4]arene, which are further supported by Keggin anions to build a 2D layer containing two kinds of cycles, [Ag8(ptz)4(HPW(V)2W(VI)10O40)]·2H2O (1).
Related JoVE Video
Early lymphocyte recovery predicts superior overall survival after unmanipulated haploidentical blood and marrow transplant for myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia evolving from myelodysplastic syndrome.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated whether early lymphocyte recovery, after unmanipulated, haploidentical, blood and marrow transplant (HBMT), affected clinical outcomes in 78 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia evolving from MDS. Lymphocyte recovery was based on the absolute lymphocyte count on day 30 (ALC-30). Patients with high ALC-30 (? 300 cells/?L) had lower relapse rates (13.8% vs. 35.5%, p = 0.049) and lower incidence of bacterial infections (3.4% vs. 25.8%, p = 0.015) than those with low ALC-30 values. Multivariate analysis showed that a high ALC-30 was associated with improved overall survival (OS, hazard ratio [HR]: 0.099, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.029-0.337; p < 0.0001), improved leukemia-free survival (HR: 0.245, 95% CI: 0.112-0.539; p < 0.0001), lower relapse rate (HR: 0.096, 95% CI: 0.011-0.827; p = 0.033) and lower transplant-related mortality (TRM, HR: 0.073, 95% CI: 0.016-0.324; p = 0.001). Combinations of three mismatches in the human leukocyte antigen loci were associated with a higher TRM (HR: 5.026, 95% CI: 1.392-18.173; p = 0.014). Our results suggest that the ALC-30 can predict a favorable OS after unmanipulated HBMT.
Related JoVE Video
Brain morphometric changes associated with childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus and neurocognitive deficit.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To use structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to characterize changes in gray matter and white matter volumes between patients with childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and matched controls, between patients with childhood-onset SLE with and those without neurocognitive deficit, and in relation to disease duration and treatment with steroids.
Related JoVE Video
The preliminary exploration of 64-slice volume computed tomography in the accurate measurement of pleural effusion.
Acta Radiol
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Using computed tomography (CT) to rapidly and accurately quantify pleural effusion volume benefits medical and scientific research. However, the precise volume of pleural effusions still involves many challenges and currently does not have a recognized accurate measuring.
Related JoVE Video
Validation of the Pediatric Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the reproducibility and validity of the Pediatric Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (Ped-ANAM) when used in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE).
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy of telbivudine on interruption of hepatitis B virus vertical transmission: a meta-analysis.
Ann Saudi Med
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most common infections in the world. Vertical transmission is the main reason for the continued endemic infection rates, at least in Asia. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of telbivudine on mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) interruption.
Related JoVE Video
Interferon-? promoter is hypermethylated in blood DNA from workers with confirmed diisocyanate asthma.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Risk factors have not been identified that determine susceptibility for development of diisocyanate-induced occupational asthma (DA). We hypothesized that diisocyanate (DI) exposure could modify gene promoter regions regulating transcription of cytokine mediators and thereby influence expression of DA. A cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the promoter methylation status of candidate genes in DI-exposed workers. Subjects consisted of 131 workers in three groups: 40 cases with DA confirmed by a positive specific inhalation challenge (SIC) (DA+), 41 exposed workers with lower respiratory symptoms and negative SIC (DA-), and 50 asymptomatic exposed workers (AWs). We studied four candidate genes (GSTM1, DUSP22, IFN-?, and IL-4) for which altered promoter methylation has been previously investigated for relationships with a variety of other environmental exposures. Methylation status was determined using methylation-specific quantitative PCR performed on genomic DNA extracted from whole blood. Results showed that relative methylation of IFN-? promoter was significantly increased in DA+ in comparison with both comparator groups (DA- and AW), and it exhibited good sensitivity (77.5%) and specificity (80%) for identifying DA workers in a multivariate predictive model after adjusting for type of DI exposure, smoking status, methacholine PC??, and gender. IL-4 promoter was slightly less methylated only in DA+ compared with AW among nonsmoking workers. Both GSTM1 and DUSP22 promoter methylations were found not associated with DA. Our finding suggests that exposure to occupational chemicals could play a heretofore undefined mechanistic role via epigenetic modification of specific genes in the promoter region.
Related JoVE Video
[Concentrations and distribution of organochlorine pesticides in the surface sediments of Jiaozhou Bay, Taozi Bay and Sishili Bay].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Forty-eight surface sediment samples collected from Jiaozhou Bay, Taozi Bay and Sishili Bay were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by Gas Chromatography. Results showed that average concentrations of HCHs, HCB and DDTs in marine sediments were 0.33, 0.31 and 10.33 ng x g(-1) in Jiaozhou Bay and 0.26, 0.10 and 4.56 ng x g(-1) in Taozi Bay and Sishili Bay, respectively. Contamination status of OCPs was relatively higher in Jiaozhou Bay than in other inland coastal regions, especially for the levels of DDTs; however, OCPs concentrations were relatively low in Taozi Bay and Sishili Bay. The source of HCHs could be mainly attributed to the heavy historical application in agricultural areas and late transport to coastal region through surface runoff or riverine discharge, and DDTs were primarily originated from the use of technical DDTs. Fresh input of lindane and dicofol-type DDTs were found in several sites, such as Qingdao Port. High concentrations of DDTs in Jiaozhou Bay should arouse much attention.
Related JoVE Video
Functional neuronal network activity differs with cognitive dysfunction in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Neuropsychiatric manifestations are common in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) and often include neurocognitive dysfunction (NCD). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can measure brain activation during tasks that invoke domains of cognitive function impaired by cSLE. This study investigates specific changes in brain function attributable to NCD in cSLE that have potential to serve as imaging biomarkers. METHODS: Formal neuropsychological testing was done to measure cognitive ability and to identify NCD. Participants performed fMRI tasks probing three cognitive domains impacted by cSLE: visuoconstructional ability (VCA), working memory, and attention. Imaging data, collected on 3-Tesla scanners, included a high-resolution T1-weighted anatomic reference image followed by a T2*-weighted whole-brain echo planar image series for each fMRI task. Brain activation using blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast was compared between cSLE patients with NCD (NCD-group, n = 7) vs. without NCD (noNCD-group, n = 14) using voxel-wise and region of interest-based analyses. The relationship of brain activation during fMRI tasks and performance in formal neuropsychological testing was assessed. RESULTS: Greater brain activation was observed in the noNCD-group vs. NCD-group during VCA and working memory fMRI tasks. Conversely, compared to the noNCD-group, the NCD-group showed more brain activation during the attention fMRI task. In region of interest analysis, brain activity during VCA and working memory fMRI tasks was positively associated with the participants neuropsychological test performance. In contrast, brain activation during the attention fMRI task was negatively correlated with neuropsychological test performance. While the NCD group performed worse than the noNCD group during VCA and working memory tasks, the attention task was performed equally well by both groups. CONCLUSIONS: NCD in patients with cSLE is characterized by differential activation of functional neuronal networks during fMRI tasks probing working memory, VCA, and attention. Results suggest a compensatory mechanism allows maintenance of attentional performance under NCD. This mechanism appears to break down for the VCA and working memory challenges presented in this study. The observation that neuronal network activation is related to the formal neuropsychological testing performance makes fMRI a candidate imaging biomarker for cSLE-associated NCD.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.