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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Significant field enhancements in an individual silver nanoparticle near a substrate covered with a thin gain film.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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In this paper, we propose a method to significantly enhance the local-field of a gap plasmonic system by placing a metallic nanoparticle in close proximity to a substrate covered with a thin film using a gain material (?100 nm thickness). Compared with a conventional dielectric substrate, the thin gain film can contribute to several, or dozens, of times more intense local electric fields in the gap between the particle and the substrate. We use the finite difference time domain method to numerically analyze the influences of the gain coefficient of the film and of the other parameters on the field enhancement. The numerical results show that there is an optimal refractive index of the gain film that enables us to achieve a maximal field enhancement for a given NP radius. Moreover, the optimal refractive index of the gain film can be incorporated into any available materials using metal nanoparticles with an appropriate radius.
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Dual-color, break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization probe for distinguishing clear cell sarcoma of soft tissue from malignant melanoma.
Int. J. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Background Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) of soft tissue is a rare soft tissue sarcoma with melanocytic differentiation and shares morphologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular features with malignant melanoma (MM). Because the prognosis of CCS is much different from MM, it is important to distinguish each other by selective method. CCS is well-recognized as having the t(12;22)(q13;q12) translocation, on the other hand MM is not. Therefore, detecting Ewing sarcoma region 1 (ESWR1) gene rearrangement can serve as a crucial diagnostic determinant. Methods Biopsy was taken from a 52-year-old man who reported a 3-year history of a gradually enlarging nodule on the sole of his left foot. Routine and special stains for melanocytic markers and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) evaluation using dual color break-apart rearrangement probes specific for ESWR1 was performed for formalin-fixed tissue. Results Neoplastic cells expressed diffuse but strong positivity for HMB45 and S100 but not for Melan-A. Dual color, break-apart interphase FISH revealed EWS(22q12) gene rearrangements in CCS tumor cells. Conclusion Fluorescence in situ hybridization evaluation using ESWR1 gene probe for CCS sharing clinical and histopathological characteristics with MM is a valuable tool to distinguish each other.
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The Antimicrobial Activity of (-)-Epigallocatehin-3-Gallate and Green Tea Extracts against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli Isolated from Skin Wounds.
Ann Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Skin infections with Gram-negative bacteria are sometimes challenging to treat, because these bacteria show multidrug resistance against commonly used antibiotics and patients with Gram-negative bacterial infection overall have deteriorated in conditions in many cases. Studies have shown that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and green tea extracts (GTE) inhibit the growth of several Gram-positive bacteria species.
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An integrated model for robust multisensor data fusion.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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This paper presents an integrated model aimed at obtaining robust and reliable results in decision level multisensor data fusion applications. The proposed model is based on the connection of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory and an extreme learning machine. It includes three main improvement aspects: a mass constructing algorithm to build reasonable basic belief assignments (BBAs); an evidence synthesis method to get a comprehensive BBA for an information source from several mass functions or experts; and a new way to make high-precision decisions based on an extreme learning machine (ELM). Compared to some universal classification methods, the proposed one can be directly applied in multisensor data fusion applications, but not only for conventional classifications. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model is able to yield robust and reliable results in multisensor data fusion problems. In addition, this paper also draws some meaningful conclusions, which have significant implications for future studies.
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[Comparison of immune response after laparoscopic and open surgery for colorectal carcinoma: a meta-analysis].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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To compare the immune function after laparoscopic surgery (LS) and conventional open surgery(OS) for colorectal cancer (CRC).
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Enhancing Functional Expression of Heterologous Proteins Through Random Substitution of Genetic Codes in the 5' Coding Region.
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Recent studies using heterologous protein expression systems suggest that synonymous codons affect not only the expression but also the properties of the expressed protein. However, practical application of this information is challenging, and to date, efforts to employ bioinformatics tools to design synonymous codon mixes have been only marginally successful. Here, we sought to enhance the functional expression of heterologous protein in Escherichia coli through completely random substitution of the first ten codons with synonymous codons, using a previously isolated exocellulase CelEdx-SF301 as the model protein. Synonymous codon variants were generated by PCR using forward primers with mixed nucleotides at the third position in each codon and a conventional reverse primer. The resulting PCR products were inserted upstream of the fluorescent protein mCherry without linkers. After transformation and cultivation, colonies exhibiting red fluorescence were selected, and the activity of SF301-mCherry fusion proteins was tested. Synonymous codon variant fusion proteins exhibited 35- to 530-fold increases in functional expression compared with wild-type controls. Unlike results from other reports, we found that the stability of mRNA secondary structure in the 5' untranslated region and codon rarity were not correlated with functional expression level. Our work demonstrates that a completely random mixed of synonymous codons effectively enhances functional expression levels without the need for amino acid substitutions. Biotechnol. Bioeng. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Syndrome Differentiation of Diabetes by the Traditional Chinese Medicine according to Evidence-Based Medicine and Expert Consensus Opinion.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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In Chinese medicine, diabetes belongs to the category of "Xiaoke disease (disease with symptoms of frequent drinking and urination)"; in the traditional sense, its pathogenesis is "Yin deficiency and dryness-heat." However, over time, changes in the social environment and lifestyle have also changed the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in diabetes. In this study, we performed diabetes syndrome differentiation using TCM according to evidence-based medicine and expert consensus opinion.
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Diagnostic Efficiency of Hemoglobin A1c for Newly Diagnosed Diabetes and Prediabetes in Community-Based Chinese Adults Aged 40 Years or Older.
Diabetes Technol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Abstract Background: Europeans and Americans are gradually accepting the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) threshold of 6.5% for diagnosing diabetes proposed by the American Diabetes Association, but the cutoff of HbA1c for the Chinese population is unclear. We evaluated the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c for diagnosing newly diagnosed diabetes and prediabetes in community-based Chinese adults 40 years of age or older. Subjects and Methods: In this study 8,239 subjects (5,496 women) 40-90 years of age underwent HbA1c and oral glucose tolerance test measurement after an overnight fast. Diabetes and prediabetes were defined by the World Health Organization criteria. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c, and the optimal cutoff was defined as the point on the receiver operating characteristic curve with the largest Youden index. Spearman correlation was used for correlation analysis. Results: The prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes and prediabetes was 10.7% (880/8,239) and 19.0% (1,564/8,239), respectively. Fasting plasma glucose and postprandial plasma glucose were positively correlated with HbA1c level (r=0.725 and r=0.673, both P<0.001, respectively). For diagnosing diabetes, the AUC was 0.857 (95% confidence interval, 0.841-0.873), and the optimal cutoff for HbA1c was 6.3%, with the largest Youden index being 0.581. For diagnosing prediabetes, the AUC was 0.681 (95% confidence interval, 0.666-0.697), and the optimal cutoff for HbA1c was 5.9%, with the largest Youden index being 0.280. Conclusions: An HbA1c threshold of 6.3% was highly valuable for diagnosing newly diagnosed diabetes, and a value of 5.9% was weakly valuable for diagnosing prediabetes in community-based Chinese adults 40 years of age or older.
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Neurological prognostication by gender in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients receiving hypothermia treatment.
Resuscitation
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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This study examined whether the extent to which out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients recover neurological function after therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is augmented in specific gender, age, and primary ECG group.
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Anticancer effects of ?-elemene in gastric cancer cells and its potential underlying proteins: A proteomic study.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Gastric cancer is a common malignancy with a poor prognosis. ?-elemene is a broad-spectrum anticancer drug extracted from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Curcuma wenyujin. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer effects of ?-elemene in gastric cancer cells and the potential proteins involved. Human SGC7901 and MKN45 gastric cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of ?-elemene. Cell viability, clonogenic survival and apoptotic cell death were assessed. ?-elemene inhibited viability and decreased clonogenic survival of gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Apoptosis induction contributed to the anticancer effects. We then employed a proteomic method, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ), to detect the proteins altered by ?-elemene. In total, 147 upregulated proteins and 86 downregulated proteins were identified in response to ?-elemene treatment in SGC7901 gastric cancer cells. Among them, expression of p21-activated protein kinase?interacting protein 1 (PAK1IP1), Bcl-2-associated transcription factor 1 (BTF) and topoisomerase 2-? (TOPII?) were validated by western blot analyses and the trends were consistent with iTRAQ results. Top pathways involved in ?-elemene treatment in SGC7901 gastric cancer cells included ribosome signaling, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, phagosome, biosynthesis and metabolism of some amino acids. Collectively, our results suggest a promising therapeutic role of ?-elemene in gastric cancer. The differentially expressed proteins provide further insight into the potential mechanisms involved in gastric cancer treatment using ?-elemene.
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Perineural pretreatment of bee venom attenuated the development of allodynia in the spinal nerve ligation injured neuropathic pain model; an experimental study.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Diluted bee venom is known to have anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. We therefore assessed whether perineural bee venom pretreatment could attenuate the development of neuropathic pain in the spinal nerve ligation injured animal model.
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RAG1/2 knockout pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Pigs share many physiological, biochemical, and anatomical similarities with humans and have emerged as valuable large animal models for biomedical research. Considering the advantages in immune system resemblance, suitable size, and longevity for clinical practical and monitoring purpose, SCID pigs bearing dysfunctional RAG could serve as important experimental tools for regenerative medicine, allograft and xenograft transplantation, and reconstitution experiments related to the immune system. In this study, we report the generation and phenotypic characterization of RAG1 and RAG2 knockout pigs using transcription activator-like effector nucleases. Porcine fetal fibroblasts were genetically engineered using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and then used to provide donor nuclei for somatic cell nuclear transfer. We obtained 27 live cloned piglets; among these piglets, 9 were targeted with biallelic mutations in RAG1, 3 were targeted with biallelic mutations in RAG2, and 10 were targeted with a monoallelic mutation in RAG2. Piglets with biallelic mutations in either RAG1 or RAG2 exhibited hypoplasia of immune organs, failed to perform V(D)J rearrangement, and lost mature B and T cells. These immunodeficient RAG1/2 knockout pigs are promising tools for biomedical and translational research.
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Epidemiological characteristics of thyroid nodules and risk factors for malignant nodules: a retrospective study from 6,304 surgical cases.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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The prevalence of thyroid nodules (TN) is increasing rapidly. This study analyzed the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of TN in surgically treated patients and identified the risk factors for malignant nodules (MN) to provide more understanding of the differential diagnosis of TN.
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Meta-analysis of the efficacies of extended and standard pancreatoduodenectomy for ductal adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of extended pancreatoduodenectomy (EPD) and standard pancreatoduodenectomy (SPD) for ductal adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas via meta-analysis.
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Irisin has no effect on lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes or fatty acid metabolism in HepG2 hepatocytes.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Irisin, a newly identified myokine responsible for browning of white or beige adipocytes, has been reported to be present at reduced levels in diabetic patients and associated with obesity, serum triglyceride (TG) levels, and intrahepatic TG levels. We wondered whether irisin could directly affect fatty acid and TG metabolism in adipocytes and hepatocytes. We examined the effects of various concentrations of irisin on lipolysis (according to Oil Red O staining, free fatty acid release, and glycerol release), protein expression of HSL and ATGL, and mRNA expression of other lipid-related genes (UCP-1, PPAR?, FABP-4, HSL, ATGL, PPAR?, and CPT-1) in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as well as mRNA levels of genes involved in the synthesis (SREBP-1C and FAS) and ?-oxidation (PPAR? and CPT-1) of fatty acids in HepG2 hepatocytes under physiological or hyperglycemic conditions. Our results revealed that although irisin significantly increased the mRNA levels of UCP-1 and PPAR?, it failed to show detectable effects on lipolysis, HSL or ATGL protein levels, or the mRNA expression of other lipid-related genes in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In HepG2 hepatocytes, high glucose induced the upregulation of SREBP-1C and FAS and the downregulation of PPAR?; however, no significant effect of irisin on gene expression was observed under either physiological or hyperglycemic conditions. We therefore conclude that irisin has no significant direct effect on lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes or on fatty acid metabolism in HepG2 hepatocytes.
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Mandibular Tori Are Associated With Mechanical Stress and Mandibular Shape.
J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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The influence of mechanical stimulation on the formation of torus mandibularis (TM) is still poorly understood. We sought to understand the etiology of TMs by investigating the role of parafunctional activity and mandibular morphology on the formation of TMs.
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Triglycerides and ratio of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are better than liver enzymes to identify insulin resistance in urban middle-aged and older non-obese Chinese without diabetes.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Insulin resistance (IR) plays an important pathophysiological role in the development of diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, IR can occur even in non-obese people without diabetes. However, direct detection of IR is complicated. In order to find a simple surrogate marker of IR early in non-obese people, we investigate the association of commonly-used biochemical markers (liver enzymes and lipid profiles) with IR in urban middle-aged and older non-obese Chinese without diabetes.
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Femorotibial relationship changes as the posture changes from patellae-forward stance to preferred toe-out stance.
J Orthop Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Full-length standing anteroposterior radiograph is a standard protocol to evaluate the lower limb alignment in frontal plane. However, most people tend to stand or walk with feet pointing outward. The purpose of this study is to assess the femorotibial relationship as the posture changes from patellae-forward stance for the conventional technique of a full-length standing anteroposterior radiograph to a toe-out quiet stance using a fluoroscope.
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Mycobacterium abscessus Lung Disease in a Patient with Kartagener Syndrome.
Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is characterized by the congenital impairment of mucociliary clearance. When accompanied by situs inversus, chronic sinusitis and bronchiectasis, PCD is known as Kartagener syndrome. The main consequence of impaired ciliary function is a reduced mucus clearance from the lungs, and susceptibility to chronic respiratory infections due to opportunistic pathogens, including nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). There has been no report of NTM lung disease combined with Kartagener syndrome in Korea. Here, we report an adult patient with Kartagener syndrome complicated with Mycobacterium abscessus lung disease. A 37-year-old female presented to our hospital with chronic cough and sputum. She was ultimately diagnosed with M. abscessus lung disease and Kartagener syndrome. M. abscessus was repeatedly isolated from sputum specimens collected from the patient, despite prolonged antibiotic treatment. The patient's condition improved and negative sputum culture conversion was achieved after sequential bilateral pulmonary resection.
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Structural and biochemical characterization reveals LysGH15 as an unprecedented "EF-hand-like" calcium-binding phage lysin.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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The lysin LysGH15, which is derived from the staphylococcal phage GH15, demonstrates a wide lytic spectrum and strong lytic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Here, we find that the lytic activity of the full-length LysGH15 and its CHAP domain is dependent on calcium ions. To elucidate the molecular mechanism, the structures of three individual domains of LysGH15 were determined. Unexpectedly, the crystal structure of the LysGH15 CHAP domain reveals an "EF-hand-like" calcium-binding site near the Cys-His-Glu-Asn quartet active site groove. To date, the calcium-binding site in the LysGH15 CHAP domain is unique among homologous proteins, and it represents the first reported calcium-binding site in the CHAP family. More importantly, the calcium ion plays an important role as a switch that modulates the CHAP domain between the active and inactive states. Structure-guided mutagenesis of the amidase-2 domain reveals that both the zinc ion and E282 are required in catalysis and enable us to propose a catalytic mechanism. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and titration-guided mutagenesis identify residues (e.g., N404, Y406, G407, and T408) in the SH3b domain that are involved in the interactions with the substrate. To the best of our knowledge, our results constitute the first structural information on the biochemical features of a staphylococcal phage lysin and represent a pivotal step forward in understanding this type of lysin.
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Regulated fracture in tooth enamel: a nanotechnological strategy from nature.
J Biomech
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Tooth enamel is a very brittle material; however it has the ability to sustain cracks without suffering catastrophic failure throughout the lifetime of mechanical function. We propose that the nanostructure of enamel can play a significant role in defining its unique mechanical properties. Accordingly we analyzed the nanostructure and chemical composition of a group of teeth, and correlated it with the crack resistance of the same teeth. Here we show how the dimensions of apatite nanocrystals in enamel can affect its resistance to crack propagation. We conclude that the aspect ratio of apatite nanocrystals in enamel determines its resistance to crack propagation. According to this finding, we proposed a new model based on the Hall-Petch theory that accurately predicts crack propagation in enamel. Our new biomechanical model of enamel is the first model that can successfully explain the observed variations in the behavior of crack propagation of tooth enamel among different humans.
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Recurrent epimutations activate gene body promoters in primary glioblastoma.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Aberrant DNA hypomethylation may play an important role in the growth rate of glioblastoma (GBM), but the functional impact on transcription remains poorly understood. We assayed the GBM methylome with MeDIP-seq and MRE-seq, adjusting for copy number differences, in a small set of non-glioma CpG island methylator phenotype (non-G-CIMP) primary tumors. Recurrent hypomethylated loci were enriched within a region of chromosome 5p15 that is specified as a cancer amplicon and also encompasses TERT, encoding telomerase reverse transcriptase, which plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. Overall, 76 gene body promoters were recurrently hypomethylated, including TERT and the oncogenes GLI3 and TP73. Recurring hypomethylation also affected previously unannotated alternative promoters, and luciferase reporter assays for three of four of these promoters confirmed strong promoter activity in GBM cells. Histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) ChIP-seq on tissue from the GBMs uncovered peaks that coincide precisely with tumor-specific decrease of DNA methylation at 200 loci, 133 of which are in gene bodies. Detailed investigation of TP73 and TERT gene body hypomethylation demonstrated increased expression of corresponding alternate transcripts, which in TP73 encodes a truncated p73 protein with oncogenic function and in TERT encodes a putative reverse transcriptase-null protein. Our findings suggest that recurring gene body promoter hypomethylation events, along with histone H3K4 trimethylation, alter the transcriptional landscape of GBM through the activation of a limited number of normally silenced promoters within gene bodies, in at least one case leading to expression of an oncogenic protein.
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Compact tunable multibandpass filters based on liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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We demonstrated a compact tunable multibandpass filter with a short size of about 9 mm and a high wavelength-tuning sensitivity of up to -2.194??nm/°C by means of filling a liquid with a high refractive index of 1.700 into the air holes of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). Such a PCF-based filter maintains an almost constant bandwidth and a large extinction ratio of more than 40 dB within the whole wavelength tuning range of more than 100 nm. Moreover, the transmission spectrum of the PCF-based filter is insensitive to the stretch force and the curvature of the fiber.
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Metabolic abnormalities, but not obesity, contribute to the mildly reduced eGFR in middle-aged and elderly Chinese.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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The role of obesity as a determinant of kidney dysfunction has not reached an agreement and the underlying reason may be due to the heterogeneity of obese phenotypes. The aim of the study was to explore the associations of different obese phenotypes with the change of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the roles of obesity and metabolic abnormalities in this association.
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Double-contrast-enhanced sonography for diagnosis of rectal lesions with pathologic correlation.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Transabdominal sonography with a gastrointestinal contrast agent has been widely used in China for investigation of digestive disorders. Double-contrast-enhanced sonography combines a gastrointestinal luminal contrast agent with an intravenous contrast agent for imaging of lesions. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the value of double-contrast-enhanced sonography for preoperative diagnosis of rectal lesions.
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Prokinetic effects of mirtazapine on gastrointestinal transit.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Mirtazapine is a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mirtazapine on gastrointestinal motility in dogs, including solid gastric emptying, antral and small intestinal contractions, and small intestinal and colonic transit. Six dogs were implanted with two cannulas located at the duodenum and the ascending colon; another six dogs were implanted with gastric cannula 6 cm proximal to the pylorus. Mirtazapine 45 mg was administered orally 90 min before the study. We found that 1) Mirtazapine accelerated gastric emptying during the entire 3 h in normal dogs (P < 0.04) and accelerated delayed gastric emptying induced by rectal distention (P < 0.04). 2) Mirtazapine restored impaired gastric tone and accommodation induced by rectal distention (P < 0.05). 3) No significant changes were noted in small intestinal contractions or transit with mirtazapine (P > 0.1). 4) Mirtazapine accelerated colonic transit at 2 and 4 h but not 6 h. The geometric center was increased from 1.9 ± 0.6 to 3.0 ± 0.5 and 3.9 ± 0.5 to 4.7 ± 0.1 at 2 and 4 h respectively (P = 0.04 vs. corresponding control). In conclusion, mirtazapine improves gastric emptying in healthy dogs and normalizes rectal distention-induced delay in gastric emptying and accelerates colon but not small intestinal transit in healthy dogs. Clinical studies are warranted to assess the effects of mirtazapine on gastrointestinal motility and sensory functions in patients with functional gastrointestinal diseases.
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A method to detect diphenylamine contamination of apple fruit and storages using headspace solid phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Analysis of headspace concentrations of diphenylamine using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) was examined for its suitability to detect DPA contamination and off-gassing in apple (Malus domestica) fruit, storage rooms and storage materials. Four SPME fibre coatings including polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, 100 ?m), PDMS/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), Polyacrylate (PA) and PDMS 7 ?m were evaluated. The average limits of detection and of quantification for head space DPA ranged from 0.13 to 0.72 ?g L(-1) and 0.42 to 2.35 ?g L(-1), respectively. Polyacrylate was identified to be the most suitable and compatible fibre for DPA analysis in apple samples, because of its high sensitivity to DPA and low fruit volatile interferences. SPME techniques were further applied to study contamination of DPA in apples, storage rooms and packaging materials. DPA was found in the air of storage rooms containing apples that were not treated with DPA. Wood and plastic bin material, bin liners, and foam insulation all adsorbed and off-gassed DPA and could be potential sources of contamination of untreated apples.
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[Water intake and its influencing factors of children and adolescents in Shanghai].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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To describe the total drinking water intake and its influencing factors among children and adolescents in Shanghai, and to accumulate basis for developing adequate water intakes for children and adolescents in China.
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Association of genetic variants in GN?3 with functional dyspepsia: a meta-analysis.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional upper gastrointestinal disorder. The etiology and pathogenesis of FD remain unclear, with genetic factors playing an important role. Previous studies investigated the association of C825T in GN?3 with FD, with conflicting results reported.
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Pulmonary function assessment in the early phase of patients with smoke inhalation injury from fire.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Fire smoke contains toxic gases and numerous chemical compounds produced by incomplete combustion, and may cause injury to the airways. Increased airway reactivity, as well as a decrease in lung function, has been reported as a sequela of smoke inhalation injury. This study was undertaken to assess lung functions in the early phase of patients with smoke inhalation damage from fires.
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Effect of spleen operation on antiviral treatment in hepatitis C virus-related cirrhotic patients.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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To investigate the impact of spleen operation (SO) on interferon-? (IFN-?)-based antiviral treatment in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis.
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Cotargeting the PI3K and RAS pathways for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The precise involvement of the PI3K/mTOR and RAS/MEK pathways in carcinoid tumors is not well defined. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to evaluate the role these pathways play in carcinoid cell proliferation, apoptosis, and secretion and to determine the effects of combined treatment on carcinoid tumor inhibition.
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In vivo-induced argininosuccinate lyase plays a role in the replication of Brucella abortus in RAW264.7 cells.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Brucellosis caused by Brucella species is a zoonotic disease with a serious impact on public health and the livestock industry. To better understand the pathogenesis of the disease, in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT) was used to investigate the in vivo-induced antigens of Brucella abortus in this study. A genomic expression library of B. abortus was constructed and screened using pooled bovine B. abortus-positive sera by IVIAT. In total, 33 antigens were identified. Five antigens were further expressed and tested for their seroreactivity against 33 individual bovine B. abortus-positive sera by Western blot analysis. The results showed a highest positive rate of 32/33 for argininosuccinate lyase (ASL), indicating that ASL may be used as a candidate marker for serodiagnosis of brucellosis. Furthermore, an asl gene-deleted mutant strain S2308?ASL was constructed, and the intracellular survival and replication of the mutant strain in RAW264.7 cells were investigated. Interestingly, the numbers of bacteria recovered from cells infected with mutant strain S2308?ASL were similar at all time points observed from 0 h to 96 h post-infection, suggesting the asl gene plays an important role in the bacterial replication in RAW264.7 cells. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that the mRNA levels in S2308?ASL were decreased for BvrR, BvrS and virB5 when compared with those in S2308 (P<0.05). Our results not only expand the knowledge of Brucella intracellular replication but also expand the list of candidates for serodiagnostic markers of brucellosis.
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Study on measurements for margin of safety in lateral operation of a transnasoethmoid-sphenoid approach to decompress the optic canal.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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The surgical approach through nasal and ethmoid cells to sphenoid sinus is a common clinical method to do the decompression of the optic canal. During this surgery, we can follow landmarks such as ethmoidal arteries. However, when we do the surgery, it is possible to open excessively in lateral operation and damage orbital medial wall. To prevent this from happening, we do a lot of measurements to estimate the distance in lateral operation. We hope to give surgeons some help in clinical use.
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Rheological behaviors of cellulose in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride/dimethylsulfoxide.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Dynamic rheological behaviors of ?-cellulose 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Emim]Cl)/dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solutions were investigated in a large range of cellulose concentrations (0.1-10 wt%) at 25°C. The overlap concentration c* and the entanglement concentration ce for cellulose in [Emim]Cl/DMSO were determined to be 0.5 wt% and 2.0 wt% respectively, and the exponents of the specific viscosity ?sp versus cellulose concentration c were determined as 1.1, 2.1 and 4.7 for dilute, semidilute unentangled and entangled regimes respectively, which were in accordance with the scaling prediction for neutral polymer in ? solvent. Under the same cellulose concentration, the complex viscosity ?*, the reptation time ?rep and the relaxation time of a segment between entanglements ?e all decreased with increasing DMSO content in the solvent, while the number of entanglements of cellulose chains and the molar mass of an entanglement strand Me both remained unchanged.
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Generation of knockout rabbits using transcription activator-like effector nucleases.
Cell Regen (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Zinc-finger nucleases and transcription activator-like effector nucleases are novel gene-editing platforms contributing to redefine the boundaries of modern biological research. They are composed of a non-specific cleavage domain and a tailor made DNA-binding module, which enables a broad range of genetic modifications by inducing efficient DNA double-strand breaks at desired loci. Among other remarkable uses, these nucleases have been employed to produce gene knockouts in mid-size and large animals, such as rabbits and pigs, respectively. This approach is cost effective, relatively quick, and can produce invaluable models for human disease studies, biotechnology or agricultural purposes. Here we describe a protocol for the efficient generation of knockout rabbits using transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and a perspective of the field.
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Establishment of a Rabbit Oct4 Promoter-Based EGFP Reporter System.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Rabbits are commonly used as laboratory animal models to investigate human diseases and phylogenetic development. However, pluripotent stem cells that contribute to germline transmission have yet to be established in rabbits. The transcription factor Oct4, also known as Pou5f1, is considered essential for the maintenance of the pluripotency of stem cells. Hence, pluripotent cells can be identified by monitoring Oct4 expression using a well-established Oct4 promoter-based reporter system. This study developed a rabbit Oct4 promoter-based enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter system by transfecting pROP2-EGFP into rabbit fetal fibroblasts (RFFs). The transgenic RFFs were used as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The EGFP expression was detected in the blastocysts and genital ridges of SCNT fetuses. Fibroblasts and neural stem cells (NSCs) were derived from the SCNT fetuses. EGFP was also reactivated in blastocysts after the second SCNT, and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were obtained after reprogramming using Yamanaka's factors. The results above indicated that a rabbit reporter system used to monitor the differentiating status of cells was successfully developed.
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Fluctuation between Fasting and 2-H Postload Glucose State Is Associated with Glomerular Hyperfiltration in Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Patients with HbA1c < 7%.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate whether fluctuations between the fasting and 2-h postload glucose ([2-hPBG]-fasting blood glucose [FBG]) states are associated with glomerular hyperfiltration (GHF) in middle-aged and elderly Chinese patients with newly diagnosed diabetes.
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Prevalence of fungal infections using National Health Insurance data from 2009-2013, South Korea.
Epidemiol Health
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The symptoms of fungal infections vary from minor to severe. According to recent reports, fungal infection prevalence is increasing due to increases in the aging population and in patients with compromised immune systems. However, the total prevalence of fungal infections in South Korea is unknown. We investigated the recent 5-year prevalence of each type of fungal infection in South Korea across age, sex, and regional groups.
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Targeted Sequencing of Large Genomic Regions with CATCH-Seq.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Current target enrichment systems for large-scale next-generation sequencing typically require synthetic oligonucleotides used as capture reagents to isolate sequences of interest. The majority of target enrichment reagents are focused on gene coding regions or promoters en masse. Here we introduce development of a customizable targeted capture system using biotinylated RNA probe baits transcribed from sheared bacterial artificial chromosome clone templates that enables capture of large, contiguous blocks of the genome for sequencing applications. This clone adapted template capture hybridization sequencing (CATCH-Seq) procedure can be used to capture both coding and non-coding regions of a gene, and resolve the boundaries of copy number variations within a genomic target site. Furthermore, libraries constructed with methylated adapters prior to solution hybridization also enable targeted bisulfite sequencing. We applied CATCH-Seq to diverse targets ranging in size from 125 kb to 3.5 Mb. Our approach provides a simple and cost effective alternative to other capture platforms because of template-based, enzymatic probe synthesis and the lack of oligonucleotide design costs. Given its similarity in procedure, CATCH-Seq can also be performed in parallel with commercial systems.
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Triglyceride levels are closely associated with mild declines in estimated glomerular filtration rates in middle-aged and elderly Chinese with normal serum lipid levels.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate the relationship between lipid profiles [including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)] and a mild decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in subjects with normal serum lipid levels.
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Fluctuation between fasting and 2-H postload glucose state is associated with chronic kidney disease in previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients with HbA1c ? 7%.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate how the glucose variability between fasting and a 2-h postload glucose state (2-h postload plasma glucose [2hPG]-fasting plasma glucose [FPG]) is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in middle-aged and elderly Chinese patients previously diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.
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Construction and analysis of high-density linkage map using high-throughput sequencing data.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Linkage maps enable the study of important biological questions. The construction of high-density linkage maps appears more feasible since the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS), which eases SNP discovery and high-throughput genotyping of large population. However, the marker number explosion and genotyping errors from NGS data challenge the computational efficiency and linkage map quality of linkage study methods. Here we report the HighMap method for constructing high-density linkage maps from NGS data. HighMap employs an iterative ordering and error correction strategy based on a k-nearest neighbor algorithm and a Monte Carlo multipoint maximum likelihood algorithm. Simulation study shows HighMap can create a linkage map with three times as many markers as ordering-only methods while offering more accurate marker orders and stable genetic distances. Using HighMap, we constructed a common carp linkage map with 10,004 markers. The singleton rate was less than one-ninth of that generated by JoinMap4.1. Its total map distance was 5,908 cM, consistent with reports on low-density maps. HighMap is an efficient method for constructing high-density, high-quality linkage maps from high-throughput population NGS data. It will facilitate genome assembling, comparative genomic analysis, and QTL studies. HighMap is available at http://highmap.biomarker.com.cn/.
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Elevated peripheral frequencies of Th22 cells: a novel potent participant in obesity and type 2 diabetes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Chronic low-grade inflammation has long been recognized as the central link between obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The novel subset of T helper (Th) cells, Th22, plays an emerging role in chronic inflammation. We investigated the potential association between Th22 and the pathogenesis of obesity and T2D.
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[Effects of herbivorous insect stress on the growth and yield-related traits of insect-resistant transgenic rice].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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A field experiment was conducted to test the effects of high and low herbivorous insect stresses on the growth, development and yield-related traits of insect-resistant transgenic rice. Three Bt transgenic rice Bt63, R1 and R2 were selected as the test materials, and non-transgenic rice Shanyou63 was taken as the control. The differences in the vegetative growth, seed-setting, and stem borer resistance between transgenic and non-transgenic rice were compared. Under herbivorous insect stress, the transgenic rice fully displayed the stem borer-resistance of exogenous gene. Under the high stress, the stem borer-damaged degree of the three transgenic rice lines was much lower than that of the control. The plant height, tillers per plant, aboveground fresh mass, panicle length, panicle fresh mass, productive panicles per plant, filled grains per plant, grain mass per plant, seed setting rate, and 1000-grain mass of the three transgenic rice lines excelled the control, but had no significant differences except plant height, tillers per plant, and panicle length. Therefore, introducing exogenous Bt gene into rice had no negative effect on rice seed-setting, and high herbivorous insect stress had less impacts on transgenic rice yield.
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Simultaneous multiple anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions using a single Achilles tendon allograft.
Acta Orthop Belg
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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This study aimed to evaluate simultaneous multiple anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions performed with a single Achilles allograft. After selection of an Achilles allograft with suitable length, the circumference of the isthmus and length of the tendinous portion were measured. The Achilles tendon was divided along its fibers into two or three strips and each strip was looped into a two-strand construct. Fifteen Achilles allografts were used for 31 ACL reconstructions in 30 subjects. The median circumference at the isthmus was 29 mm and the median length of the Achilles tendon 185 mm before and 206 mm after removal of the insertional bone block. The median difference in length before and after removal of the bone block was 19 mm. Achilles allografts with proper length consistently yielded two free tendon grafts suitable for simultaneous multiple ACL reconstruction with good short-term results.
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Toward a Generalized and High-throughput Enzyme Screening System Based on Artificial Genetic Circuits.
ACS Synth Biol
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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Large-scale screening of enzyme libraries is essential for the development of cost-effective biological processes, which will be indispensable for the production of sustainable biobased chemicals. Here, we introduce a genetic circuit termed the Genetic Enzyme Screening System that is highly useful for high-throughput enzyme screening from diverse microbial metagenomes. The circuit consists of two AND logics. The first AND logic, the two inputs of which are the target enzyme and its substrate, is responsible for the accumulation of a phenol compound in cell. Then, the phenol compound and its inducible transcription factor, whose activation turns on the expression of a reporter gene, interact in the other logic gate. We confirmed that an individual cell harboring this genetic circuit can present approximately a 100-fold higher cellular fluorescence than the negative control and can be easily quantified by flow cytometry depending on the amounts of phenolic derivatives. The high sensitivity of the genetic circuit enables the rapid discovery of novel enzymes from metagenomic libraries, even for genes that show marginal activities in a host system. The crucial feature of this approach is that this single system can be used to screen a variety of enzymes that produce a phenol compound from respective synthetic phenyl-substrates, including cellulase, lipase, alkaline phosphatase, tyrosine phenol-lyase, and methyl parathion hydrolase. Consequently, the highly sensitive and quantitative nature of this genetic circuit along with flow cytometry techniques could provide a widely applicable toolkit for discovering and engineering novel enzymes at a single cell level.
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[Relevance between carotid plaque scores and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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To explore the relevance between carotid plaque and the severity of coronary artery disease.
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A novel multifunctional cellulolytic enzyme screened from metagenomic resources representing ruminal bacteria.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Metagenomic resources representing ruminal bacteria were screened for novel exocellulases using a robotic, high-throughput screening system, the novel CelEx-BR12 gene was identified and the predicted CelEx-BR12 protein was characterized. The CelEx-BR12 gene had an open reading frame (ORF) of 1140 base pairs that encoded a 380-amino-acid-protein with a predicted molecular mass of 41.8kDa. The amino acid sequence was 83% identical to that of a family 5 glycosyl hydrolase from Prevotella ruminicola 23. Codon-optimized CelEx-BR12 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km value) and maximal reaction velocity (Vmax values) for exocellulase activity were 12.92?M and 1.55×10(-)(4)?molmin(-1), respectively, and the enzyme was optimally active at pH 5.0 and 37°C. Multifunctional activities were observed against fluorogenic and natural glycosides, such as 4-methylumbelliferyl-?-d-cellobioside (0.3Umg(-1)), CMC (105.9Umg(-1)), birch wood xylan (132.3Umg(-1)), oat spelt xylan (67.9Umg(-1)), and 2-hydroxyethyl-cellulose (26.3Umg(-1)). Based on these findings, we believe that CelEx-BR12 is an efficient multifunctional enzyme as endocellulase/exocellulase/xylanase activities that may prove useful for biotechnological applications.
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Thermal transport in lattice-constrained 2D hybrid graphene heterostructures.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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The thermal transport properties of hybrid graphene/h-BN heterostructures are investigated using atomistic simulations. While the thermal conductivity is observed to be significantly limited perpendicular to the graphene/h-BN interface, it is tunable via a composition parallel to the interface. In particular we show that the thermal transport parallel to the interface can be understood by viewing the hybrid system as a series of individual embedded graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) constrained by neighboring h-BN. A mechanistic model is proposed to relate the thermal conductivities of the embedded and free-standing GNRs through a linear function of the composition. The model predictions are demonstrated to be in good agreement with the simulation results.
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Peptide prefractionation is essential for proteomic approaches employing multiple-reaction monitoring of fruit proteomic research.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Off-gel™ IEF has become a popular tool in proteomics research to fractionate peptides or proteins. We conducted a detailed investigation on the fruit proteomics of apple, banana, and strawberry fruit employing Off-gel™ electrophoresis (OGE) as a crucial step to improve the proteome coverage and quantitative proteomic workflows including multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM). We provide technical details concerning the application of Off-gel™IEF, nano-LC-MS detection, and MRM optimization and analysis. Our results demonstrated that the application of OGE is an effective method for peptide fractionation and increased significantly the number of proteins identified by at least ten times, with more total peptides detected and collected. Furthermore, we developed a protocol combining OGE and MRM studies to identify and quantitatively investigate monodehydroascorbate reductase, a key enzyme in the redox and antioxidant system of apple fruit during fruit ripening. Using this method, the quantitative changes in this protein during ripening and in response to ethylene treatment was investigated. Our results provide direct and comprehensive evidence demonstrating the benefits of OGE and its application for both shotgun and quantitative proteomics research.
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[Effect of antiviral therapy on the prognosis of patients with chronic hepatitis B-related cirrhosis].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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To conduct a meta-analysis to study the effect of antiviral therapy on the prognosis of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB)-related cirrhosis.
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[Combination utility of phages GH15 and K against Staphylococcus aureus].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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In the present report, we compared the biological characteristic of staphylococci phage GH15 and K. We also determined the therapeutic potential of the combination utility of two phages.
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Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells favor the immunosuppressive T cells skewing in a Helicobacter pylori model of gastric cancer.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) play an important role in Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis. While the mechanism is not well understood, BM-MSCs have been shown to contribute to the immunosuppressive response found in a number of diseases. Here, BM-MSCs were transplanted into the stomach of mice with a 44-week mouse-adapted H. pylori infection. At day 28 post-transplantation, BM-MSCs migrated from the subserosal to the mucosal layer of the stomach. The grafted BM-MSCs significantly stimulated systemic and local interleukin-10 (IL-10)-secreting T cell and regulatory T cell (Treg) functions. This observation was correlated with an increased percentage of CD4?IL-10? cells and CD4?CD25?FoxP3? cells in splenic mononuclear cells compared with H. pylori-infected mice not receiving BM-MSCs. Moreover, inhibitory cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor-?1 increased in the gastric tissue, while there was a decrease in inflammatory interferon-? (IFN-?). BM-MSC-transplanted mice also developed elevated IL-10/IFN-? secreting and Treg/Th17 ratios. A coculture system in the presence or absence of BM-MSCs was also established to evaluate the immune responses in vitro. An increase in IL-10-secreting T cells and Tregs, associated with increased expression of Gata-3 and FoxP3, generation of IL-10 in the supernatant, and proliferation of gastric epithelial cells (GECs) was observed. These findings demonstrate that transplantation of BM-MSCs into a chronic H. pylori-infected mouse model results in the generation of an immunosuppressive environment. The local and systemic immunosuppression mediated by BM-MSCs likely contributed to an environment that is compatible with the development of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer.
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[Roles of bFGF in endothelial cell tube formation induced by xuefu zhuyu decoction under non-anoxia condition].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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To explore the roles of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on tube formation induced by xuefu zhuyu decoction (XZD) under non-anoxia condition.
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[Daily intake of plain water and beverages of primary and middle school students in four cities of China].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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To describe the daily consumption of plain water and beverages of primary and middle school students in four cities of China.
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Etiological features of cirrhosis inpatients in Beijing, China.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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The etiological spectrum of cirrhosis has changed over the years, but our knowledge of it is limited. The present study aimed to investigate the etiological features of cirrhosis inpatients and their variation in the past 18 years in Beijing.
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Quantitative proteomic investigation employing stable isotope labeling by peptide dimethylation on proteins of strawberry fruit at different ripening stages.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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A quantitative proteomic investigation of strawberry fruit ripening employing stable isotope labeling by peptide dimethylation was conducted on Mira and Honeoye strawberry fruit. Postharvest physiological quality indices, including volatile production, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, soluble solids and titratable acidity, were also characterized in white, pink and red fruit. More than 892 and 848 proteins were identified and quantified in the Mira and Honeoye fruit, respectively, using at least two peptides for each protein identification. Using the normalized ratio of protein abundance changes, proteins that changed two-fold or more were identified as proteins that are up- or down-regulated during fruit ripening. Among the quantified proteins, 111 proteins were common to both cultivars and represented five significant clusters based on quantitative changes. Among the up-regulated proteins were proteins involved in metabolic pathways including flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthesis, volatile biosynthesis, antioxidant metabolism, stress responses and allergen formation. Proteins that decreased during fruit ripening were found to be responsible for methionine metabolism, antioxidant-redox, energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Our results show that strawberry ripening is a highly complex system involving multi-physiological processes made possible through changes in protein expression. This study provides new insights on the regulation of proteins during strawberry fruit ripening that lay the foundation for further targeted studies.
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Flow behavior and linear viscoelasticity of cellulose 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium formate solutions.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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The rheological properties of ?-cellulose 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium formate solutions were investigated using shear viscosity and dynamic rheological measurements in a large range of concentrations (0.1-10wt%) at 25°C. In steady shear measurement, the overlap concentration (c*) and the entanglement concentration (ce) were determined to be 0.5 and 2.0wt% respectively, and the exponents of the specific viscosity (?sp) versus the concentration (c) were determined as 1.0, 2.0 and 4.7 for dilute, semidilute unentangled and entangled regimes respectively, which were in accordance with the scaling prediction for neutral polymer in ? solvent. The slopes of the relaxation time (?) against the concentration for semidilute unentangled and entangled regimes were observed as 1.0 and 2.5 respectively. In dilute and semidilute unentangled regimes, failure of the Cox-Merz rule with steady shear viscosity larger than complex viscosity was observed; while the deviation from the Cox-Merz rule disappeared in semidilute entangled regime.
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Draft genome of the kiwifruit Actinidia chinensis.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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The kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) is an economically and nutritionally important fruit crop with remarkably high vitamin C content. Here we report the draft genome sequence of a heterozygous kiwifruit, assembled from ~140-fold next-generation sequencing data. The assembled genome has a total length of 616.1 Mb and contains 39,040 genes. Comparative genomic analysis reveals that the kiwifruit has undergone an ancient hexaploidization event (?) shared by core eudicots and two more recent whole-genome duplication events. Both recent duplication events occurred after the divergence of kiwifruit from tomato and potato and have contributed to the neofunctionalization of genes involved in regulating important kiwifruit characteristics, such as fruit vitamin C, flavonoid and carotenoid metabolism. As the first sequenced species in the Ericales, the kiwifruit genome sequence provides a valuable resource not only for biological discovery and crop improvement but also for evolutionary and comparative genomics analysis, particularly in the asterid lineage.
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Causes of Instability After Total Knee Arthroplasty.
J Arthroplasty
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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The purpose of the present study was to characterize the underlying causes that lead to instability after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We reviewed 83 revision TKAs (79 patients) performed for instability. After detailed analysis of patients history, physical examination, operative report and radiographs, we identified six categories: flexion/extension gap mismatch, component malposition, isolated ligament insufficiency, extensor mechanism insufficiency, component loosening, and global instability. Twenty-five knees presented with multi-factorial instability. When these knees were classified according to the most fundamental category, each category above included 24, 12, 11, 10, 10 and 16 knees respectively. The unstable TKA may result from a variety of distinct etiologies which must be identified and treated at the time of revision. The revision TKA could be tailored to the specific causes.
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Strategy for screening metagenomic resources for exocellulase activity using a robotic, high-throughput screening system.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Exocellulases play a key role in cleaving the accessible ends of cellulose molecules to release soluble glucose and cellobiose. To date, there have been no screens for exocellulase owing to assay protocol limitations, the high cost of substrates, and low activity of exocellulases compared with endocellulases. This study is the first to demonstrate direct screening for exocellulase activity using a robotic, high-throughput screening (HTS) system. Cell growth in 96-well plates was measured by monitoring optical density over 11-14h at 37°C with agitation. Fluorescence of methylumbelliferyl groups released from 4-methylumbelliferyl-?-D-cellobioside was determined using a VICTOR3 microplate reader. This new HTS system enabled activity verification of more than 10(4) clones per day. As a result, we obtained four exocellulases clones (CelEx-SF301, CelEx-SF309, CelEx-BR12 and CelEx-BR15) from 29,006 metagenomic fosmid clones that had previously been prepared from sweet potato field soil microbes and rumen fluid. This powerful approach could be effectively applied to screen various metagenomic resources for new enzymes.
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[Establishment and preliminary application of a quantitative real-time PCR method for detecting the transcriptions of Th1/Th2 cytokines in RAW264.7 cells].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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To establish a quantitative real-time PCR method to detect the transcriptions of Th1/Th2 cytokines in RAW264.7 cells.
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The appearance of Tregs in cancer nest is a promising independent risk factor in colon cancer.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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To investigate the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the distribution of cancer nest, cancer stroma and normal mucosa and FOXP3-positive cancer cells in colon cancer patients after resection.
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A case of synchronous presentation of primary non-small cell lung carcinoma and pheochromocytoma.
Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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We report a rare synchronous presentation of primary lung cancer and adrenal pheochromocytoma. A 59-year-old woman was diagnosed with right upper lobe non-small cell lung carcinoma measuring 2.8 cm and a right adrenal gland mass measuring 3.5 cm, which displayed increased metabolic activity on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography. The adrenal lesion was revealed to be asymptomatic. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy and histological examination revealed a pheochromocytoma. Ten days later, right upper lobectomy was performed for lung cancer. This case indicates that incidental adrenal lesions found in cases of resectable primary lung cancer should be investigated.
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Study on the determination of heavy metals in water samples with ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction prior to FAAS.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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A new, simple and rapid method based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was developed for extracting and preconcentrating copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in water samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) analysis. 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-naphthol (TAN) was used as chelating reagents, and non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 and CCl(4) as disperser solvent and extraction solvent, respectively. Some influential factors relevant to DLLME, such as the concentration of TAN, type and volume of disperser and extraction solvent, pH and ultrasound time, were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 10-800 ?g L(-1) for Cu and Ni, 10-500 ?g L(-1) for Pb, and 10-1,000 ?g L(-1) for Cd, respectively. The limits of detection for the four metal ions were below 0.5 ?g L(-1), with the enhancement factors of 105, 66, 28 and 106 for Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 6) were 2.6-4.1%. The proposed method was applied to determination of Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd in water samples and satisfactory relative recoveries (93.0-101.2%) were achieved.
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Irradiation induced injury reduces energy metabolism in small intestine of Tibet minipigs.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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The radiation-induced energy metabolism dysfunction related to injury and radiation doses is largely elusive. The purpose of this study is to investigate the early response of energy metabolism in small intestinal tissue and its correlation with pathologic lesion after total body X-ray irradiation (TBI) in Tibet minipigs.
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A proteomic investigation of apple fruit during ripening and in response to ethylene treatment.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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A proteomic approach employing a two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) technique with SYPRO Ruby, a fluorescent stain with improved sensitivity and quantitative accuracy, was performed to separate the total proteins from apple fruit at different stages of ripening and senescence. After imaging and statistical analyses were performed on 2340 spots, a total of 316 spots, or approximately 13.5% of the total protein population, was found to be significantly changed in this study. Of the 316 proteins, 219 spots were only present at a specific ripening stage, while 97 spots were significantly different (p<0.05) throughout fruit ripening and in response to ethylene treatment. From 316 candidate spots, 221 proteins were further identified by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis with protein sequence and express sequence tag (EST) data searching. Analysis and identification of proteins revealed that apple fruit ripening is associated with increase of abundance of many proteins with functions such as ethylene production, antioxidation and redox, carbohydrate metabolism, oxidative stress, energy, and defense response. Ethylene treatment increased a group of unique proteins that were not present during normal fruit ripening and have not been previously reported. It also reduced some proteins involved in primary metabolism, including those of the last few steps of the glycolytic pathway. This study demonstrated the complexity and dynamic changes of protein profiles of apple fruit during ripening and in response to exogenous ethylene treatment. Identifying and tracking protein changes may allow us to better understand the mechanism of ripening in climacteric fruit.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.