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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Disulfiram modulates stemness and metabolism of brain tumor initiating cells in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are among the most malignant pediatric brain tumors. Cells from brain tumors with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity have a number of characteristics that are similar to brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs). This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of ALDH inhibition using disulfiram (DSF) against BTICs from AT/RT.
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A normative study of the disability assessment for dementia in community-dwelling elderly koreans.
Psychiatry Investig
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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We investigated demographic influences on Korean version of Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD-K) performance and developed normative data for DAD-K.
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The Difference in Comorbidities and Behavioral Aspects between Internet Abuse and Internet Dependence in Korean Male Adolescents.
Psychiatry Investig
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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This study examined the differences in psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects in accordance with the severity of Internet addiction in male adolescents.
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Protection of Mice against Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus Challenge after Immunization with Baculovirus-expressed Stabilizing Peptide fusion Hemagglutinin protein.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Current influenza vaccines are produced in embryonated chicken eggs. However, egg-based vaccines have various problems. To address these problems, recombinant protein vaccines have been developed as new vaccine candidates. Unfortunately, recombinant proteins frequently encounter aggregation and low stability during their biogenesis. It has been previously demonstrated that recombinantly expressed proteins can be greatly stabilized with high solubility by fusing stabilizing peptide (SP) derived from the c-terminal acidic tail of human synuclein (ATS). To investigate whether SP fusion proteins can induce protective immunity in mice, we produced influenza HA and SP fusion protein using baculovirus expression system. In in vitro tests, SP-fused recombinant HA1 (SP-rHA1) was shown to be more stable than recombinant HA1 (rHA1). Mice were immunized intramuscularly with baculovirus-expressed rHA1 protein or SP-rHA1 protein (2ug/mouse) formulated with aluminum hydroxide. Antibody responses were determined by ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition assay. We observed that SP-rHA1 immunization elicited HA-specific antibody response that was comparable to rHA1 immunization. These results indicate that fusion of SP to rHA1 does not negatively affect the immunogenicity of the vaccine candidate. Therefore, it is possible to apply SP fusion technology to develop stable recombinant protein vaccines with high solubility.
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Involuntary movement in pediatric moyamoya disease patients: consideration of pathogenetic mechanism using neuroimaging studies.
Childs Nerv Syst
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Involuntary movement is a rare symptom of moyamoya disease (MMD). No consensus has been reached regarding its clinical features and pathogenetic mechanism. Therefore, pediatric MMD patients presenting with involuntary movement were retrospectively analyzed, focusing on the image findings.
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Clinical outcome of pediatric choroid plexus tumors: retrospective analysis from a single institute.
Childs Nerv Syst
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Choroid plexus tumor is a rare brain tumor with variable clinical features according to the histological grade. We reviewed the treatment outcome of 23 children, focusing on the biological behavior of the atypical choroid plexus papilloma (ACPP) and the current therapeutic strategy in choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC).
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Reptin Regulates Pluripotency of Embryonic Stem Cells and Somatic Cell Reprogramming through Oct4-dependent Mechanism.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Oct4 has been implicated in regulation of pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in Oct4-dependent regulation of pluripotency and reprogramming have not been clear. To gain insight into the mechanism of regulation of Oct4-mediated self-renewal of ESCs and reprogramming of somatic cells, we attempted to identify Oct4-binding proteins using affinity purification and mass spectrometry. We identified Reptin, a key component of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes, as an Oct4-binding protein. Depletion of endogenous Reptin using lentiviral short hairpin RNA (shRNA) led to a decrease in the number and size of alkaline phosphatase-positive colonies of mouse ESCs. In addition, shRNA-mediated silencing of Reptin resulted in decreased expression of pluripotency-specific marker genes, including Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and SSEA-1. Results of the Oct4 reporter assay showed synergism between Oct4 and Reptin, and depletion of endogenous Reptin abolished Oct4 transcriptional activity. Results of a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed the overlapping interaction of Reptin and Oct4 to CR4 in the Oct4 enhancer in ESCs. Knockdown of Reptin using shRNA suppressed the reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells, whereas overexpression of Reptin resulted in enhanced efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cell generation. These results strongly suggest that Reptin plays a key role in maintaining the pluripotency of ESCs and in establishing the pluripotency during reprogramming of somatic cells by regulation of Oct4-mediated gene regulation. Stem Cells 2014.
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Role of formyl peptide receptor 2 in homing of endothelial progenitor cells and therapeutic angiogenesis.
Adv Biol Regul
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) hold a great promise as a therapeutic mediator in treatment of ischemic disease conditions. The discovery of EPCs in adult blood has been a cause of significant enthusiasm in the field of endothelial cell research and numerous clinical trials have been expedited. After more than a decade of research in basic science and clinical applications, limitations and new strategies of EPC therapeutics have emerged. With various phenotypes, vague definitions, and uncertain distinction from hematopoietic cells, understanding EPC biology remains challenging. However, EPCs, still hold great hope for treatment of critical ischemic injury as low concern regarding safety can accelerate the clinical applications from basic findings. This review provides an introduction to EPC as cellular therapeutics, which highlights a recent finding that EPC homing was promoted through FPR2 signaling.
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Stricter indications are recommended for fenestration surgery in intracranial arachnoid cysts of children.
Childs Nerv Syst
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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The indication of surgical treatment for intracranial arachnoid cysts (ACs) is a controversial issue. In this study, we reviewed surgical outcomes of intracranial ACs that were treated with endoscopic fenestration or microscopic fenestration, which are currently standard practices for surgical treatment of AC. In addition, we also evaluated the validity of current surgical indications.
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Prevalence of Congenital Heart Defects Associated with Down Syndrome in Korea.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Congenital heart defect (CHD) is common in infants with Down syndrome (DS), which is the principle cause of mortality. However, there is no data available for the frequency and types of CHD in infants with DS in Korea. We investigated the frequency of CHD in infants with DS in Korea. After the survey on birth defects was conducted throughout the country, the prevalence of CHD in DS in 2005-2006 was calculated. This study was conducted based on the medical insurance claims database of the National Health Insurance Corporation. The number of total births in Korea was 888,263 in 2005-2006; of them, 25,975 cases of birth defects were identified. The prevalence of DS was 4.4 per 10,000 total births, accounting for 1.5% of all birth defects. Of the 394 infants with DS, 224 (56.9%) had a CHD. Atrial septal defect was the most common defect accounting for 30.5% of DS followed by ventricular septal defect (19.3%), patent duct arteriosus (17.5%), and atrioventricular septal defect (9.4%). Our study will be helpful to demonstrate the current status of DS and to identify the distribution of CHD in infants with DS in Korea.
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MAD2 and CDC20 are upregulated in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix.
Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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Abnormal expression of the spindle assembly checkpoint proteins causes tumor cell aneuploidy, which has been reported in various malignancies. The expression of mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2) and cell-division cycle 20 homolog (CDC20), the key spindle assembly checkpoint proteins, has not been studied in cervical carcinogenesis. In this study, we compared the expression of MAD2 and CDC20 in 332 cases, including normal cervical tissues, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), and invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Both MAD2 and CDC20 were overexpressed in the nuclei or cytoplasm of dysplastic and malignant tumor cells. The frequency of MAD2 overexpression was markedly increased from undetectable (0/100) in normal cervical tissues and 2% (1/50) in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions to 67.1% (53/79) in HSILs and 52.4% (54/103) in SCCs. Similarly, CDC20 was overexpressed in 49.4% (39/79) of HSILs and 22.3% (23/103) of SCCs, whereas CDC20 was not detectable (0/100) in normal cervical tissues and overexpressed only in 8.0% (4/50) of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. In SCC cases, MAD2 overexpression correlated with a patient age of less than 60 yr (P=0.043), nonkeratinizing histologic type (P=0.018), and a lesser degree of stromal invasion (P=0.026). In conclusion, MAD2 and CDC20 overexpression was increased in HSILs and SCCs, suggesting their involvement in the initiation of cervical cancers. Controlling CDC20 and MAD2 expression may be a therapeutic strategy for cervical cancer.
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A normative study of total scores of the CERAD neuropsychological assessment battery in an educationally diverse elderly population.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the influences of age, education, and gender on the two total scores (TS-I and TS-II) of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological assessment battery (CERAD-NP) and to provide normative information based on an analysis for a large number of elderly persons with a wide range of educational levels.
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Multifocal intraparenchymal hemorrhages after ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery in infants.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery is the most common treatment for hydrocephalus. In certain situations, uncommon complications can occur after shunting procedures. The authors undertook this study to analyze the clinical characteristics of pediatric patients who developed multifocal intraparenchymal hemorrhages (MIPHs) as a complication of shunt surgery. The authors also analyzed the risk factors for MIPH in a large cohort of patients with hydrocephalus.
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Reasons for desiring death: examining causative factors of suicide attempters treated in emergency rooms in Korea.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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Suicide attempters treated in emergency rooms were studied in order to understand the motives behind this behavior. Disparities between the etiological contributions to suicidal ideation, intention, and action were examined in order to characterize motives in these categories.
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Neurological prognostication by gender in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients receiving hypothermia treatment.
Resuscitation
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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This study examined whether the extent to which out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients recover neurological function after therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is augmented in specific gender, age, and primary ECG group.
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Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection: Inhibition by polysaccharide from Ginkgo biloba exocarp and mode of its action.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the predominant cause of severe entero-pathogenic diarrhea in swine. Until now there is no recorded clinically effective antiviral chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of diseases caused by PEDV. This study aimed to investigate in vitro anti-PEDV effect of polysaccharide from Ginkgo biloba exocarp and mode of its action. The polysaccharide exhibited potent antiviral activity against PEDV reducing the formation of a visible CPE [a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50)=1.7±1.3?g/mL], compared to positive control, ribavirin and it did not show cytotoxicity at 100?g/mL [a 50% cytotoxicity concentration (CC50)=100?g/mL]. Polysaccharide also showed effective inhibitory effects when added at the viral attachment and entry steps. Moreover, polysaccharide effectively inactivated PEDV infection in time-, dose- and temperature-dependent manners. Overall, this research revealed that polysaccharide could inhibit PEDV infection, and that polysaccharide may be involved in PEDV-Vero cell interactions, as the virus attachment and entry to the Vero cells was hindered by the polysaccharide. Therefore, polysaccharide possessing effective inhibitory effect on viral attachment and entry steps of PEDV life cycle is a good candidate for development of antivirals.
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Prevalence and prognostic significance of Epstein-Barr virus infection in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma: a meta-analysis.
Arch. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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The prevalence and prognostic significance of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in classical Hodgkin's lymphomas (cHLs) remain elusive. To examine the epidemiological and prognostic differences between EBV-positive and -negative cHLs, we conducted a meta-analysis of 119 published studies including 13,045 cases.
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Comparison of the ceiling effect in the Lysholm score and the IKDC subjective score for assessing functional outcome after ACL reconstruction.
Knee
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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To compare the ceiling effect of the Lysholm and IKDC subjective scores for assessing functional outcome after ACL reconstruction and evaluated the correlation with the one-leg hop test.
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Interactive effects of an isocaloric high-protein diet and resistance exercise on body composition, ghrelin, and metabolic and hormonal parameters in untrained young men: A randomized clinical trial.
J Diabetes Investig
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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The interactive effects of resistance training and dietary protein on hormonal responses in adults are not clear and remain controversial. We tested the effect of an isocaloric high-protein diet on body composition, ghrelin, and metabolic and hormonal parameters during a 12-week resistance training program in untrained healthy young men.
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The effect of repeated exposure to virtual gambling cues on the urge to gamble.
Addict Behav
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of using a virtual reality (VR) casino environment in cue exposure therapy (CET) for gambling. The main objective of this study was to assess the ability of five VR casino cues to elicit subjective reactions and physiological responses that can be used within the CET paradigm. A second objective was to analyze changes in participants' urge to gamble after repeated exposure to a VR casino program and relaxation training.
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Visual MRI grading system to evaluate atrophy of the supraspinatus muscle.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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To investigate the interobserver reproducibility and diagnostic feasibility of a visual grading system for assessing atrophy of the supraspinatus muscle on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
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High prevalence of abnormal MR findings of the distal semimembranosus tendon: contributing factors based on demographic, radiographic, and MR features.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of thickening and signal alteration of the distal semimembranosus (SM) tendon on knee MRI and analyze the patient factors associated with abnormal MR findings of the distal SM tendon.
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Decreased connectivity of the default mode network in pathological gambling: A resting state functional MRI study.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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The default mode network (DMN) represents neuronal activity that is intrinsically generated during a resting state. The present study used resting-state fMRI to investigate whether functional connectivity is altered in pathological gambling (PG). Fifteen drug-naive male patients with PG and 15 age-matched male control subjects participated in the present study. The pathological gambling modification of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (PG-YBOCS), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory were used to determine symptom severity in all participants. Participants were instructed to keep their eyes closed and not to focus on any particular thoughts during the 4.68-min resting-state functional scan. The patients with PG displayed decreased default mode connectivity in the left superior frontal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, and precuneus compared with healthy controls. The severity of PG symptoms in patients with PG was negatively associated with connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex seed region and the precuneus (r=-0.599, p=0.018). Decreased functional connectivity within DMN suggests that PG may share similar neurobiological abnormalities with other addictive disorders. Moreover, the severity of PG symptoms was correlated with decreased connectivity in the precuneus, which may be important in the response to treatment in patients with PG.
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Clinical course of vestibular schwannoma in pediatric neurofibromatosis Type 2.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) is an autosomal-dominant inherited disease, characterized by multiple neoplasia syndromes, including meningioma, schwannoma, glioma, and ependymoma. In this report, the authors present their clinical experience with pediatric NF2 patients. In particular, they focused on the clinical course of vestibular schwannoma (VS), including the natural growth rate, tumor control, and functional hearing outcomes.
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Age of pathological gambling onset: clinical and treatment-related features.
J Addict Med
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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This study examined differences in the clinical and treatment-related features of pathological gambling (PG) on the basis of the age of PG onset among pathological gamblers who sought treatment.
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Serial micro-CT assessment of the therapeutic effects of rosiglitazone in a bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis mouse model.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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The aim of this study was to assess the therapeutic effects of rosiglitazone with serial micro-CT findings before and after rosiglitazone administration in a lung fibrosis mouse model induced with bleomycin.
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The Relationship Between the Level of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Renal Function in Patients Without Chronic Kidney Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study.
J Ren Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Low level of vitamin D has been suggested as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, little is known about the effect of vitamin D on renal function in healthy subjects. Our aim was to investigate the question of whether vitamin D status is associated with renal function in subjects without CKD.
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6-trifluoromethyl-2-thiouracil possesses anti-Toxoplasma gondii effect in vitro and in vivo with low hepatotoxicity.
Exp. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Since pyrimethamine, the general therapeutic drug for toxoplasmosis, presents several adverse side effects, the need to develop and evaluate new drugs for the condition is critical. In this study, anti-Toxoplasma gondii activities of 3-[{2-((E)-furan-2-ylmethylene)hydrazinyl}methylene]-1,3-dihydroindol-2-one (ATT-5126) and 6-trifluoromethyl-2-thiouracil (KH-0562) were evaluated in vitro using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay and in vivo by measuring amount of the tachyzoites in mice ascites. Biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were also evaluated in livers of mice at 4 days post-infection. As a result, the ATT-5126 and KH-0562 showed anti-T. gondii activity in vitro. Treatment of ATT-5126 or KH-0562 decreased the amount of tachyzoites in T. gondii infected ICR mice. The relative weight of liver and spleen increased by T. gondii infection were decreased by treatment of ATT-5126 or KH-0562. The levels of LPO, ALT and AST, which are biochemical parameters involved in liver injury, were also significantly recovered by treatment of ATT-5126 or KH-0562 (p<0.05). In particular, the recovered levels by KH-0562 were similar to those of pyrimethamine-treated group (p<0.05). However, the level of GSH, which is an antioxidant indicator, showed insignificant statistics. The results suggest that KH-0562 show anti-T. gondii activities in vitro and in vivo with low hepatotoxicity. Therefore, KH-0562 may be a useful candidate for treating T. gondii infection.
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Loss of CDC14B expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma: meta-analysis of microarray data sets.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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To discover significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) that might be unidentified by single microarray analysis.
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Antiviral activity of ginsenosides against coxsackievirus B3, enterovirus 71, and human rhinovirus 3.
J Ginseng Res
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Ginsenosides are the major components responsible for the biochemical and pharmacological actions of ginseng, and have been shown to have various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activities of seven ginsenosides [protopanaxatriol (PT) type: Re, Rf, and Rg2; protopanaxadiol (PD) type: Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd)] against coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), enterovirus 71 (EV71), and human rhinovirus 3 (HRV3).
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A normative study of the digit span in an educationally diverse elderly population.
Psychiatry Investig
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of demographic variables on Digit Span test (DS) performance in an educationally diverse elderly population and to provide normative information.
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Comparison of JEV neutralization assay using pseudotyped JEV with the conventional plaque-reduction neutralization test.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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We previously reported the development of a neutralization assay system for evaluating Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) neutralizing antibody (NAb) using pseudotyped-JEV (JEV-PV). JEV-PV-based neutralization assay offers several advantages compared with the current standard plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT), including simplicity, safety, and speed. To evaluate the suitability of the JEV-PV assay as new replacement neutralization assay, we compared its repeatability, reproducibility, specificity, and correlated its results with those obtained using the PRNT. These analyses showed a close correlation between the results obtained with the JEV-PV assay and the PRNT, using the 50% plaque reduction method as a standard for measuring NAb titers to JEV. The validation results met all analytical acceptance criteria. These results suggest that the JEV-PV assay could serve as a safe and simple method for measuring NAb titer against JEV and could be used as an alternative approach for assaying the potency of JEV neutralization.
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The association between a low urine pH and the components of metabolic syndrome in the Korean population: Findings based on the 2010 Korea National health and nutrition examination survey.
J Res Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Low urine pH is related to obesity and insulin resistance, which are components of metabolic syndrome (MS). The aim of this study was to identify the relation between a low urine pH and MS after controlled for other covariates including demographic and lifestyle factors in adult Korean population.
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Evaluation of anti-coccidial effects of 1-[4-(4-nitrophenoxy)phenyl]propane-1-one and identification of its potential target proteins in Toxoplasma gondii.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Coccidiosis affects many vertebrates worldwide, but treatment with known anti-coccidial drugs causes several adverse side effects. There is a critical need for the development and evaluation of new drugs. The anti-coccidial effect of 1-[4-(4-nitrophenoxy)phenyl]propane-1-one (NPPP), a synthetic compound, was studied in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with NPPP showed anti-Toxoplasma activity in vitro with a lower EC50 value than pyrimethamine. In ICR mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii, oral administration of NPPP for 4 days showed statistically significant anti-Toxoplasma activity with lower numbers of tachyzoite than those of the negative control (p < 0.01). NPPP also exhibited strong anti-Eimeria activity in Eimeria tenella-infected chickens when treated for 4 days with orally administered NPPP at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Potential target proteins of NPPP were analyzed by proteomic profiles of T. gondii tachyzoites. Two hypothetical proteins were identified as possible targets of NPPP, a putative ortholog of vacuolar ATP synthase subunit C and a class I S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase. Our data show that the NPPP might be an anti-coccidial drug candidate for clinical application against coccidial infections. Future investigations will focus on identifying the function of proteins regulated by NPPP.
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Comparison of the effectiveness of virtual cue exposure therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy for nicotine dependence.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Previous studies have reported promising results regarding the effect of repeated virtual cue exposure therapy on nicotine dependence. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of virtual cue exposure therapy (CET) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for nicotine dependence. Thirty subjects with nicotine dependence participated in 4 weeks of treatment with either virtual CET (n=15) or CBT (n=15). All patients were male, and none received nicotine replacement treatment during the study period. The main setting of the CET used in this study was a virtual bar. The primary foci of the CBT offered were (a) smoking cessation education, (b) withdrawal symptoms, (c) coping with high-risk situations, (d) cognitive reconstruction, and (e) stress management. Daily smoking count, level of expiratory carbon monoxide (CO), level of nicotine dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and subjective craving were examined on three occasions: week 0 (baseline), week 4 (end of treatment), and week 12 (follow-up assessment). After treatment, the daily smoking count, the expiratory CO, and nicotine dependence levels had significantly decreased. These effects continued during the entire study period. Similar changes were observed in both virtual CET and CBT groups. We found no interaction between type of therapy and time of measurement. Although the current findings are preliminary, the present study provided evidence that virtual CET is effective for the treatment of nicotine dependence at a level comparable to CBT.
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Shared psychological characteristics that are linked to aggression between patients with Internet addiction and those with alcohol dependence.
Ann Gen Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Internet addiction (IA) is considered as one of behavioral addictions. Although common neurobiological mechanisms have been suggested to underlie behavioral addiction and substance dependence, few studies have directly compared IA with substance dependence, such as alcohol dependence (AD).
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Effect of pumpkin seed oil on hair growth in men with androgenetic alopecia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) has been shown to block the action of 5-alpha reductase and to have antiandrogenic effects on rats. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was designed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of PSO for treatment of hair growth in male patients with mild to moderate androgenetic alopecia (AGA). 76 male patients with AGA received 400?mg of PSO per day or a placebo for 24 weeks. Change over time in scalp hair growth was evaluated by four outcomes: assessment of standardized clinical photographs by a blinded investigator; patient self-assessment scores; scalp hair thickness; and scalp hair counts. Reports of adverse events were collected throughout the study. After 24 weeks of treatment, self-rated improvement score and self-rated satisfaction scores in the PSO-treated group were higher than in the placebo group (P = 0.013, 0.003). The PSO-treated group had more hair after treatment than at baseline, compared to the placebo group (P < 0.001). Mean hair count increases of 40% were observed in PSO-treated men at 24 weeks, whereas increases of 10% were observed in placebo-treated men (P < 0.001). Adverse effects were not different in the two groups.
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Hepatobiliary risk factors for clinical outcome of Kawasaki disease in children.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile vasculitis that causes coronary artery abnormality (CAA) as a complication. In some patients, an association has been noted between elevated liver enzymes or an abnormal gallbladder (GB) and hepatobiliary involvement in KD. In this study, we aimed to evaluate clinical, laboratory, and ultrasonographic (USG) risk factors of hepatobiliary involvement for the intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance and the development of CAA in children with KD.
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Usefulness of Digital Tomosynthesis for the Detection of Airway Obstruction: A Case Report of Bronchial Carcinosarcoma.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Bronchial carcinosarcoma is a very rare malignant tumor that is composed of carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. We describe the first case in which digital tomosynthesis was useful for the evaluation of airway obstruction by bronchial carcinosarcoma that was overlooked on initial chest radiography.
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Antiviral activity and possible mode of action of ellagic acid identified in Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves toward human rhinoviruses.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are responsible for more than half of all cases of the common cold and cause billions of USD annually in medical visits and school and work absenteeism. An assessment was made of the cytotoxic and antiviral activities and possible mode of action of the tannin ellagic acid from the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa toward HeLa cells and three rhinoviruses, HRV-2, -3, and -4.
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miRNA expression analysis in cortical dysplasia: regulation of mTOR and LIS1 pathway.
Epilepsy Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Cortical dysplasia (CD) is a common cause of epilepsy in children and is characterized by focal regions of malformed cerebral cortex. The pathogenesis and epileptogenesis of CD have not been fully elucidated, and in particular, the potential role of epigenetics has not been examined. miRNA microarray was performed on surgical specimens from CD (n=8) and normal control (n=2) children. A total of 10 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRs) that were up-regulated in CD were identified including hsa-miR-21 and hsa-miR-155. The microarray results were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. After searching for the putative target genes of the DEmiRs, their biological significance was further evaluated by exploring the pathways in which the genes were enriched. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway was the most significantly associated, and the pathway of lissencephaly gene in neuronal migration and development was also noted. This study suggests a possible role for miRNAs in the pathogenesis of CD, especially in relation to the mTOR signaling pathway. Future studies on the epigenetic mechanisms underlying CD pathogenesis and epileptogenesis are needed.
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Association of homocysteine with hippocampal volume independent of cerebral amyloid and vascular burden.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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This study aimed to clarify whether homocysteine has independent association, not mediated by cerebral beta amyloid protein deposition and vascular burden, with whole brain or hippocampal volume in elderly individuals with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. Nineteen mild cognitive impairment and 24 Alzheimer's disease patients were recruited from the Dementia Clinic of the Seoul National University Hospital. Fourteen cognitively normal elderly subjects were also selected from a pool of elderly volunteers. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that plasma total homocysteine level was significantly associated with hippocampal volume even after controlling the degree of global cerebral beta amyloid deposition and vascular burden as well as other potential confounders including age, gender, education, and apolipoprotein E ?4 genotype. On the contrary, plasma total homocysteine level did not show any significant association with whole brain volume. Our finding of the independent negative association between homocysteine and hippocampal volume suggests that homocysteine has a direct adverse effect, not mediated by cerebral beta amyloid deposition and vascular burden, on the hippocampus.
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Prognostic significance of lactate/proton symporters MCT1, MCT4, and their chaperone CD147 expressions in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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To investigate the prognostic significance of lactate/proton monocarboxylate transporters MCT1, MCT4, and their chaperone CD147 expressions in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB).
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Changes in refractive errors related to spectacle correction of hyperopia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hyperopic undercorrection is a common clinical practice. However, less is known of its effect on the change in refractive errors and emmetropization throughout the later years of childhood.
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Development and validation of the Pictorial Cognitive Screening Inventory for illiterate people with dementia.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a tool called the Pictorial Cognitive Screening Inventory (PCSI), which consists of pictorial memory and attention tests that are not influenced by literacy level.
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Whole-genome analyses of Korean native and Holstein cattle breeds by massively parallel sequencing.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A main goal of cattle genomics is to identify DNA differences that account for variations in economically important traits. In this study, we performed whole-genome analyses of three important cattle breeds in Korea--Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein--using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. We achieved 25.5-, 29.6-, and 29.5-fold coverage of the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein genomes, respectively, and identified a total of 10.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 54.12% were found to be novel. We also detected 1,063,267 insertions-deletions (InDels) across the genomes (78.92% novel). Annotations of the datasets identified a total of 31,503 nonsynonymous SNPs and 859 frameshift InDels that could affect phenotypic variations in traits of interest. Furthermore, genome-wide copy number variation regions (CNVRs) were detected by comparing the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and previously published Chikso genomes against that of Korean Holstein. A total of 992, 284, and 1881 CNVRs, respectively, were detected throughout the genome. Moreover, 53, 65, 45, and 82 putative regions of homozygosity (ROH) were identified in Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, Chikso, and Korean Holstein respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable foundation for further investigations to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying variation in economically important traits in cattle and to develop genetic markers for use in cattle breeding.
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Latent class analysis on internet and smartphone addiction in college students.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study aimed to classify distinct subgroups of people who use both smartphone and the internet based on addiction severity levels. Additionally, how the classified groups differed in terms of sex and psychosocial traits was examined.
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Spatial memory impairments in amnestic mild cognitive impairment in a virtual radial arm maze.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study aims to apply the virtual radial arm maze (VRAM) task to find spatial working memory and reference memory impairments in patients of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Spatial memory functions between aMCI converters and nonconverters are also compared using VRAM results.
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Visualization of joint and bone using dual-energy CT arthrography with contrast subtraction: in vitro feasibility study using porcine joints.
Skeletal Radiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To assess the feasibility of subtracting various concentrations of iodinated contrast material on dual-energy computed tomographic (DECT) arthrography to provide both CT arthrography and virtual unenhanced CT (VUCT) in a single CT acquisition.
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Correlation of Imatinib resistance with the mutational status of KIT and PDGFRA genes in gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a meta-analysis.
J Gastrointestin Liver Dis
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2013
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Imatinib resistance is the most important clinical issue in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). However, the association of imatinib resistance with the genetic characteristics of GIST has not been clearly defined. Our meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between imatinib resistance and KIT and PDGFRA mutations in GIST. METHODS. We identified all relevant studies in PubMed and Embase. The effect sizes were calculated as prevalence or odds ratio (OR) with a random-effects model. RESULTS. We identified 10 eligible studies that included 1083 GIST cases. Total imatinib resistance was found in 35.5 % of PDGFRA-mutant tumors (OR = 2.9, P = 0.038), 33.7% of wild-type tumors (KIT and PDGFRA non-mutant tumors; OR = 2.8, P = 0.002), and 27.4% of KIT-mutant tumors (OR = 0.3, P = 0.001). Primary imatinib resistance was found in 50.0% of PDGFRA-mutant tumors (OR = 10.9, P = 0.031), 33.4% of wild-type tumors (OR = 5.9, P = 0.060), and 8.9% of KIT-mutant tumors (OR = 0.2, P = 0.025). KIT exon 9-mutant tumors showed primary resistance more frequently than exon 11-mutant and other tumors (OR = 7.6, P < 0.001). Regarding secondary resistance associated with KIT second-site mutations, the exon 17 mutation (54.5%) was most frequent, followed by exon 13 (38.3%) and 14 (13.4%) mutations. CONCLUSION. Our meta-analysis indicates that imatinib resistance is closely associated with KIT and PDGFRA genotypes in GIST. Thus, the mutational status of KIT and PDGFRA might predict response to imatinib in GIST patients.
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Differential resting-state EEG patterns associated with comorbid depression in Internet addiction.
Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
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Many researchers have reported a relationship between Internet addiction and depression. In the present study, we compared the resting-state quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) activity of treatment-seeking patients with comorbid Internet addiction and depression with those of treatment-seeking patients with Internet addiction without depression, and healthy controls to investigate the neurobiological markers that differentiate pure Internet addiction from Internet addiction with comorbid depression.
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Wave field synthesis of a virtual source located in proximity to a loudspeaker array.
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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For the derivation of 2.5-dimensional operator in wave field synthesis, a virtual source is assumed to be positioned far from a loudspeaker array. However, such far-field approximation inevitably results in a reproduction error when the virtual source is placed adjacent to an array. In this paper, a method is proposed to generate a virtual source close to and behind a continuous line array of loudspeakers. A driving function is derived by reducing a surface integral (Rayleigh integral) to a line integral based on the near-field assumption. The solution is then combined with the far-field formula of wave field synthesis by introducing a weighting function that can adjust the near- and far-field contribution of each driving function. This enables production of a virtual source anywhere in relation to the array. Simulations show the proposed method can reduce the reproduction error to below -18 dB, regardless of the virtual source position.
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Effect of Korean red ginseng on insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic healthy overweight and obese adults.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Korean red ginseng is one of the most popular herbs worldwide due to the belief that it contains ingredients that possess a variety of health enhancing effects including anti-diabetic effects. The objective of this study was to determine whether Korean red ginseng supplement has an effect on insulin sensitivity in healthy overweight or obese adults without overt diabetes and hypertension.
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Acoustic contrast sensitivity to transfer function errors in the design of a personal audio system.
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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An analytic means to evaluate the error sensitivity of a personal audio system is proposed. The personal audio system, which focuses acoustic energy into a zone of interest using multiple loudspeakers, is subject to various errors when implemented. The performance of a personal audio system, defined as an energy ratio between the zone of interest and the rest, is inevitably influenced by errors. Thus the ability to predict performance change at the design stage is crucial when building a robust personal audio system. The dependence of the energy ratio change on various types of errors is formulated.
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Primary irritation index and safety zone of cosmetics: Retrospective analysis of skin patch tests in 7,440 Korean women during 12 years.
Int J Cosmet Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Cosmetics are products used over long periods by the public, and their safety is very important. Several types of human tests are used widely for the evaluation of cosmetics including single patch tests, in-use tests, human repeated insult patch test (HRIPT). However, no clear and well defined published objective and standardized criteria for primary skin irritation in regard to the large variety of cosmetic products.
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Radiofrequency catheter ablation for supraventricular tachycardia: a comparison study of children aged 0-4 and 5-9 years.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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The safety and effectiveness of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) in young children was investigated.
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Airway compression in children with congenital heart disease evaluated using computed tomography.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Extrinsic airway compression often complicates the course of congenital heart disease (CHD) repair. This study investigated the risk factors and outcome of airway compression evaluated using computed tomography (CT) in CHD patients.
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Massively parallel sequencing of Chikso (Korean brindle cattle) to discover genome-wide SNPs and InDels.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Since the completion of the bovine sequencing projects, a substantial number of genetic variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms have become available across the cattle genome. Recently, cataloguing such genetic variations has been accelerated using massively parallel sequencing technology. However, most of the recent studies have been concentrated on European Bos taurus cattle breeds, resulting in a severe lack of knowledge for valuable native cattle genetic resources worldwide. Here, we present the first whole-genome sequencing results for an endangered Korean native cattle breed, Chikso, using the Illumina HiSeq 2,000 sequencing platform. The genome of a Chikso bull was sequenced to approximately 25.3-fold coverage with 98.8% of the bovine reference genome sequence (UMD 3.1) covered. In total, 5,874,026 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 551,363 insertion/deletions were identified across all 29 autosomes and the X-chromosome, of which 45% and 75% were previously unknown, respectively. Most of the variations (92.7% of single nucleotide polymorphisms and 92.9% of insertion/deletions) were located in intergenic and intron regions. A total of 16,273 single nucleotide polymorphisms causing missense mutations were detected in 7,111 genes throughout the genome, which could potentially contribute to variation in economically important traits in Chikso. This study provides a valuable resource for further investigations of the genetic mechanisms underlying traits of interest in cattle, and for the development of improved genomics-based breeding tools.
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Whole-genome resequencing of Hanwoo (Korean cattle) and insight into regions of homozygosity.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Hanwoo (Korean cattle), which originated from natural crossbreeding between taurine and zebu cattle, migrated to the Korean peninsula through North China. Hanwoo were raised as draft animals until the 1970s without the introduction of foreign germplasm. Since 1979, Hanwoo has been bred as beef cattle. Genetic variation was analyzed by whole-genome deep resequencing of a Hanwoo bull. The Hanwoo genome was compared to that of two other breeds, Black Angus and Holstein, and genes within regions of homozygosity were investigated to elucidate the genetic and genomic characteristics of Hanwoo.
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High expression of spindle assembly checkpoint proteins CDC20 and MAD2 is associated with poor prognosis in urothelial bladder cancer.
Virchows Arch.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Aneuploidy is a result of the abnormal expression of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) proteins and resulting abnormal spindle function during mitosis. High expression of cell division cycle 20 homolog (CDC20) and mitotic arrest defective protein 2 (MAD2), key components of the SAC, has been reported in various carcinomas. However, the clinicopathological significance of CDC20 and MAD2 expressions in urothelial carcinoma of the human bladder (UCB) is unknown. We therefore studied the expression of CDC20 and MAD2 in UCB specimens by immunohistochemistry. High expression of CDC20 and MAD2 was observed in 59.0 % (200/339) and 51.0 % (173/339) of UCB cases, respectively. Most high-grade tumor cells exhibited diffuse nuclear and/or cytoplasmic staining for CDC20 and MAD2, whereas most low-grade tumor cells and normal urothelial cells were not stained. CDC20 overexpression was associated with advanced age (p = 0.010), high grade (p < 0.001), advanced stage (p < 0.001), non-papillary growth pattern (p < 0.001), and distant metastasis (p = 0.042). Similarly, high MAD2 expression correlated with high grade (p < 0.001), advanced stage (p < 0.001), and non-papillary growth pattern (p < 0.001). In univariate survival analyses, high CDC20 expression correlated with shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS) (p = 0.032) and poorer overall survival (OS) (p = 0.007) in patients with UCB, whereas high MAD2 expression was associated with poorer OS (p = 0.008). In multivariate analyses, high CDC20 expression correlated with shorter RFS of patients with Ta stage UCB (hazard ratio, 1.91; p = 0.01). In conclusion, increased expression of CDC20 and MAD2 is related to poor prognosis of UCB.
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An adolescent with aortic regurgitation caused by Behçets disease mimicking endocarditis.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Aortic regurgitation is a serious complication of Behçets disease. We report a 17-year-old male with severe aortic regurgitation caused by Behçets disease. An early diagnosis led to the immediate start of immunosuppressants followed by successful valvuloplasty with autologous pericardium.
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A case of progressive ductal constriction in a fetus.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2013
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The ductus arteriosus is a normal and essential structure in fetal circulation. Since the introduction of fetal echocardiography, there have been reports of ductal constriction, many of which were related to maternal use of some medications. However, there have been some reports of idiopathic ductal constriction, which usually present in later gestation. Recently we experienced a case, which initially showed an S-shaped ductus with mild narrowing at 23 weeks and 27 weeks gestation and developed severe ductal constriction at 33 weeks. Soon after birth, ductus was searched for but no ductus was found in 2-D and color images. The neonate required mechanical ventilation with supplemental oxygen for 3 days. All echocardiographic abnormalities were normalized in 7 months. We report progressive ductal constriction in an S-shaped ductus and emphasize the importance of continuous follow up extending to the third trimester and even immediately after birth.
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Pyogenic liver abscess following acupuncture and moxibustion treatment.
Korean J Fam Med
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Acupuncture treatment is generally regarded as a relatively safe procedure. However, most procedures have some complications and acupuncture treatment is no exception. Reported complications of acupuncture treatment were mostly mild or temporary symptoms, but certain severe adverse effects were also observed. We report here for the first time a case of liver abscess following acupuncture and moxibustion treatment.
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Riluzole attenuates excitatory amino acid transporter type 3 activity in Xenopus oocytes via protein kinase C inhibition.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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This study aimed to evaluate the effect of riluzole on the activity of excitatory amino acid transporter type 3 (EAAT3), a neuronal glutamate transporter, and to investigate the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in this effect. EAAT3 expression was induced in Xenopus oocytes by injecting EAAT3 mRNA. Using the two-electrode voltage clamping method, membrane currents were recorded before, during, and after applying l-glutamate (30 ?M) in the absence and presence of prior incubation with riluzole (0.3-100 ?M). To study the effect of PKC on the riluzole-induced change in EAAT3 activity, oocytes were preincubated with 100 ?M phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, or PKC inhibitors (2 µM staurosporine and 100 µM chelerythrine) before the recording. Responses were quantified by integrating current traces and are reported in microCoulombs (?C). Riluzole reduced EAAT3 activity in a concentration-dependent manner (0.3-100 ?M). Treatment of oocytes with PMA significantly increased the baseline and riluzole-reduced EAAT activity (P<0.05). In addition, treatment of oocytes with PKC inhibitors reduced basal transporter currents, but did not show a further significant decrease in the riluzole-reduced EAAT3 activity. These results suggest that riluzole reduces EAAT3 activity through PKC inhibition.
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Dysfunctional inhibitory control and impulsivity in Internet addiction.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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The purpose of this study was to explore a psychological profile of Internet addiction (IA) considering impulsivity as a key personality trait and as a key component of neuropsychological functioning. Twenty three subjects with IA (Youngs Internet Addiction Test scores=70 or more) and 24 sex-, age-, and intelligence-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Participants filled out a questionnaire about trait impulsivity, the Trait Characteristic Inventory, depression, and anxiety. Next, we administered traditional neuropsychological tests including the Stroop et al. and computerized neuropsychological tests using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. The IA group exhibited more trait impulsivity than the healthy control group. They also scored higher for novelty seeking and harm avoidance. The IA group performed more poorly than the healthy control group in a computerized stop signal test, a test for inhibitory function and impulsivity; no group differences appeared for other neuropsychological tests. The IA group also scored higher for depression and anxiety, and lower for self-directedness and cooperativeness. In conclusion, individuals with IA exhibited impulsivity as a core personality trait and in their neuropsychological functioning.
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Implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy in pediatric and congenital heart disease patients: a single tertiary center experience in Korea.
Korean J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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The use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) to prevent sudden cardiac death is increasing in children and adolescents. This study investigated the use of ICDs in children with congenital heart disease.
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The sonographic "coffee bean" sign helps distinguish an axillary neurofibroma from a lymphadenopathy.
J Clin Ultrasound
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Axillary masses may represent various soft tissue tumors or lymphadenopathy. Neurofibromas are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors and, while they are very uncommon, it is important to remember that neurogenic tumors arising from brachial plexus can develop in the axilla. We describe an axillary neurofibroma arising from the brachial plexus that presented with a "coffee bean sign" on sonography that distinguished it from axillary lymphadenopathy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2013;
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Accuracy of preoperative MRI with microscopy coil in evaluation of primary tumor thickness of malignant melanoma of the skin with histopathologic correlation.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a preoperative MRI with microscopy coils in determining the primary tumor thickness of malignant melanoma with histopathologic correlation.
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Is the supraspinatus muscle atrophy truly irreversible after surgical repair of rotator cuff tears?
Clin Orthop Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Atrophy of rotator cuff muscles has been considered an irreversible phenomenon. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether atrophy is truly irreversible after rotator cuff repair.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.