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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Nocatriones A and B, Photoprotective Tetracenediones from a Marine-Derived Nocardiopsis sp.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Two new tetracenedione derivatives, nocatriones A (1) and B (2), were discovered from the culture broth of a marine actinomycete, Nocardiopsis sp. KMF-002, which was isolated from the tissue of an unidentified dark purple marine sponge. The structures of 1 and 2, which are tetracenediones containing ?-pyrone substituents, were determined to be 3,8,10,11-tetrahydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-pyran-6-yl)-1-methyltetracene-5,12-dione (1) and 3,8,10,12-tetrahydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-pyran-6-yl)-1-methyltetracene-6,11-dione (2). Ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated cells treated with 10 ?M nocatrione A (1) significantly decreased the level of MMP-1, a protein that degrades collagen and other extracelluar matrix components that comprise dermal tissue, when compared to untreated cells. These results support that nocatriones A (1) and B (2) may show antiphotoaging activity in UVB-irradiated models.
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Anticarcinogenic effects of products of heat-processed ginsenoside Re, a major constituent of ginseng berry, on human gastric cancer cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Ginsenoside Re is a triol type triterpene glycoside and is abundantly present in ginseng berry. In the present study, we verified that ginsenoside Re can be transformed into less-polar ginsenosides, namely, Rg2, Rg6, and F4, by heat-processing. The products of heat-processed ginsenoside Re inhibited phosphorylation of CDK2 at Thr160 by upregulation of p21 level, resulting in S phase arrest. The products of heat-processed ginsenoside Re also activated caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3, followed by cleavage of PARP, a substrate of caspase-3, in a dose-dependent manner. Concurrently, alteration of mitochondrial factors such as Bcl-2 and Bax was also observed. Moreover, pretreatment with Z-VAD-fmk abrogated caspase-8, -9, and -3 activations by the products of heat-processed ginsenoside Re. We further confirmed that the anticancer effects of the products of heat-processed ginsenoside Re in AGS cells are mainly mediated via generation of less-polar ginsenosides Rg6 and F4.
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Stereospecific effects of ginsenoside 20-Rg3 inhibits TGF-?1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and suppresses lung cancer migration, invasion and anoikis resistance.
Toxicology
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a pivotal cellular process during which epithelial polarized cells become motile mesenchymal-appearing cells, which, in turn, promotes the metastatic potential of cancer. Ginseng is a perennial plant belonging to the genus Panax that exhibits a wide range of pharmacological and physiological activities. Ginsenosides 20-Rg3, which is the active component of ginseng, has various medical effects, such as anti-tumorigenic, anti-angiogenesis, and anti-fatiguing activities. In addition, ginsenosides 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 are epimers, and this epimerization is produced by steaming. However, the possible role of 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 in the EMT is unclear. We investigated the effect of 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 on the EMT. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1) induces the EMT to promote lung adenocarcinoma migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance. To understand the repressive role of 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 in lung cancer migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance, we investigated the potential use of 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 as inhibitors of TGF-?1-induced EMT development in A549 lung cancer cells in vitro. Here, we show that 20(R)-Rg3, but not 20(S)-Rg3, markedly increased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and repressed Snail upregulation and expression of the mesenchymal marker vimentin during initiation of the TGF-?1-induced EMT. 20(R)-Rg3 also inhibited the TGF-?1-induced increase in cell migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance of A549 lung cancer cells. Additionally, 20(R)-Rg3 markedly inhibited TGF-?1-regulated matrix metalloproteinase-2 and activation of Smad2 and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase. Taken together, our findings provide new evidence that 20(R)-Rg3 suppresses lung cancer migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance in vitro by inhibiting the TGF-?1-induced EMT.
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Protective effect of esculin on streptozotocin-induced diabetic renal damage in mice.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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The present study investigated the presence and mechanism of esculin-mediated renoprotection to assess its therapeutic potential. Esculin was orally administered at 20 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks to streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, and its effects were compared with those of the vehicle in normal and diabetic mice. After oral administration of esculin to mice, the concentrations of esculin and esculetin in blood were 159.5 ± 29.8 and 9.7 ± 4.9 ng/mL at 30 min, respectively. Food and water intake were significantly increased in the diabetic mice compared to normal mice but attenuated in mice receiving esculin. The elevated blood glucose level and hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase expression were significantly reduced in esculin-treated diabetic mice, supporting the antidiabetic effect of esculin. Esculin also increased the uptake of glucose and induced the insulin-evoked phosphorylation of insulin receptor, Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase 3? in C2C12 myotubes, indicating a potential for improvement of insulin sensitivity. In addition, esculin lessened the elevated blood creatinine levels in diabetic mice and ameliorated diabetes-induced renal dysfunction by reducing caspase-3 activation in the kidney. Data support the beneficial effect of esculin against diabetes and oxidative stress-related inflammatory processes in the kidney.
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Stereospecific anticancer effects of ginsenoside Rg3 epimers isolated from heat-processed American ginseng on human gastric cancer cell.
J Ginseng Res
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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Research has been conducted with regard to the development of methods for improving the pharmaceutical effect of ginseng by conversion of ginsenosides, which are the major active components of ginseng, via high temperature or high-pressure processing.
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Efficient thermal deglycosylation of ginsenoside rd and its contribution to the improved anticancer activity of ginseng.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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The root of ginseng is a famous functional food and a herbal medicine. Research into the development of a method for increasing the pharmaceutical effect of ginseng by conversion of ginsenosides, the major active components of ginseng, by high-temperature and high-pressure thermal processing has been conducted. However, changes in the structures of each ginsenoside by heat processing and their contributions to anticancer activity have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated whether anticancer activity of ginsenosides, such as Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, and Re, was associated with changes in the structures of each ginsenoside by heat processing in human stomach cancer AGS cells. Upon heat processing at 120 °C, most peaks of ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd disappeared and the contents of less-polar ginsenosides 20(S,R)-Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5 were newly detected. From the quantitative analysis of ginsenosides, the generated amounts of less-polar ginsenosides were the highest after heat processing of ginsenoside Rd. After heat processing, the diol-type ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd gained significant antiproliferative activity. In particular, ginsenoside Rd induced the strongest cell death among the diol-type ginsenosides, whereas the triol-type gisenoside Re showed weak antiproliferative activity. Ginsenoside Rd-induced cell death was associated with caspase-dependent apoptosis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that deglycosylation of Rd contributes to improved anticancer activity of ginseng and provide new insight on the mechanism of increased anticancer effects of ginsenosides upon heat processing.
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Heat-processed Panax ginseng and diabetic renal damage: active components and action mechanism.
J Ginseng Res
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Diabetic nephropathy is one of the serious complications in patients with either type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus but current treatments remain unsatisfactory. Results of clinical research studies demonstrate that Panax ginseng can help adjust blood pressure and reduce blood sugar and may be advantageous in the treatment of tuberculosis and kidney damage in people with diabetes. The heat-processing method to strengthen the efficacy of P. ginseng has been well-defined based on a long history of ethnopharmacological evidence. The protective effects of P. ginseng on pathological conditions and renal damage associated with diabetic nephropathy in the animal models were markedly improved by heat-processing. The concentrations of less-polar ginsenosides (20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1) and maltol in P. ginseng were significantly increased in a heat-processing temperature-dependent manner. Based on researches in animal models of diabetes, ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 and maltol were evaluated to have therapeutic potential against diabetic renal damage. These effects were achieved through the inhibition of inflammatory pathway activated by oxidative stress and advanced glycation endproducts. These findings indicate that ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 and maltol are important bioactive constituents of heat-processed ginseng in the control of pathological conditions associated with diabetic nephropathy.
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5E- and 5Z-farnesylacetones from Sargassum siliquastrum as novel selective L-type calcium channel blockers.
Vascul. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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A specific blocker of L-type Ca(2+) channels may be useful in decreasing arterial tone by reducing the open-state probability of L-type Ca(2+) channels. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the farnesylacetones, which are major active constituents of Sargassum siliquastrum, regarding their vasodilatation efficacies, selectivities toward L-type Ca(2+) channels, and in vivo antihypertensive activities. The application of 5E-(farnesylacetone 311) or 5Z-farnesylacetone (farnesylacetone 312) induced concentration-dependent vasodilatation effects on the basilar artery that was pre-contracted with depolarization and showed an ignorable potential role of endothelial-derived nitric oxide. We also tested farnesylacetone 311 or 312 to determine their pharmacological profiles for the blockade of native L-type Ca(2+) channels in basilar arterial smooth muscle cells (BASMCs) and ventricular myocytes (VMCs), cloned L- (?1C/?2a/?2?), N- (?1B/?1b/?2?), and T-type Ca(2+) channels (?1G, ?1H, and ?1I). Farnesylacetone 311 or 312 showed greater selectivity toward the L-type Ca(2+) channels among the tested voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. The ranked order of the potency for farnesylacetone 311 was cloned ?1C?L-type (BASMC)?L-type (VMCs)>?1B>?1H>?1I>?1G and that for farnesylacetone 312 was cloned ?1C?L-type (BASMCs)?L-type (VMCs)>?1H>?1G>?1B>?1I. The oral administration of the farnesylacetone 311 (80mg/kg) conferred potent, long-lasting antihypertensive activity in spontaneous hypertensive rats, but it did not alter the heart rate.
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Anti-diabetic effect of amorphastilbol through PPAR?/? dual activation in db/db mice.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been considered as desirable targets for metabolic syndrome treatments, even though their specific agonists have several side effects, including body weight gain, edema, and tissue failure. The effects of amorphastilbol (APH) on glucose- and lipid metabolism were investigated with in vitro 3T3-L1 adipocyte systems and in vivo db/db mice model. APH selectively stimulates the transcriptional activities of both PPAR? and PPAR?, which are able to enhance fatty acid oxidation and glucose utilization. Furthermore, APH improves glucose and lipid impairment in db/db mice. More importantly, there are no significant side effects, such as weight gain or hepatomegaly, in APH-treated animals, implying that APH do not adversely affect liver or lipid metabolism. All our data suggest that APH can be used as potential therapeutic agents against type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders, including obesity, by enhancing glucose and lipid metabolism.
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Renoprotective effects of Maillard reaction products generated during heat treatment of ginsenoside Re with leucine.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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The structural change of ginsenoside and the generation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) are important to the increase in the biological activities of Panax ginseng. This study was carried out to identify the renoprotective active component of P. ginseng using the Maillard reaction model experiment with ginsenoside Re and leucine. Ginsenoside Re was gradually converted into less-polar ginsenosides Rg2, Rg6 and F4 by heat-processing, followed by separation of the glucosyl moiety at carbon-20. The free radical-scavenging activity of the ginsenoside Re-leucine mixture was increased by heat-processing. The improved free radical-scavenging activity by heat-processing was mediated by the generation of MRPs from the reaction of glucose and leucine. The cisplatin-induced LLC-PK1 renal cell damage was also significantly reduced by treatment with MRPs. Moreover, the heat-processed glucose-leucine mixture (major MRPs from the ginsenoside Re-leucine mixture) showed protective effects against cisplatin-induced oxidative renal damage in rats through the inhibition of caspase-3 activation.
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Synthesis of substituted benzimidazolyl curcumin mimics and their anticancer activity.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2011
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A novel curcumin mimic library (14a-14h and 15a-15h) possessing variously substituted benzimidazole groups was synthesized through the aldol reaction of (E)-4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)but-3-en-2-one (7) or (E)-4-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)but-3-en-2-one (13) with diversely substituted benzimidazolyl-2-carbaldehyde (12a-12h). The MTT assay of the cancer cells MCF-7, SH-SY5Y, HEP-G2, and H460 showed that compound 14c with IC(50) of 1.0 and 1.9?M has a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of SH-SY5Y and Hep-G2 cells, respectively, and that compound 15h with IC(50) of 1.9?M has a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of MCF-7 cancer cells.
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Protective effect of ginseng sapogenins against 2,2-azobis (1-aminopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced LLC-PK? cell damage.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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The effect of ginseng sapogenins, aglycone parts of ginsenosides, against oxidative damage by radical generator, 2,2-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), in renal epithelial LLC-PK(1) cells was investigated to identify the structural characteristics of sapogenins to have renoprotective effects. Of the tested sapogenins, ?(20(21))-protopanaxatriol showed the strongest protective effect against the AAPH-induced LLC-PK(1) cell damage. Based on the structure and stronger activity of ?(20(21))-protopanaxatriol than the other sapogenins, the hydroxyl group in C-6 and double bond in C-20(21) position were important for renoprotective effect of sapogenin against oxidative stress.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of bilobol and adipostatin A.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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Concise total synthesis of bilobol 5-pentadecenylresorcinol (1), isolated from Gingko biloba fruits, has been achieved in 10 steps with 51% overall yield from 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3). Adipostatin A (2), isolated from the fruits as well as from Streptomyces cyaneus 2299-SV1, has also been synthesized in two steps from methylated bilobol (10). The structure-activity relationship study of synthetic products was described by means of cytotoxic assay against human KB carcinoma cell lines.
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Synthesis of substituted triazolyl curcumin mimics that inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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Some promising new antiresorptive agents of potential utility for treating osteoporosis were uncovered in a curcumin mimics library possessing a substituted triazole moiety, which is synthesized by the Cu(I)-catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-cycloaddition reaction between two azido intermediates (9 and 10) and various alkynes (a-k). A tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity assay was carried out with RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis of mouse monocyte/macrophage RAW264.7 cells; the results indicated that the curcumin mimics derived from intermediate 10 exhibited stronger inhibitory activity than 9. In particular, curcumin mimics 12h, 13c, and 13e strongly inhibited osteoclast differentiation.
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Selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? isosteric selenium agonists as potent anti-atherogenic agents in vivo.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2010
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We report the synthesis and in vivo activity of a novel anti-atherogenic agent, isosteric selenium PPAR?-selective ligand. This ligand did not cause significant body or liver weight changes and did not have obvious adverse effects on intestinal polyp formation. Our overall results clearly demonstrate that PPAR? is a viable drug candidate for targeting and treating atherosclerosis.
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A stereo-controlled synthesis of 2,4-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-16-phenylhexadecanoic acid 1,4-lactone and its PPAR activities.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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A novel class of natural PPAR agonists, 2,4-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-16-phenylhexadecanoic acid 1,4-lactone (1), were discovered in marine natural product libraries. The synthesis of 1 was accomplished starting from vinylmethyl ketone. Ring formation of the ?,? dialkyl ?-lactone was achieved via the stereo-controlled reaction of a ketyl radical anion with a chiral methacrylate. In the PPAR agonistic assay, the most potent of the four stereoisomers had EC(50) values of 12 ?M for mPPAR?, 9 ?M for mPPAR? and >100 ?M for mPPAR?.
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Synthesis of two marine farnesylacetones that dilate the basilar arteries of rabbits.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2010
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We have synthesized novel vasodilatation farnesylacetones 1 and 2, which are major active constituents of Sargassum siliquastrum collected from the coast of the East Sea in Korea, in 9 steps. A test of the vasodilatation effect of synthetic intermediates and their deprotected compounds on the basilar arteries of rabbits revealed that 14 and 14-1 have a similar dilation effect as their target marine natural products 1 and 2.
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Acid-catalyzed synthesis of 10-substituted triazolyl artemisinins and their growth inhibitory activity against various cancer cells.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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A diastereomeric and regioisomeric library of 10-substituted triazolyl artemisinin compounds (6a-6h, 7a-7h, and 8a-8h) with a potent growth inhibitory activities against various cancer cell lines was established. These compounds were synthesized by a reaction with dihydroartemisinin (2) and various substituted triazoles (5a-5h) in methylene chloride using a BF(3)Et(2)O catalyst. Most of the compounds exhibited a strong potency in the submicromolar range, and, in particular, 6f, 7f, and 8f, which have a pentylphenyltriazole moiety, proved to be promising candidates for preclinical trials.
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Preparation of potassium alkynylaryltrifluoroborates from haloaryltrifluoroborates via Sonogashira coupling reaction.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2010
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A novel series of alkyne-containing potassium organotrifluoroborates were prepared in good yields from the corresponding haloaryltrifluoroborates and various alkynes via Sonogashira coupling reaction. Also, the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction of alkynylaryltrifluoroborates with aryl and alkenyl bromides was achieved in the presence of 5 mol % of Pd(TPP)(4) and 3.0 equiv of Cs(2)CO(3) in aqueous 1,4-dioxane at 150 degrees C by microwave irradiation.
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6-Hydroxymethyl-1-phenazine-carboxamide and 1,6-phenazinedimethanol from a marine bacterium, Brevibacterium sp. KMD 003, associated with marine purple vase sponge.
J. Antibiot.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2009
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Two new antibacterial phenazines were isolated from the culture broth of Brevibacterium sp. KMD 003 obtained from a marine purple vase sponge of the genus Callyspongia, collected in Kyeongpo, Gangwondo, Korea. The structures of these compounds were determined to be 6-hydroxymethyl-1-phenazine-carboxamide (1) and 1,6-phenazinedimethanol (2) through analyses of HR-EI-MS and NMR data. Compounds 1 and 2 showed antibacterial activities against Enterococcus hirae and Micrococcus luteus with 5 microM MIC values.
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Preparation of potassium azidoaryltrifluoroborates and their cross-coupling with aryl halides.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2009
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Potassium azidoaryltrifluoroborates have been prepared from the corresponding haloaryltrifluoroborates in 73-98% yields. Also, we successfully cross-coupled the azido-functionalized organotrifluoroborates and carried out a one-pot sequential cross-coupling/1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and a one-pot cross-coupling/azide reduction process.
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Cyclopalladated azido complexes containing C,N-donor (HC approximately N = 2-(2-thienyl)pyridine, azobenzene, 3,3-dimethyl azobenzene, N,N-dimethylbenzylamine, 2-phenylpyridine) ligands: reactivity towards organic unsaturated compounds and catalytic prope
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2009
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Cyclopalladated azido dimers having various C,N-donor ligands, [Pd(mu-N3)(C,N-Ln)]2 (L1H = 2-(2-thienyl)pyridine; L2H = azobenzene; L3H = 3,3-dimethylazobenzene; L4H = N,N-dimethylbenzylamine; L5H = 2-phenylpyridine), underwent cleavage with tertiary (or chelating) phosphines to form the cyclopalladated [Pd(N3)(PR3)(C,N-L)], the sigma-bonded [Pd(N3)(PR3)2(C-L)], or the dinuclear-cyclopalladated [PdN3(PR3)(C,N-L)]2(mu-P approximately P) complexes. In particular, treating [Pd(mu-N3)(C,N-L)]2 with the basic chelating phosphine (depe or dmpe) produced the homoleptic bis(chelating) complex [Pd(C,N-Ln)2] (n = 1-3). Complex [Pd(N3)(PR3)(C,N-L4)] or [Pd(N3)(PR3)2(C-L4)] reacted with aryl isocyanides to selectively give the imidoyl [Pd(N3)(-C=N-Ar)(PR3)(N-L4)] or the imidoyl carbodiimido complex [Pd(N=C=N-Ar)(-C=N-Ar)(PR3)(N-L4)], which was formed by the CN-Ar insertion into the orthometallated Pd-C bond on the phenyl moiety or the interaction into the Pd-N3 bond of the supporting ligand. In addition, reactions of [Pd(N3)(PR3)2(C-Ln)] (n = 1, 2, 4) with R-NCS {R = i-Pr, C6H4-NCS, (CH3)3Si} gave the S-coordinated tetrazole-thiolato Pd(II) complexes. Finally, the catalytic activity of the cyclopalladated azido complexes was evaluated.
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A facile one-pot preparation of organoselanyltrifluoroborates from dihalobenzenes and their cross-coupling reaction.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2009
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Potassium organoselanyltrifluoroborates have been prepared from the corresponding dihalobenzene compounds in 56-92% yields through a facile one-pot, multicomponent reaction. The microwave-promoted Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction of these substrates with various aryl and alkenyl bromides in the presence of 3.0 mol % of Pd(PPh(3))(4) and 3.0 equiv of K(2)CO(3) in aqueous 1,4-dioxane at 130 degrees C provided the desired compounds in 54-91% yields.
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Synthesis of 10-substituted triazolyl artemisinins possessing anticancer activity via Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cylcoaddition.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
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Most of the 10-substituted triazolylartemisinin synthesized via the Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cylcoaddition of diastereomeric 10-azidoartemisinin (5, 6, and 7) with various alkynes (a-h) exhibit strong growth inhibition activity, even at sub-micromolar concentrations, against various cancer cell lines such as DLD-1, U-87, Hela, SiHa, A172, and B16. In particular, 10b and 10f showed a highly strong cytotoxicity.
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Synthesis of sulfonyl curcumin mimics exerting a vasodilatation effect on the basilar artery of rabbits.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2009
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In order to discover novel small vasodilatory molecules for potential use in the treatment of vascular disease, we tested the vasodilatation effect of two types of synthetic curcumin mimics, amide type (3) and sulfonyl amide type (4), upon the basilar artery of rabbits. In general, the sulfonyl amide type mimic (4) is more potent than the amide type (3). Curcumin (1) and compounds 12 and 20 effectively dilated the basilar artery of white rabbits.
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Chemical and Free Radical-scavenging Activity Changes of Ginsenoside Re by Maillard Reaction and Its Possible Use as a Renoprotective Agent.
J Ginseng Res
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Reactive oxygen species play critical role in kidney damage. Free radical-scavenging activities of Panax ginseng are known to be increased by heat-processing. The structural change of ginsenoside and the generation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) are closely related to the increased free radical-scavenging activities. In the present study, we have demonstrated the Maillard reaction model experiment using ginsenoside Re and glycine mixture to identify the renoprotective effect of MRPs from ginseng or ginsenosides. Ginsenoside Re was transformed into less-polar ginsenosides, namely Rg2, Rg6 and F4 by heat-processing. The free radical-scavenging activity of ginsenoside Re-glycine mixture was increased in a temperature-dependant manner by heatprocessing. The improved free radical-scavenging activity by heat-processing was mediated by the generation of antioxidant MRPs which led to the protection of LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells from oxidative stress. Although the free radical scavenging activities of less-polar ginsenosides were weak, they could protect LLC-PK1 cells from oxidative stress. Therefore, MRPs and less-polar ginsenosides contributed to the combined renoprotective effects against oxidative renal damage.
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Increase in antioxidant and anticancer effects of ginsenoside Re-lysine mixture by Maillard reaction.
Food Chem
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Ginsenosides are the main active components of Panax ginseng. Structural changes in diol type ginsenosides along with generation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) are strongly associated with increased free radical-scavenging activities. Ginsenoside Re, one of the major triol type ginsenosides of P. ginseng, possesses a hydrophobic four-ring steroid-like structure with hydrophilic sugar moieties at carbons-3 and -20. The aim of the present study was to identify changes in the structure, antioxidant and anticancer effects of ginsenoside Re upon Maillard reaction. Ginsenoside Re was transformed into less-polar ginsenosides, namely Rg(2), Rg(6) and F(4) by heat-processing. Free radical-scavenging activity of the ginsenoside Re-lysine mixture increased upon heat processing. This improved free radical-scavenging activity mediated by antioxidant MRPs, which were generated through Maillard reaction of a glucosyl moiety separated from carbon-20 of ginsenoside Re and lysine. The increased anticancer effect of ginsenoside Re-lysine mixture upon heat processing was mainly derived from the generation of less-polar ginsenosides through the regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax, as well as caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. These results reported here have shed significant new lights on the mechanism of increased antioxidant and anticancer effects of P. ginseng upon heat processing.
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Anti-human rhinoviral activity of polybromocatechol compounds isolated from the rhodophyta, Neorhodomela aculeata.
Mar Drugs
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An extract of the red alga, Neorhodomela aculeata, exhibited antiviral activity against human rhinoviruses. Bioassay-guided purification was performed to yield six compounds, which were subsequently identified as lanosol (1) and five polybromocatechols (2-6) by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometric analyses. Structurally, all of these compounds, except compound 5, contain one or two 2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl moieties. In a biological activity assay, compound 1 was found to possess antiviral activity with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC??) of 2.50 ?g/mL against HRV2. Compound 3 showed anti-HRV2 activity, with an IC?? of 7.11 ?g/mL, and anti-HRV3 activity, with an IC?? of 4.69 ?g/mL, without demonstrable cytotoxicity at a concentration of 20 ?g/mL. Collectively, the results suggest that compounds 1 and 3 are candidates for novel therapeutics against two different groups of human rhinovirus.
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Increase in antioxidant effect of ginsenoside Re-alanine mixture by Maillard reaction.
Food Chem
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Ginsenoside Re, one of the major triol type ginsenosides contained in Panax ginseng, has a hydrophobic four-ring steroid-like structure with hydrophilic sugar moieties at carbon-3 and -20. The aim of the present study was to identify the changes in structure and antioxidant activity of ginsenoside Re by the Maillard reaction, which has not been reported yet. The free radical-scavenging activity of ginsenoside Re-alanine mixture was increased by heat-processing. Ginsenoside Re was gradually changed into Rg(2), Rg(6) and F(4) by heat-processing, and the glucosyl moiety at carbon-20 was separated. The improved-free radical-scavenging activity by heat-processing was mediated by the generation of antioxidant Maillard reaction products (MRPs). Antioxidant MRPs were generated from the reaction of glucose and alanine. Based on the viability results of LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells, MRPs and less-polar ginsenosides contributed to the combined renoprotective effect against oxidative renal damage. Maillard reaction is importantly involved in the increased antioxidant effect of ginsenoside by heat-processing.
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Important role of Maillard reaction in the protective effect of heat-processed ginsenoside Re-serine mixture against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in LLC-PK1 cells.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
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The aim of the present study was to verify the important role of Maillard reaction in the protective effect of heat-processed ginsenoside Re-serine mixture against oxidative stress-induced nephrotoxicity. The free radical-scavenging activity of ginsenoside Re-serine mixture was increased by heat-processing. Ginsenoside Re was transformed into less-polar ginsenosides such as Rg(2), Rg(6) and F(4) by heat-processing, and the glucose molecule at carbon-20 was separated. The improved-free radical-scavenging activity by heat-processing was mediated by the generation of antioxidant Maillard reaction products (MRPs) from the reaction of glucose with serine. Moreover, MRPs from ginsenoside Re-serine mixture showed protective effect against cisplatin-induced renal epithelial cell damage.
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Total synthesis and dual PPAR?/? agonist effects of amorphastilbol and its synthetic derivatives.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
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Amorphastilbol (APH-1), isolated from a Robinia pseudoacacia var. umbraculifer [corrected] seed extract, is a biologically interesting natural trans-stilbene compound with dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?/? agonist activity. After total synthesis of APH-1 and its derivatives by Pd-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of a common (E)-styryl bromide intermediate and various aromatic trifluoroborate compounds, we biologically evaluated APH-2-APH-12 for PPAR agonist activity. APH-4 and APH-11 were effective PPAR?/? transcriptional activators, compared with APH-1. Therefore, we suggest that APH-4 and APH-11 are novel dual PPAR?/? agonists and are potentially useful for treating type 2 diabetes by enhancing glucose and lipid metabolism.
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Discovery, design and synthesis of Y-shaped peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonists as potent anti-obesity agents in vivo.
Eur J Med Chem
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We have discovered and demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo PPAR?-selective activity of novel Y-shaped agonists. These compounds activated hPPAR? with EC(50) values between 1 and 523 nM. Surprisingly, compounds 10a, 11d, 11e and 11f were the most potent and most selective hPPAR? agonists with 10(4)-fold selectivity over the other two subtypes, namely, hPPAR? and hPPAR?. The PPAR? ligands 10a, 11e and 11f showed good bioavailability and in vivo efficacy.
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Sterols from a soft coral, Dendronephthya gigantea as farnesoid X-activated receptor antagonists.
Steroids
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Three new steroids 3-oxocholest-1,22-dien-12?-ol (1), 3-oxocholest-1,4-dien-20?-ol (2), 3-oxocholest-1,4-dien-12?-ol (3), and three known steroids (20S)-20-Hydroxyergosta-1,4,24(28)-trien-3-one (4) [7a], 5?,8?-Epidioxycholesta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (5) [10] and 5-cholestene-3?,12?-diol (6) [11] were isolated from a soft coral Dendronephthya gigantea. Their chemical structures and relative stereochemistry were elucidated by the analysis of HRMS and 2-D NMR spectroscopic data. The steroids 1 and 2 showed notable inhibitory activity against farnesoid X-activated receptor (FXR) with IC(50)s 14 and 15?M.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.