The genus Aeromonas comprises flagellated gram-negative rods widely distributed in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments. Aeromonas species may cause a variety of illnesses in humans, such as enterocolitis and septicemia, especially in warmer tropical or subtropical environments. To recognize the characteristics of Aeromonas septicemia in Japan, we reviewed laboratory data and medical records in our hospital. During 11 years (from 2000 to 2010), Aeromonas septicemia was observed in seven patients involving six female subjects. Six patients were observed in summer or fall. The incidence of Aeromonas septicemia was about 0.07 per 1000 admissions, and two out of the seven patients died. All patients had underlying diseases such as malignancy (six patients) and choledocholithiasis (one patient). Two patients developed septicemia within two days after ingesting raw seafood. Five patients developed Aeromonas septicemia > 48 h after admission. Fever was present in all patients, and four out of the seven patients developed septic shock. All patients developed monomicrobial septicemia. A. hydrophila was isolated from five patients, and A. caviae and A. veronii biovar sobria were isolated from one patient each. Most antimicrobial agents had high activity against the isolated strains. However, a carbapenem-resistant strain appeared in one patient during treatment and led to death. Aeromonas septicemia is uncommon in temperate areas but can occur particularly in warm seasons. Immunocompromised conditions and recent ingestion of raw fish or shellfish are important characteristics of developing Aeromonas septicemia.
The antibacterial activity of meropenem (MEPM) and other parenteral antibiotics against clinical isolates of 2655 strains including 810 strains of Gram-positive bacteria, 1635 strains of Gram-negative bacteria, and 210 strains of anaerobic bacteria obtained from 30 medical institutions during 2009 was examined. The results were as follows; (1) MEPM was more active than the other carbapenem antibiotics tested against Gram-negative bacteria, especially against enterobacteriaceae and Haemophilus influenzae. MEPM was also active against most of the species tested in Gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria, except for multidrug resistant strains including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). (2) MEPM maintained potent and stable antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The proportion of MEPM-resistant strains to ciprofloxacin-resistant strains or imipenem-resistant strains were 53.1% and 58.0% respectively. (3) The proportion of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) strains was 3.1% (26 strains) in enterobacteriaceae. And the proportion of metallo-beta-lactamase strains was 2.0% (6 strains) in P. aeruginosa. (4) Of all species tested, there were no species except for Bacteroides fragilis group, which MIC90 of MEPM was more than 4-fold higher than those in our previous study. Therefore, there is almost no significant decrease in susceptibility of clinical isolates to meropenem. In conclusion, the results from this surveillance study suggest that MEPM retains its potent and broad antibacterial activity and therefore is a clinically useful carbapenem for serious infections treatment at present, 14 years passed after available for commercial use in Japan.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a leading cause of infections in both the community and in hospitals. MRSA bacteremia is a serious infection with a very high mortality rate. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical features of MRSA bacteremia and to evaluate predictors of mortality in patients with this infection. The medical records of 83 patients with MRSA bacteremia, who had been admitted to Nagasaki University Hospital between January 2003 and December 2007, were retrospectively reviewed. Underlying disease, presumed source, MRSA sensitivity, Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types, virulence genes and prognosis were evaluated. Of the 83 patients (44 men and 39 women; mean age: 63.7 years) with MRSA bacteremia, 30 (36.1%) had malignancy and 25 (30.1%) had been treated with immunosuppressive drugs. Fifteen patients (18.1%) were intravascular catheter related. SCCmec typeII accounted for 80% of SCCmec types of MRSA isolates. The mortality rate was 39.8% (33/83), which is similar to that of previous reports. The ratio of males to females, the mean age or the body temperature did not differ between survivors and nonsurvivors. Independent predictors associated with mortality in the multivariate analyses are pneumonia (P = 0.016), treatment with VCM (P = 0.039), and transplantation (P = 0.021). We suggest that poor prognosis achieved with VCM is in part due to its low blood concentration and poor tissue penetration. VCM should not be selected when presumed source of MRSA bacteremia is pneumonia.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes a wide range of infections in health care settings and community environments. In particular, community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) is important for clinicians because many fatal cases in healthy populations have been reported. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) is a mobile genetic element and carries the central determinant for broad-spectrum beta-lactam resistance encoded by the mecA gene. The emergence of MRSA is due to the acquisition and insertion of the SCCmec element into the chromosome. CA-MRSA is characterized as SCCmec type IV. Thus, we aimed to establish a novel multiplex real-time PCR method to distinguish SCCmec type, which enables us to evaluate the pathogenicity of MRSA. A total of 778 MRSA were isolated at Nagasaki University Hospital from 2000 to 2007. All isolates were subjected to minimal inhibitory concentration testing and PCR for SCCmec typing and detecting genes of toxins: tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin 1), sec (encoded enterotoxin type c), etb (exfoliative toxin type b), and lukS/F-PV (Panton-Valentine leukocidin). PCR was performed to amplify a total of 10 genes in the same run. The 667 MRSA clones detected from pus in 778 clones were classified as SCCmec type II (77.7%), type IV (19.2%), and type I (3.0%). 87.5% of SCCmec type II clone had tst and sec genes. No isolate was lukS/F-PV positive. The present study indicates the high rate of lukS/F-PV-negative SCCmec type IV in Nagasaki. Our PCR method is convenient for typing MRSA and detecting toxins in Japan.
We have reported in this journal in vitro susceptibilities of clinical isolates to antibiotics every year since 1992. In this paper, we report the results of an analysis of in vitro susceptibilities of 12,919 clinical isolates from 72 centers in Japan to selected antibiotics in 2007 compared with the results from previous years. The common respiratory pathogens, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae maintained a high susceptibility to fluoroquinolones (FQs). The resistance of S. pyogenes to macrolides has been increasing every year and this was especially clear this year. Most strains of Enterobacteriaceae except for Escherichia coli showed a high susceptibility to FQs. Almost 30% of E. coli strains were resistant to FQs and the resistance increased further this year. FQs resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was approximately 95% with the exception of 45% for sitafloxacin (STFX). FQs resistance of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was low at about 10%. FQs resistance of methicillin-resistant coagulase negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) was higher than that of methicillin-susceptible coagulase negative Staphylococci (MSCNS), but it was lower than that of MRSA. However, FQs resistance of MSCNS was higher than that of MSSA. FQs resistance of Enterococcus faecalis was 22.5% to 29.6%, while that of Enterococcusfaecium was more than 85% except for STFX (58.3%). In clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa derived from urinary tract infections, FQs resistance was 21-27%, which was higher than that of P. aeruginosa from respiratory tract infections at 13-21%, which was the same trend as in past years. Multidrug resistant strains accounted for 5.6% in the urinary tract and 1.8% in the respiratory tract. Acinetobacter spp. showed high susceptibility to FQs. The carbapenem resistant strains, which present a problem at present, accounted for 2.7%. Neisseria gonorrhoeae showed high resistance of 86-88% to FQs. The results of the present survey indicated that although methicillin-resistant Staphylococci, Enterococci, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and N. gonorrhoeae showed resistance tendencies, and other species maintained high susceptibility rates more than 90% against FQs, which have been used clinically for over 15 years.
A 76-year-old woman undergoing hemodialysis and having a permanent pacemaker during care elsewhere developed a shunt infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia. Vancomycin (VCM) and other antimicrobial agents were not effective even after her artificial shunt vessel was removed. Linezolid (LZD) was administered for 56 days to resolve fever. MRSA was detected repeatedly in blood culture for 7 months except while LZD was being administered, so she was referred to our hospital for further investigation and treatment. Blood culture isolated 3 MRSA strains, all having a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LZD above 16 microg/mL while that of VCM varied at 24 microg/mL. Based on these findings, combined VCM, rifampicin, and arbekacin therapy was started but did not resolve the MRSA bacteremia problem. Transesophageal echocardiography showed flat vegetation around the pacemaker lead passing through the tricuspid valve. Based on strongly suspected pacemaker-lead infection, the pacemaker system was removed by heart surgeons using radiographic imaging on day 16 after admission. Her blood culture then became negative. She was returned to the previous hospital on day 66 after admission, where combination antibiotic therapy was continued for about one month. MRSA was not detected again after pacemaker system removal.
Rapid identification of the causative bacteria of sepsis in patients can contribute to the selection of appropriate antibiotics and improvement of patients prognosis. Genotypic identification is an emerging technology that may provide an alternative method to, or complement, established phenotypic identification procedures. We evaluated a rapid protocol for bacterial identification based on PCR and pyrosequencing of the V1 and V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene using DNA extracted directly from positive blood culture samples. One hundred and two positive blood culture bottles from 68 patients were randomly selected and the bacteria were identified by phenotyping and pyrosequencing. The results of pyrosequencing identification displayed 84.3 and 64.7?% concordance with the results of phenotypic identification at the genus and species levels, respectively. In the monomicrobial samples, the concordance between the results of pyrosequencing and phenotypic identification at the genus level was 87.0?%. Pyrosequencing identified one isolate in 60?% of polymicrobial samples, which were confirmed by culture analysis. Of the samples identified by pyrosequencing, 55.7?% showed consistent results in V1 and V3 targeted sequencing; other samples were identified based on the results of V1 (12.5?%) or V3 (31.8?%) sequencing alone. One isolate was erroneously identified by pyrosequencing due to high sequence similarity with another isolate. Pyrosequencing identified one isolate that was not detected by phenotypic identification. The process of pyrosequencing identification can be completed within ~4 h. The information provided by DNA-pyrosequencing for the identification of micro-organisms in positive blood culture bottles is accurate and could prove to be a rapid and useful tool in standard laboratory practice.
The utility of active surveillance cultures (ASCs) in respiratory wards, that do not have an associated intensive care unit (ICU), and the usefulness of the BD GeneOhm MRSA™ system for rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have not been previously evaluated in Japan. ASCs using conventional culture methods and the BD GeneOhm MRSA™ assay were conducted in adult inpatients between May 11, 2009 and November 10, 2009 in a respiratory ward, without an associated ICU, in Nagasaki University Hospital. The infection and colonization rates of MRSA acquired in this respiratory ward were both investigated. A total of 159 patients were investigated. Of these, 12 (7.5%) were found positive for MRSA by the BD GeneOhm MRSA™ assay and 9 (5.7%) were found positive by a conventional culture test upon admission. All cases were MRSA-colonized cases and cross-transmission was not found to occur during hospitalization. The BD GeneOhm MRSA™ assay had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98%. ASCs in our respiratory ward revealed that MRSA was brought in from other sites in some cases, and that current infection control measures in Nagasaki University Hospital are effective. The BD GeneOhm MRSA™ assay was proven to be a useful and rapid detection tool for MRSA.
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