The E2F transcription factors are best characterized for their roles in cell-cycle regulation, cell growth, and cell death. Here we investigated the potential role of E2F1 in cardiac neovascularization.
The growth of new blood vessels after ischemic injury requires endothelial cells (ECs) to divide and proliferate, and the E2F transcription factors are key regulators of the genes responsible for cell-cycle progression; however, the specific roles of individual E2Fs in ECs are largely unknown. To determine the roles of E2F2 and E2F3 in EC proliferation and the angiogenic response to ischemic injury, hind-limb ischemia was surgically induced in E2F2(-/-) mice, endothelial-specific E2F3-knockout (EndoE2F3(?/?)) mice, and their littermates with wild-type E2F2 and E2F3 expression. Two weeks later, Laser-Doppler perfusion measurements, capillary density, and endothelial proliferation were significantly greater in E2F2(-/-) mice and significantly lower in EndoE2F3(?/?) mice than in their littermates, and EndoE2F3(?/?) mice also developed toe and limb necrosis. The loss of E2F2 expression was associated with increases in the proliferation and G1/S-phase gene expression of isolated ECs, while the loss of E2F3 expression led to declines in these parameters. Thus E2F2 impairs, and endothelial E2F3 promotes, the angiogenic response to peripheral ischemic injury through corresponding changes in EC cell-cycle progression.
Insufficient neovascularization, characterized by poor endothelial cell (EC) growth, contributes to the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease and limits cardiac tissue preservation and regeneration. The E2F family of transcription factors are critical regulators of the genes responsible for cell-cycle progression and growth; however, the specific roles of individual E2Fs in ECs are not well understood. Here we investigated the roles of E2F2 and E2F3 in EC growth, angiogenesis, and their functional impact on myocardial infarction (MI). An endothelial-specific E2F3-deficient mouse strain VE-Cre; E2F3(fl/fl) was generated, and MI was surgically induced in VE-Cre; E2F3(fl/fl) and E2F2-null (E2F2 KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates, VE-Cre; E2F3(+/+) and E2F2 WT, respectively. The cardiac function, infarct size, and vascular density were significantly better in E2F2 KO mice and significantly worse in VE-Cre; E2F3(fl/fl) mice than in their WT littermates. The loss of E2F2 expression was associated with an increase in the proliferation of ECs both in vivo and in vitro, while the loss of E2F3 expression led to declines in EC proliferation. Thus, E2F3 promotes while E2F2 suppresses ischemic cardiac repair through corresponding changes in EC proliferation; and differential targeting of specific E2F members may provide a novel strategy for therapeutic angiogenesis of ischemic heart disease.
Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (circEPCs) of bone marrow (BM) origin contribute to postnatal neovascularization and represent a potential therapeutic target for ischemic disease. Statins are beneficial for ischemia disease and have been implicated to increase neovascularization via mechanisms independent of lipid lowering. However, the effect of Statins on EPC function is not completely understood. Here we sought to investigate the effects of Rosuvastatin (Ros) on EPC mobilization and EPC-mediated neovascularization during ischemic injury. In a mouse model of surgically-induced hindlimb ischemia (HLI), treatment of mice with low dose (0.1 mg/kg) but not high dose (5 mg/kg) significantly increased capillary density and accelerated blood flow recovery, as compared to saline-treated group. When HLI was induced in mice that had received Tie2/LacZ BM transplantation, Ros treatment led a significantly larger amount of endothelial cells (ECs) of BM origin incorporated at ischemic sites than saline. After treatment of mice with a single low dose of Ros, circEPCs significantly increased from 2 h, peaked at 4 h, declined until 8 h. In a growth-factor reduced Matrigel plug-in assay, Ros treatment for 5 d induced endothelial lineage differentiation in vivo. Interestingly, the enhanced circEPCs and post-HLI neovascularization stimulated by Ros were blunted in mice deficient in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and Ros increased p-Akt/p-eNOS levels in EPCs in vitro, indicating these effects of Ros are dependent on eNOS activity. We conclude that Ros increases circEPCs and promotes their de novo differentiation through eNOS pathway.
The mobilization of bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells (PCs) is largely governed by interactions between stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 and CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)4. Ischemic injury disrupts the SDF-1-CXCR4 interaction and releases BM PCs into the peripheral circulation, where the mobilized cells are recruited to the injured tissue and contribute to vessel growth. BM PCs can also be mobilized by the pharmacological CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100, but the other components of the SDF-1-CXCR4 signaling pathway are largely unknown. c-kit, a membrane-bound tyrosine kinase and the receptor for stem cell factor, has also been shown to play a critical role in BM PC mobilization and ischemic tissue repair.
Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) is a major negative modulator of cardiac hypertrophy. Here we report that GSK3beta physically and functionally interacts with Smad3. The interaction between GSK3beta and Smad3 may participate in the negative regulation of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) and Angiotensin II-induced transcription and apoptosis. GSK3beta interacted directly with Smad3 to sequester it outside the nucleus and prevent its nuclear translocation. This resulted in the suppression of Smad3-mediated transcriptional activity and gene expression. GSK3beta counteracted the pro-apoptotic effect of Smad3 and attenuated Angiotensin II-induced apoptosis in cardiac myocytes. Furthermore, stimulation of these cells with TGF-beta1 and Angiotensin II led to the endogenous Smad3 disassociating from GSK3beta and inactivating GSK3beta by phosphorylation of its Ser9. These results uncovered a novel mechanism for the GSK3beta negative regulation of TGF-beta1/Smad3 and Angiotensin II/Smad3-mediated transcription and apoptosis by the identification of a crosstalk between GSK3beta and Smad3 signal pathway.
Recent studies have identified a polymorphism in the endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE)-1b promoter (-338C/A) that is strongly associated with hypertension in women. The polymorphism is located in a consensus binding sequence for the E2F family of transcription factors. E2F proteins are crucially involved in cell-cycle regulation, but their roles in cardiovascular function are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the potential role of E2F2 in blood pressure regulation.
Obesity is increasingly a public health problem due to its high risk of developing insulin resistance, diabetes, atherosclerosis, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In particular, the association of obesity and hypertension is well recognized; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. This article reviews recent advancements of cellular and molecular mechanisms by which adipocyte dysfunction and obesity contribute to hypertension through endocrine and paracrine effects of the adipose tissue-derived adipokines on the function of vascular endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and macrophages.
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