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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Compostibacillus humi gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Bacillaceae , isolated from sludge compost.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Two novel Gram-staining-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, and moderately thermophilic bacteria, designated strain DX-3T and GIESS002, respectively were isolated from sludge composts from Guangdong Province, China. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates were closely related to each other with extremely high similarity (99.6%), and were members of the family Bacillaceae. However, these two isolates formed a novel phylogenetic branch within this family. Their closest relatives were the members of the genera Ornithinibacillus, Oceanobacillus and Virgibacillus. Cells of both strains were facultatively anaerobic and catalase- and oxidase-positive. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was A1? (meso-DAP direct). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major cellular fatty acid was iso-C15:0. The DNA G+C content was 43.2-43.7 mol%. The polyphasic taxonomic results indicated that strains DX-3T and GIESS002 represent a novel species in a new genus in the family Bacillaceae, order Bacillales for which the name Compostibacillus humi gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DX-3T (=KCTC 33104T =CGMCC 1.12360T).
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Studies on the effect of thymine-mercury-thymine stem as a structural or functional motif in DNAzymes.
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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T-Hg-T base pair formation has been demonstrated to be compatible with duplex DNA context, with considerable thermal stability contribution. Here, the T-Hg-T stem in two small DNAzymes 8-17 and 10-23 was studied for its structural and functional roles. The recognition arm 5' to the cleavage site of 10-23 DNAzyme complex and the stem in the catalytic loop of 8-17 DNAzyme could be replaced by consecutive T-Hg-T stem of different length. The linear relationship between the activity of the complex 10-23DZ-6T+D19-6T and the concentration of Hg(2+) demonstrated that the T-Hg-T stem contributes thermal stability of the recognition arm binding. The effect of T-Hg-T stem in the catalytic core of 8-17 DNAzyme and the position-dependent effect in 10-23 DNAzyme demonstrated that T-Hg-T base pair is not compatible with canonical base pairs in playing the functions of nucleic acids.
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Ventricular and atrial mechanics and their interaction in patients with congenital scoliosis without clinical heart failure.
Cardiol Young
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Objectives: This study sought to evaluate left ventricular, right ventricular, and left atrial mechanics and their interactions in patients with congenital scoliosis without clinical heart failure. Methods: A total of 23 patients with a median age of 14 years and a median Cobb's angle of 61° were studied. Ventricular and atrial myocardial deformation was measured using speckle tracking echocardiography. The results of the patients were compared with 22 controls. Results: Compared with controls, the patients had a significantly greater annular a velocity (p=0.04) and lower e/a ratio (p=0.03); the left ventricular deformation significantly decreased in radial global (p=0.04) and segmental systolic strain and early diastolic strain rate (p=0.03); the left atrial deformation showed a significantly lower positive strain (p=0.02), greater negative strain (p=0.01), and active contractile strain rate (p=0.01). For the patients, the Cobb's angle was negatively correlated with the left ventricular global radial systolic strain (r=-0.65, p=0.001), left atrial positive strain (r=-0.68, p<0.001), and the left atrial negative strain was positively correlated with the left ventricular circumferential late diastolic strain rate (r=0.46, p=0.01). The left atrial conduit strain rate was positively correlated with the left ventricular circumferential early diastolic strain rate (r=0.42, p=0.03). The left atrial active contractile strain rate was positively correlated with the left ventricular longitudinal late diastolic strain rate (r=-0.4, p=0.03). Conclusions: Impaired left ventricular and altered left atrial mechanics occur relatively early in patients with congenital scoliosis, and are correlated with the severity of their scoliosis. Our findings provide evidence of preclinical heart dysfunction in patients with this disorder.
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Concatenated Logic Circuits Based on a Three-Way DNA Junction: A Keypad-Lock Security System with Visible Readout and an Automatic Reset Function.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Concatenated logic circuits operating as a biocomputing keypad-lock security system with an automatic reset function have been successfully constructed on the basis of toehold-mediated strand displacement and three-way-DNA-junction architecture. In comparison with previously reported keypad locks, the distinctive advantage of the proposed security system is that it can be reset and cycled spontaneously a large number of times without an external stimulus, thus making practical applications possible. By the use of a split-G-quadruplex DNAzyme as the signal reporter, the output of the keypad lock can be recognized readily by the naked eye. The "lock" is opened only when the inputs are introduced in an exact order. This requirement provides defense against illegal invasion to protect information at the molecular scale.
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Luminescent vesicular nanointerface: a highly selective and sensitive "turn-on" sensor for guanosine triphosphate.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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A novel amphiphilic Tb(3+) complex (TbL(3+)(I)) consisting of a +3 charged head and a hydrophobic alkyl chain has been developed. It spontaneously self-assembles in water and forms stable vesicles at neutral pH. TbL(3+)(I) has no aromatic groups (functioning as an antenna), and its intrinsic luminescence is thus minimized. These features lead to the self-assembling TbL(3+)(I) receptor molecules demonstrating an increased luminescence intensity upon binding of nucleotides. Upon addition of guanosine triphosphate (GTP), the luminescence from Tb(3+) was notably promoted (127-fold), as the light energy absorbed by the guanine group of GTP was efficiently transferred to the Tb(3+) center. In the case of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) and guanosine monophosphate (GMP), respectively, 78-fold and 43-fold increases in luminescence intensity were observed. This enhancement was less significant than that observed for GTP, due to fewer negative charges on GDP and GMP. No other nucleotides or the tested nonphosphorylated nucleosides affected the luminescence intensity to any notable extent. In marked contrast, all tested nucleotides, including guanine nucleotides, barely promoted the luminescence of molecularly dispersed receptors, TbL(3+)(II), indicating that the confinement and organization of molecules in a nanointerface play vital roles in improving the performance of a sensing system. This Tb(3+) complex nanointerface is successfully used for monitoring the GTP-to-GDP conversion.
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Myeloid-specific disruption of tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 promotes alternative activation of macrophages and predisposes mice to pulmonary fibrosis.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The alternative activation of M2 macrophages in the lungs has been implicated as a causative agent in pulmonary fibrosis; however, the mechanisms underlying M2 polarization are poorly characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of the ubiquitously expressed Src homology domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 in this process. Shp2 inactivation augmented IL-4-mediated M2 polarization in vitro, suggesting that Shp2 regulates macrophage skewing and prevents a bias toward the M2 phenotype. Conditional removal of Shp2 in monocytes/macrophages with lysozyme M promoter-driven Cre recombinase caused an IL-4-mediated shift toward M2 polarization. Additionally, an increase in arginase activity was detected in Shp2(?/?) mice after i.p. injection of chitin, whereas Shp2-deficient macrophages showed enhanced M2 polarization and protection against schistosome egg-induced schistosomiasis. Furthermore, mutants were more sensitive than control mice to bleomycin-induced inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis. Shp2 was associated with IL-4R? and inhibited JAK1/STAT6 signaling through its phosphatase activity; loss of Shp2 promoted the association of JAK1 with IL-4R?, which enhanced IL-4-mediated JAK1/STAT6 activation that resulted in M2 skewing. Taken together, these findings define a role for Shp2 in alveolar macrophages and reveal that Shp2 is required to inhibit the progression of M2-associated pulmonary fibrosis.
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Regional and National Review of Factors Associated With Burn Wound Cellulitis.
J Burn Care Res
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Burn wound cellulitis (BWC) is the second leading complication reported in burns. In this study we sought to identify demographic variables, burn factors, and other factors that may predispose patients to BWC. Regional data was obtained through retrospective medical record review of burn patients treated between May 2009 to April 2013 for BWC within 8 days of the injury. The patients were matched 1:2 with contemporaneously treated patients. Similarly, the National Burn Repository was queried to identify burn patients with BWC between the years 2002 to 2011, which were then compared to the remaining entries who did not have BWC reported. The data sets were analyzed separately. Univariate and multiple variable analyses were performed to evaluate risk factors for BWC. The risk factors that were consistent regionally and nationally were older age, male sex, African-American race (protective), lower extremity burns, scald burns, and full thickness burns. The treatment delay was only collected regionally, and was associated with an eight times increased risk. The factors that were inconsistent or significant in one sample only were smoking status, psychiatric conditions, upper extremity burns, and the place of injury. Cellulitis remains a significant problem for the burn community. Future prospective analyses need to clarify the impact of these factors as well as other factors on the development of BWC. Preventing BWC from occurring through earlier intervention or targeted prophylactic antibiotics may help reduce morbidity and decrease associated healthcare costs.
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The selective ASIC3 inhibitor APETx2 alleviates gastric mucosal lesion in the rat.
Pharmazie
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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This study aimed to assess the in vivo efficacy of acid sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) inhibitor APETx2 to alleviate acute gastric mucosal lesion (AGML) in a rat model. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups: control group, water immersion restraint stress (WIRS) group, and APETx2 treatment group (n = 12). AGML was induced by WIRS for 6 h, and 25 microg/kg APETx2 was injected intraperitoneally before the onset of stress. Intragastric pH, ulcer index (UI) and gastric histopathological changes were measured, ASIC3 expression in thoracic dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons was examined by immunohistochemistry, PCR and Western blot analysis. Compared with control group, WIRS group showed obvious gastric injury with increased UI score, decreased intragastric pH and increased ASIC3 expression in DRG neurons (p < 0.05). APETx2 treatment before WIRS significantly alleviated gastric mucosal injury, decreased UI score, decreased gastric acidity and reduced ASIC3 expression in thoracic DRG neurons (p < 0.05). In conclusion, ASIC3 expression in DRG neurons projecting to the stomach is positively correlated with gastric mucosal lesion and acidosis in WIRS model. ASIC3 inhibitor APETx2 could improve gastric acidosis and alleviate AGML.
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Application of quality by design (QbD) to formulation and processing of naproxen pellets by extrusion-spheronization.
Pharm Dev Technol
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Abstract The aim of this research was to apply quality by design (QbD) to the development of naproxen loaded core pellets which can be used as the potential core for colon-specific pellets. In the early stages of this study, prior knowledge and preliminary studies were systematically incorporated into the risk assessment using failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and fishbone diagram. Then Plackett-Burman design was used to screen eight potential high risk factors (spheronization speed, spheronization time, extrusion speed, drying method, CCMC-Na concentration, lactose concentration, water concentration and Tween 80 concentration) obtained from the above risk assessment. It was discovered that out of the eight potential high risk factors only three factors (spheronization speed, extrusion speed and CCMC-Na concentration) had significant effects on the quality of the pellets. This allowed the use of Box-Behnken design (BBD) to fully elucidate the relationship between the variables and critical quality attribute (CQA). Finally, the final control space was established within which the quality of the pellets can meet the requirement of colon-specific drug delivery system. This study demonstrated that naproxen loaded core pellets were successfully designed using QbD principle.
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Obesity delays functional recovery in trauma patients.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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Obesity is known to complicate trauma hospital stays. We hypothesize that obesity delays functional recovery in trauma patients.
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A method of semi-quantifying ?-AP in brain PET-CT 11C-PiB images.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common health problem for elderly populations. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT)11C-PiB for beta-P (amyloid-? peptide, ?-AP) imaging is an advanced method to diagnose AD in early stage. However, in practice radiologists lack a standardized value to semi-quantify ?-AP. This paper proposes such a standardized value: SV?-AP. This standardized value measures the mean ratio between the dimension of ?-AP areas in PET and CT images. A computer aided diagnosis approach is also proposed to achieve SV?-AP. A simulation experiment was carried out to pre-test the technical feasibility of the CAD approach and SV?-AP. The experiment results showed that it is technically feasible.
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The butterfly fragment in comminuted femoral shaft fracture may be movable following intramedullary nail treatment.
Injury
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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The gap among fracture fragments is an important factor which influences the healing of bone fracture, and it may be changeable during the early phase of bone healing. In this letter, we pointed out our view that the gap between the butterfly fragment, and the shaft in femoral shaft fractures can easily be changed, so it is hard to study the potential correlation between the size of the gap and fracture healing.
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Multiple metallic foreign bodies accidentally detected in different body cavities: a case report.
Chin. J. Traumatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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We accidentally found an unusual case of a middle aged Tibetan woman who had eight metallic foreign bodies (eight needles) in her head, chest and abdomen. These needles were not related to any surgical intervention or trauma. The diagnosis "metallic foreign bodies" cannot usually be made in an acute setting. Some patients may present chronic symptoms, such as infection or pain. However, in some cases, the patients do not have any symptoms.
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Crohn's disease but not diverticulitis is an independent risk factor for surgical site infections in colectomy.
J. Gastrointest. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Surgical site infections (SSIs) after colectomy for colon cancer (CC), Crohn's disease (CD), and diverticulitis (DD) significantly impact both the immediate postoperative course and long-term disease-specific outcomes. We aim to profile the effect of diagnosis on SSI after segmental colectomy using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) data set.
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Bacillus thermophilum sp. nov., isolated from a microbial fuel cell.
Arch. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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A novel thermophilic, Gram-staining positive bacterium, designated DX-2(T), was isolated from the anode biofilm of a microbial fuel cell. Cells of the strain were oxidase positive, catalase positive, facultative anaerobic, motile rods. The isolate grew at 30-60 °C (optimum 50 °C) and pH 5-9 (optimum pH 8-8.5). The pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities showed that strain DX-2(T) was most closely related to Bacillus fumarioli LMG 17489(T) (96.2 %), B. firmus JCM 2512(T) (96.0 %) and B. foraminis DSM 19613(T) (95.7 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain DX-2(T) formed a cluster with B. smithii (95.5 %) and B. infernus (94.9 %). The genomic G+C content of DX-2(T) was 43.7 mol%. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and unknown phospholipids. The major cellular fatty acid was iso-C16:0. Based on its phenotypic characteristics, chemotaxonomic features, and results of phylogenetic analysis, the strain was identified to represent a distinct novel species in the genus Bacillus, and the name proposed is B. thermophilum sp. nov. The type strain is DX-2(T) (=CCTCC AB2012194(T) = KCTC 33128(T)).
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COP1 jointly modulates cytoskeletal processes and electrophysiological responses required for stomatal closure.
Mol Plant
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Reorganization of the cortical microtubule cytoskeleton is critical for guard cell function. Here, we investigate how environmental and hormonal signals cause these rearrangements and find that COP1, a RING-finger-type ubiquitin E3 ligase, is required for degradation of tubulin, likely by the 26S proteasome. This degradation is required for stomatal closing. In addition to regulating the cytoskeleton, we show that cop1 mutation impaired the activity of S-type anion channels, which are critical for stomatal closure. Thus, COP1 is revealed as a potential coordinator of cytoskeletal and electrophysiological activities required for guard cell function.
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Prophylaxis and therapy of pandemic H1N1 virus infection using egg yolk antibody.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Influenza A virus infects the human respiratory system and causes acute and fatal pulmonary diseases. The emergence of drug-resistant viral strains highlights the need for alternative therapeutic approaches. In this work, IgY antibody was raised in immunized laying hens, and its antiviral activity was evaluated in the context of passive immunization. With inactivated whole H1N1 virus, high-titer IgY antibody 9.18 mg/mL egg yolk was induced by the eighth week after immunization. Western blotting and the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test demonstrated that the IgY antibody could specifically bind the neuraminidase and hemagglutinin of the H1N1 virus. In the plaque reduction assay, the IgY antibody reduced the H1N1 viral infection in MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cells. In a mouse model, the anti-H1N1 IgY antibody exhibited in vivo protection by reducing the infectious titer of the virus in the lung while maintaining the weight and normal structure of the lung tissue. Additionally, the anti-H1N1 IgY antibody exhibited protective activity comparable to the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir. These results demonstrated that IgY can be easily produced and can offers an effective alternative approach for influenza control.
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Factors related to child maltreatment in children presenting with burn injuries.
J Burn Care Res
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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The underpinnings of maltreatment in children presenting with burn injuries are necessary to discern as detection and prevention rest on a clear delineation of factors associated with maltreatment. Inaccurate identification of child victims can result in perpetuation of the maltreatment and its attendant neuropsychological sequela. The authors sought to determine factors associated with maltreatment in children presenting with burn injuries, which would guide the burn team in assessing the likelihood of maltreatment. All consenting children admitted with burn injuries were surveyed regarding their injury mechanism and current sociodemographic status. Suspicious injuries were referred by the burn team to the multidisciplinary review team (MRT). The MRT reported injuries with signs of physical abuse, supervision neglect, neglect of other basic needs, or sexual abuse. These children constituted the cases in our study. Variables related to maltreatment were entered into stepwise logistic regression to identify independent predicting variables. P< .05 was considered significant. MRT identified 16 children (24%) admitted with burn injuries with suspicions of maltreatment. Risk factors related to suspicions of maltreatment included: young age, large burns, tap water injury, immersion lines, delay in care, absence of a two-parent family (unconventional family structure), young parents, inconsistent history, and injury pattern. In this single-center prospective study, the authors identified several factors that, when present in injuries with initial suspicion of maltreatment, should trigger a child maltreatment workup. Burn clinicians have an important role as advocates for children and their families. It is important to continue to further the knowledge of maltreatment detection and prevention among children presenting with burn injuries.
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Position-specific modification with imidazolyl group on10-23 DNAzyme realized catalytic activity enhancement.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Nucleoside analogues with imidazolyl and histidinyl groups were synthesized for site-specific modification on the catalytic core of 10-23 DNAzyme. The distinct position-dependent effect of imidazolyl group was observed. Positive effect at A9 position was always observed. The pH- and Mg(2+)-dependence of the imidazolyl-modified DNAzymes suggested that imidazolyl group in 10-23 DNAzyme probably plays a dual role, its hydrogen bonding ability and spacial occupation play the favorable influence on the catalytic conformation of the modified DNAzymes. This research demonstrated that the catalytic performance of DNAzymes could be enhanced by incorporation of additional functional groups. Chemical modification is a feasible approach toward more efficient DNAzymes for therapeutic and biotechnological applications.
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Template-free hydrothermal synthesis different morphologies of visible-light-driven BiVO4 photocatalysts.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Monoclinic BiVO4 nano- and microstructures with a diversity of well-defined morphologies, such as nanoplates, dendrite leaves-like structures, sub-microrods, and microflowers were synthesized via a template-free hydrothermal process with bismuth nitrate and ammonium metavanadate as metal source. The crystal structures, morphologies and optical properties of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-visible absorption spectra (UV-vis). Results showed that the pH value of the solution and the volume of ethylenediamine have great effect on the formation of these unique structures. The photocatalytic activity of these as-prepared samples had been tested by degradation of methylene blue under visible light, indicating that showed good photocatalytic performance.
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Exposure of mice to benzo(a)pyrene impairs endometrial receptivity and reduces the number of implantation sites during early pregnancy.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Studies have demonstrated it to be an endocrine-disrupting chemical that can cause adverse effects on the female reproductive system. However, the effect of BaP on early pregnancy has not been reported. We investigated the effect of BaP on endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation. Pregnant mice were dosed with BaP at 0.2, 2 and 20 mg/kg/day from day 1 (D1) to day 5 (D5) of gestation. Exposure to BaP impaired the morphology of the endometrium and decreased the number of implantation sites (p0.2=0.006, p2=0.167, p20=0.003). Levels of estrodiol (p<0.001, for three treatment group compare with control group) and progesterone-4 in plasma were elevated in BaP-treatment groups (p0.2<0.001, p2<0.001, p20=0.032). Expression of estrogen receptor-? was up-regulated (p0.2=0.002, p2=0.131, p20=0.024) whereas expression of the progesterone receptor was down-regulated (p0.2<0.001, p2=0.064, p20=0.021). Levels of receptivity-related genes HoxA10 (p0.2<0.001, p2=0.135, p20<0.001) and E-cadherin (p0.2=0.002, p2=0.624, p20=0.137) were changed by BaP. These results revealed that BaP can disrupt the balance of estrogen and progesterone, influence expression of their receptors and downstream related genes, lead to changes in endometrium receptivity, and reduce of the number of implantation sites.
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Personalized privacy-preserving frequent itemset mining using randomized response.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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Frequent itemset mining is the important first step of association rule mining, which discovers interesting patterns from the massive data. There are increasing concerns about the privacy problem in the frequent itemset mining. Some works have been proposed to handle this kind of problem. In this paper, we introduce a personalized privacy problem, in which different attributes may need different privacy levels protection. To solve this problem, we give a personalized privacy-preserving method by using the randomized response technique. By providing different privacy levels for different attributes, this method can get a higher accuracy on frequent itemset mining than the traditional method providing the same privacy level. Finally, our experimental results show that our method can have better results on the frequent itemset mining while preserving personalized privacy.
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The regulatory role of immunosuppressants on immune abnormalities in acute pancreatitis.
Biomed Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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The uncontrolled progression of the inflammatory cascade is the main cause underlying the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in acute pancreatitis. In this study, we investigated the effects of several immunosuppressants on mitigating the systemic inflammatory reaction syndrome (SIRS) and the compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS) associated with acute pancreatitis. A total of 93 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: group 1 was the sham group and group 2 underwent laparoscopic intrapancreatic duct injection of sodium taurocholate to induce pancreatitis. The remaining 3 groups were the same as group 2, with the addition of methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide or methotrexate treatment (metastab, CTX or MTX groups, respectively). Following establishment of the acute pancreatitis model, the serum levels of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 were found to be significantly elevated. Following immunosuppressant administration, the levels of all inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines investigated in groups 3, 4 and 5 were decreased compared to those in group 2. The pancreatic amylase levels and pancreatic wet weight (PWW) were also decreased in groups 3, 4 and 5 compared to those in group 2. Therefore, immunosuppressants may reduce inflammation-related cytokine levels in acute pancreatitis and relieve disease progression.
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Mechanism for the formation and microphysical characteristics of submicron aerosol during heavy haze pollution episode in the Yangtze River Delta, China.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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In this paper we investigate a severe pollution episode that occurred in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in January 2013. The episode was caused by the combination of anthropogenic emissions and unusual atmospheric circulation, the depression of strong cold air activities and the very unfavorable dispersion. The episode contained three haze events (haze1: Jan. 4-9, haze2: Jan. 10-13, and haze3: Jan. 14-16). In Nanjing, aerosol size distributions from 10nm to 10 ?m and chemical components of single particles from 0.2 to 2 ?m were measured with a Wide Range Particle Spectrometer (WPS) and a Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SPAMS), respectively. The results indicate that the mean PM2.5 concentrations in the YRD region were greater than 110 ?g·m(-3). The highest PM2.5 concentration of 175.6 ?g·m(-3) occurred in Nanjing; the other cities had values in the range of 110.8-147.3 ?g·m(-3). The average PM2.5 concentrations were 58.3, 122.7, 145.4 and 154.7 ?g·m(-3) on clean and haze1, haze2 and haze3 days, respectively. The highest PM2.5 values of 416.5, 415.5 and 300.5 ?g·m(-3) in Nanjing occurred during the three haze events. The spectra of the aerosol number concentrations had unimodal distributions on clean and haze days. The maximum surface area peaks were located at 0.5-0.7 ?m and had values of 419, 1397, 1309 and 1378 ?m(2)·cm(-3)·nm(-1) on clean and haze1, haze2 and haze3 days, respectively. The number concentrations of biomass/biofuel burning-containing particles (biomass), organic carbon-containing particles (OC), elemental carbon-containing particles (EC), nitrate-containing particles (nitrate) and sulfate-containing particles (sulfate) increased significantly during the haze events. The chemical components of the aerosols during the haze1 and haze2 events were similar to those on clean days, and variations were caused by local particle accumulations under poor diffusion conditions. The high EC particle concentration of 24.76% during the haze3 event was impacted by the pollutants transported from surrounding cities. In addition, the different chemical components showed distinct size distributions.
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Ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor based on graphite oxide, Prussian blue, and PTC-NH2 for the detection of ?2,6-sialylated glycans in human serum.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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?2,6-Sialylated glycans are crucial molecular targets for cancer diagnosis and clinical research. In this work, a novel ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor was fabricated based on a graphite oxide (GO), Prussian blue (PB), and PTC-NH2 (an ammonolysis product of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride) nanocomposite for the selective detection of ?2,6-sialylated glycans. To increase the sensitivity of the electrochemical biosensor, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were immobilized on a GO-PB-PTC-NH2 modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Sambucus nigra agglutinins (SNAs), which specifically bind with ?2,6-sialylated glycans, were covalently immobilized on GNPs for the sensitive detection of ?2,6-sialylated glycans in serum. This proposed method can be applied to human serum, and it worked well over a broad linear range (0.1 pg mL(-1)-500 ng mL(-1)) with detection limits of 0.03 pg mL(-1). Moreover, recovery of the spiked samples ranged from 100.2% to 105.0%, suggesting that this excellent electrochemical biosensor can be used for the practical detection of ?2,6-sialylated glycans.
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The differential expression of microRNAs between implantation sites and interimplantation sites in early pregnancy in mice and their potential functions.
Reprod Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Embryo implantation is a complex process that involves synchronized crosstalk between a receptive endometrium and a functional blastocyst. It can take place only during the window of implantation, a period when a series of changes in gene expression occur in the endometrium to accept the embryo. As modulators of gene expression, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as regulators of embryo implantation. To better understand how miRNAs regulate implantation and the related molecular mechanisms, we compared the expression profiles of miRNAs and messenger RNAs between implantation sites (IMs) and inter-IMs in the endometrium of pregnant mice on day 5 by microarrays. The results showed that compared with inter-IMs, 30 miRNAs were upregulated and 42 miRNAs (>2-fold) were downregulated at the IMs. By combining the results of the microarray experiments, we found that 20 upregulated pathways and 14 downregulated pathways might be subject to miRNA regulation at IMs. We also found that some miRNAs and their targets may play a key role in implantation.
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Disposable strip biosensor for visual detection of Hg(2+) based on Hg(2+)-triggered toehold binding and exonuclease III-assisted signal amplification.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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A disposable strip biosensor for the visual detection of Hg(2+) in aqueous solution has been constructed on the basis of Hg(2+)-triggered toehold binding and exonuclease III (Exo III)-assisted signal amplification. Thymine-thymine (T-T) mismatches in the toehold domains can serve as specific recognition elements for Hg(2+) binding with the help of T-Hg(2+)-T base pairs to initiate toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction. Exo III-catalyzed target recycling strategy is introduced to improve the sensitivity. Using gold nanoparticles as a tracer, the output signals can be directly observed by the naked eye. The assay is ultrasensitive, enabling the visual detection of trace amounts of Hg(2+) as low as 1 pM without instrumentation. This sensing system also displays remarkable specificity to Hg(2+) against other possible competing ions. This sensor is robust and can be applied to the reliable monitoring of spiked Hg(2+) in environmental water samples with good recovery and accuracy. With the advantages of cost-effectiveness, simplicity, portability, and convenience, the disposable strip biosensor will be a promising candidate for point-of-use monitoring of Hg(2+) in environmental and biological samples.
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Sodium fluoride activates ERK and JNK via induction of oxidative stress to promote apoptosis and impairs ovarian function in rats.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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The toxicity of sodium fluoride (NaF) to female fertility is currently recognized; however, the mechanisms are unclear. Previously, we reported a reduction in successful pregnancy rates, ovarian atrophy and dysfunction following exposure to NaF. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (10 rats/group) received 100 or 200mg/L NaF in their drinking water for 6 months or were assigned to an untreated control group. Apoptotic indices and oxidative stress indicators in blood and ovarian tissue were analyzed following sacrifice. The results confirmed the NaF-induced ovarian apoptosis, with concomitant activation of oxidative stress. Further investigations in ovarian granular cells showed that exposure to NaF activated extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH2 kinase (JNK), disrupting the ERK and JNK signaling pathways, while p38 and PI3K remained unchanged. These data demonstrated that oxidative stress may play a key role in NaF-induced ovarian dysfunction by activating the apoptotic ERK and JNK signaling pathways.
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The Level of the Biomarkers at the Time of Nephrology Consultation Might Predict the Prognosis of Acute Kidney Injury in Hospitalized Patients.
Blood Purif.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Introduction: The value of biomarkers at the time of nephrology consultation in predicting the prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized patients has not been well described. This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of biomarkers at the time of nephrology consultation in predicting the prognosis of AKI. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 103 hospitalized patients who developed AKI. Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), IL-6, IL-18, N-Acetyl-?-D-Glucosaminidase (NAG), and serum Cystatin C (CysC) were measured at the time of nephrology consultation. Baseline values of serum creatinine (bScr), serum creatinine on consultation (cScr) and the peak level of serum creatinine (pScr) were recorded. All the patients were followed-up till 28 days since consultation. Serum and urinary levels of the biomarkers were compared according to the patient or kidney prognosis. Each marker was assessed for its predictive value using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves to predict AKI prognosis. Results: Patients were aged 54.28 ± 19.05. Male patients constituted 65% of the study group and baseline Scr was 93.54 ± 35.98 ?mol/l. The mortality rate of the patients was 25.2% and kidney loss rate was 18.8% at 28 days after consultation. The level of urinary NGAL was significantly higher in death patients than that in survival patients [147.00 (31.59, 221.87) ?g/ml vs. 22.43 (6.48, 89.77) ?g/ml, p = 0.001], while the level of bScr, cScr, pScr, urinary IL-6 and NAG were similar in both these groups. The AUC of urinary NGAL for predicting patients' death was 0.723 (p = 0.001). Serum CysC and urinary IL-18 concentration was higher in the death patients with a marginal p value (p = 0.065 and 0.059 respectively). All the urinary markers, including NAG, NGAL, IL-6 and IL-18 were significantly higher in patients with kidney loss than in those with kidney survival, while no difference was found in Scr and serum CysC levels. The AUCs of these urinary biomarkers for predicting kidney survival were 0.663, 0.655, 0.705 and 0.663 respectively (p < 0.05). The concentrations of cScr, pScr, serum CysC, urinary IL-6 and NGAL were significantly higher in RRT patients (p < 0.05). The AUCs for predicting RRT were 0.628, 0.781, 0.768, 0.672 and 0.775 respectively. Conclusions: The level of biomarkers at the time of nephrology consultation might predict the prognosis of AKI in hospitalized patients. Further studies should be done to understand the role of the serum and urinary markers in the prognosis of AKI. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Evaluation of wondfo rapid diagnostic kit (Pf-HRP2/PAN-pLDH) for diagnosis of malaria by using nano-gold immunochromatographic assay.
Acta Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Prompt and accurate diagnosis is necessary to start adequate treatment for different affecting species including P. falciparum and P. vivax. Here we described the Wondfo Rapid diagnostic Kit (Pf-HRP2/PAN-pLDH) for the detection of P. falciparum and pan-plasmodium in patient specimen by using a nano-gold immunochromatographic assay. Our rapid assay adapted nano-gold labeling techniques and the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against both histidine rich protein-2 (Pf HRP-2) of P. falciparum and pan plasmodium-specific pLDH (pan pLDH). The established two-antibody sandwich immunochromatographic assay could detect P. falciparum and pan-plasmodium. The sensitivity and specificity of Wondfo rapid diagnostic kit were determined by comparing with the "gold standard" of microscopic examination of blood smears. In this study1023 blood samples were collected from outpatient clinics in China and Burma, and detected by both Wondfo kit and microscopic examination. The detection sensitivity and specificity of Wondfo rapid diagnostic kit were 96.46% and 99.67% for P. falciparum (HRP2), 95.03% and 99.24% for pLDH, 96.83% and 99.74% for non-falciparum species, 96.70% and 99.74% for P. vivax, respectively. These results indicate that Wondfo rapid diagnostic assay may be useful for detecting P. falciparum and non-P. falciparum (especially P.v.) in patient specimen.
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Intensity-modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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To compare the treatment outcomes of intensity-modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost (IMRT-SIB) alone to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
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Decreased expression of neuronal Per-Arnt-Sim domain protein 4 gene in the hippocampus of a post-stroke depression rat model.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Neuronal Per-Arnt-Sim domain protein 4 (NPAS4) is important in regulating transcription and function in the limbic system and in brain development. Post-stroke depression (PSD) is a common complication following a stroke. Furthermore, organic damage as a result of a stroke affects the restoration of nerve function and indicates that hippocampal neural activity may be associated with PSD. A PSD rat model was established via a middle cerebral artery occlusion procedure, which was combined with isolation and chronic unexpected mild stress, and was used to investigate the expression of the NPAS4 gene in the hippocampus. The neurological deficit and behavior were evaluated and NPAS4 mRNA expression was measured by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; furthermore, the association with cognitive impairment was analyzed. The PSD rats displayed neuropsychopathic disorders and the NPAS4 mRNA expression levels in the hippocampus were significantly lower in the depression and PSD groups compared with the control group. Therefore, the present study identified that NPAS4 expression was decreased in the hippocampus of PSD rats.
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Colorimetric detection of Shewanella oneidensis based on immunomagnetic capture and bacterial intrinsic peroxidase activity.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Rapid detection and enumeration of target microorganisms is considered as a powerful tool for monitoring bioremediation process that typically involves cleaning up polluted environments with functional microbes. A novel colorimetric assay is presented based on immunomagnetic capture and bacterial intrinsic peroxidase activity for rapidly detecting Shewanella oneidensis, an important model organism for environmental bioremediation because of its remarkably diverse respiratory abilities. Analyte bacteria captured on the immunomagnetic beads provided a bacterial out-membrane peroxidase-amplified colorimetric readout of the immunorecognition event by oxidizing 3, 3', 5, 5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the present of hydrogen peroxide. The high-efficiency of immunomagnetic capture and signal amplification of peroxidase activity offers an excellent detection performance with a wide dynamic range between 5.0 × 10(3) and 5.0 × 10(6)?CFU/mL toward target cells. Furthermore, this method was demonstrated to be feasible in detecting S. oneidensis cells spiked in environmental samples. The proposed colorimetric assay shows promising environmental applications for rapid detection of target microorganisms.
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Pseudomonas sihuiensis sp. nov., isolated from a forest soil in South China.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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A Gram-stain negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain WM-2(T), was isolated from a forest soil in Sihui City, South China, and characterized by means of a polyphasic approach. Growth occurred with 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-1 %) and at pH 5.0-10.5 (optimum pH 8.5) and 4-40 °C (optimum 30 °C) in Luria-Bertani medium. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed that strain WM-2(T) is a member of the genus Pseudomonas and most closely related to P. guguanensis, P. oleovorans subsp. lubricantis, P. toyotomiensis, P. alcaliphila and P. mendocina with 97.1-96.6 % sequence similarities. In terms of gyrB and rpoB gene sequences, strain WM-2(T) showed the highest similarity with the type strains of the species P. toyotomiensis and P. alcaliphila. The DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain WM-2(T) with P. guguanensis and P. oleovorans subsp. lubricantis was 48.7 and 37.2 %, respectively. Chemotaxonomic characteristics (the main ubiquinone Q-9, major fatty acids C18:1 ?7c/C18:1 ?6c, C16:0 and C16:1 ?7c/C16:1 ?6c and DNA G+C content 65.2 ± 0.7 mol%) were similar to those of members of the genus Pseudomonas. Polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unknown aminophospholipid, an unknown phospholipid and five unknown lipids. According to the results of polyphasic analyses, strain WM-2(T) represents a novel species in the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas sihuiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WM-2(T) (=KCTC 32246(T)=CGMCC 1.12407(T)).
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Disrupting the interaction of BRD4 with diacetylated Twist suppresses tumorigenesis in basal-like breast cancer.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Twist is a key transcription activator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). It remains unclear how Twist induces gene expression. Here we report a mechanism by which Twist recruits BRD4 to direct WNT5A expression in basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Twist contains a "histone H4-mimic" GK-X-GK motif that is diacetylated by Tip60. The diacetylated Twist binds the second bromodomain of BRD4, whose first bromodomain interacts with acetylated H4, thereby constructing an activated Twist/BRD4/P-TEFb/RNA-Pol II complex at the WNT5A promoter and enhancer. Pharmacologic inhibition of the Twist-BRD4 association reduced WNT5A expression and suppressed invasion, cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties, and tumorigenicity of BLBC cells. Our study indicates that the interaction with BRD4 is critical for the oncogenic function of Twist in BLBC.
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Determination of ractopamine in pig hair using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection.
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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A quantitative analytical procedure for the determination of ractopamine in pig hair has been developed and validated. The hair samples were washed and incubated at 75°C with isoxuprine and hair extraction buffer. The drug present was quantified using mixed solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. The limit of quantization (LOQ) was 10pg/mg and the intra-day precision at 25pg/mg and 750pg/mg was 0.49% and 2.8% respectively. Inter-day precision was 0.88% and 3.52% at the same concentrations. The hair extraction percentage recovery at 25pg/mg and 50ng/mL was 99.47% and 103.83% respectively. The extraction percentage recovery at 25pg/mg and 50ng/mg was 93.52% and 100.26% respectively. Our results showed that ractopamine residues persist in hair in 24days of withdrawal and also showed the possibility to test ractopamine from pig hair samples.
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Segmental resection for the treatment of congenital pulmonary malformations.
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The purpose of this study was to compare clinical outcomes of segmental resection to lobectomy as increasing antenatal diagnosis of congenital pulmonary malformations has led to a shift in surgical management.
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Complications and survival associated with operative procedures in patients with unresectable pancreatic head adenocarcinoma.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Unresectable tumors of the pancreatic head are encountered in up to 20% of patients taken for resection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the complications and outcome associated with palliative surgical procedures to help guide management decisions in these patients.
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Mmu-miR-193 Is Involved in Embryo Implantation in Mouse Uterus by Regulating GRB7 Gene Expression.
Reprod Sci
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
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Embryo implantation is a complicated process involving a series of endometrial changes that depend on differential gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important for regulation of gene expression. Previous studies have shown that miRNAs may participate in the regulation of gene expression during embryo implantation. To explore the role of endometrial miRNAs in early murine pregnancy, we used microarrays to investigate whether miRNAs were differentially expressed in the mouse endometrium on pregnancy day 4 (D4) and day 6 (D6). The results demonstrated that 17 miRNAs were upregulated and 18 were downregulated (>2-fold) in D6 endometria compared to D4. We identified that mmu-miR-193 exhibited the highest upregulation on D6, and the upregulation of mmu-miR-193 before embryo implantation could reduce the embryo implantation rate. Further, we demonstrated that mmu-miR-193 influenced embryo implantation by regulating growth factor receptor-bound protein 7 expression. In summary, our study suggests that mmu-miR-193 plays an important role in embryo implantation.
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Costimulatory Molecule CD28 Participates in the Process of Embryo Implantation in Mice.
Reprod Sci
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
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Embryo implantation is a complex process requiring reciprocal interactions between implantation-competent blastocysts and receptive uteri. Accumulating literatures have indicated that T cells are involved in this process. The first signal mediated by T-cell receptor/CD3 complex and the second signal delivered by costimulatory molecules are essential for the differentiation of T cell into an effector cell. Expression and function of CD28, an important costimulatory molecule, during early pregnancy in mice is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the expression pattern of CD28 in mouse uterus during early pregnancy and pseudopregnancy by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). We found that injection of the uterine horn with CD28 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides leads to a decreased number of implantation sites. The expression pattern of CD3 protein examined by IHC is similar to that of CD28. These findings suggest that CD28 participates in the process of embryo implantation in mice, which might play its role through delivering the second costimulatory signal.
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Computation of the diffracted field of a toothed occulter by the semi-infinite rectangle method.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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To observe the solar corona, stray light in the coronagraph, arising primarily from an external occulter and diaphragm illuminated directly by the Sun, should be strongly suppressed. A toothed occulter and diaphragm can be used to suppress stray light because they diffract much less light in the central area than a circular disk. This study develops a method of computing the light diffracted by a toothed occulter and diaphragm, obtaining the optimum shape using this method. To prove the methods feasibility, the diffracted fields of circular and rectangular disks are computed and compared with those calculated by a conventional method.
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[Role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in NF-?B signal pathway].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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To explore the effects of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) on P65, P50, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).
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[Relations of fetuin-A with estimated glomerular filtration rate and carotid artery calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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To investigate the association of fetuin-A with residual renal function and carotid artery calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
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[Effects of Toll-like receptors on indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase mRNA levels in human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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To study the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mRNA in human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells and the changes in indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) mRNA expression in response to TLR ligand stimulation.
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Synthesis of ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds via a visible-light-promoted organocatalytic aerobic oxidation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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?,?-Unsaturated ketones and aldehydes have been synthesized from their corresponding silyl enol ethers in a straightforward protocol involving a visible-light promoted organocatalytic, aerobic oxidation reaction. A cheap organic dye was used catalytically in these reactions as the photosensitizer.
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Comparison of the Wake-up Test and Combined TES-MEP and CSEP Monitoring in Spinal Surgery.
J Spinal Disord Tech
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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A retrospective clinical analysis OBJECTIVE:: To explore the effectiveness of the wake-up test and combined monitoring of transcranial electrical stimulation motor evoked potentials (TES-MEP) and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (CSEP) in spinal surgery.
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Molecular mechanism of sphingosine-1-phosphate action in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
Dis Model Mech
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal muscle wasting disease. Studies in Drosophila showed that genetic increase of the bioactive sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) or delivery of 2-acetyl-5-tetrahydroxybutyl imidazole (THI), an S1P lyase inhibitor, suppress dystrophic muscle degeneration. In dystrophic mouse (mdx) upregulation of S1P by THI increases regeneration and muscle force. S1P can act as a ligand for S1P receptors and as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Since Drosophila have no identified S1P receptors and DMD correlates with increased HDAC2 levels, we tested whether S1P action in muscle involves HDAC inhibition. Here we show that beneficial effects of THI-treatment in mdx correlate with significantly increased nuclear S1P, decreased HDAC activity and increased acetylation of specific histone residues. Importantly, the HDAC2 target microRNA genes, miR-29 and miR-1, are significantly upregulated, correlating with the down regulation of miR-29 target, Col1a1 in the diaphragm of THI treated mdx mice. Further gene expression analysis revealed a significant THI dependent decrease in inflammation genes and increase in metabolic genes. Accordingly, S1P levels and functional mitochondrial activity are increased after THI treatment of differentiating C2C12 cells. S1P increases the muscle cell capacity to use fatty acids as energy source, suggesting that THI treatment may be beneficial for maintenance of energy metabolism of mdx muscles.
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Burn prevention in Zambia: a work in progress.
J Burn Care Res
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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The aim of this study was to assess both burn prevention knowledge and the effectiveness of educational intervention in alleviating the current knowledge deficit in Zambian youth. In one rural Zambian district, a burn prevention program was implemented in June 2011. Children at two elementary schools completed a 10-question survey that aimed to assess knowledge regarding burn injuries. After completing the survey, children received a burn and fire safety presentation and a burn prevention coloring book. Children were reassessed in May 2012 using the same survey to determine program efficacy and knowledge retention. Burn knowledge assessments were also completed for children at other schools who did not receive the burn prevention program in 2011. Logistic regression analysis was used for statistical adjustment for confounding variables. Between June 2011 and May 2012, 2747 children from six schools were assessed for their burn knowledge, with 312 of them resurveyed after educational intervention since initial survey. Reassessed children performed significantly better on three questions after controlling for confounders. They did better on five questions but their performance on these failed to achieve statistical significance. Children performed significantly worse on one concept about first aid treatment of a burn. A majority of the children demonstrated knowledge deficit in three concepts, even after educational intervention. There is a large variation in first burn knowledge survey performance of children from different schools, with inconsistency between concepts. With half the questions, knowledge deficit did not improve with advancement in school grade. Low- and moderate-income countries (LMICs) face the largest burns burden. With the lack of adequate burn care facing LMICs, burn injury prevention is of particular importance in those countries. This study shows that burn educational intervention could be effective in reducing burn knowledge deficit; however, the residual deficit posteducation could still be large and potentially contributing to heightened burn injury incidence. Customized and integrated educational programs may be proposed regarding the epidemiological profile of burn knowledge deficit from various schools. This study represents one of the few reports on the effectiveness of a burn prevention program in an LMIC. Future epidemiological data will be needed from nearby healthcare facilities to determine whether this program decreased burn morbidity and mortality at the hospital level.
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Association of dialysate calcium concentration with fetuin a level and carotid intima-media thickness in peritoneal dialysis patients.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Abstract Serum fetuin A has been shown to be associated with the risk of vascular calcification and atherosclerosis, and it can predict the onset of cardiovascular mortality in dialysis patients. The carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is an accessible and reliable method to identify the subclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between dialysate calcium concentrations and fetuin A or cIMT in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Forty patients, newly diagnosed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and undergoing peritoneal dialysis, were enrolled in the study, with a calcium content of the peritoneal dialysis (PD) solution of 1.25?mmol/L in 20 patients (low-Ca group) and 1.75?mmol/L in 20 patients (standard-Ca group). The patients were followed up for 12 months after the PD conducted. Serum fetuin A was determined using a human fetuin A enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit and cIMT was detected using ultrasonic wave. We observed no difference between two groups with regard to the baseline data of fetuin A, cIMT, calcium, phosphorus, calcium-phosphorus product, high sensitivity CRP (hsCRP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), or lipid parameters. After 12 months follow-up, fetuin A (263.92?±?16.1 vs. 282.76?±?21.0, p?=?0.017) and calcium-phosphorus product (39.85?±?7.76 vs. 47.50?±?6.65, p?=?0.009) were obviously lower in the low-Ca group than standard-Ca group, the other serum parameters were not different between these two groups. Compared with baseline data, serum fetuin A concentration significantly reduced in low-Ca group (?p?
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Histopathological changes in the liver of tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) persistently infected with hepatitis B virus.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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An animal model for HBV that more closely approximates the disease in humans is needed. The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) is closely related to primates and susceptible to HBV. We previously established that neonatal tree shrews can be persistently infected with HBV in vivo, and here present a six year follow-up histopathological study of these animals.
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BmCREC is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein and required for ER/Golgi morphology.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Silkworm posterior silkgland is a model for studying intracellular trafficking. Here, using this model, we identify several potential cargo proteins of BmKinesin-1 and focus on one candidate, BmCREC. BmCREC (also known as Bombyx mori DNA supercoiling factor, BmSCF) was previously proposed to supercoil DNA in the nucleus. However, we show here that BmCREC is localized in the ER lumen. Its C-terminal tetrapeptide HDEF is recognized by the KDEL receptor, and subsequently it is retrogradely transported by coat protein I (COPI) vesicles to the ER. Lacking the HDEF tetrapeptide of BmCREC or knocking down COPI subunits results in decreased ER retention and simultaneously increased secretion of BmCREC. Furthermore, we find that BmCREC knockdown markedly disrupts the morphology of the ER and Golgi apparatus and leads to a defect of posterior silkgland tube expansion. Together, our results clarify the ER retention mechanism of BmCREC and reveal that BmCREC is indispensable for maintaining ER/Golgi morphology.
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Pseudomonas guangdongensis sp. nov., isolated from an electroactive biofilm, and emended description of the genus Pseudomonas Migula 1894.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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A Gram-negative, straight to slightly curved rod-shaped bacterium, motile with peritrichous flagella, designated SgZ-6(T), was isolated from an electroactive biofilm and was characterized by means of a polyphasic approach. Growth occurred with 0-5.0?% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1?%), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and at 10-42 °C (optimum 30 °C) in trypticase soya broth. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes identified the isolate as a member of a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas. Strain SgZ-6(T) exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Pseudomonas linyingensis CGMCC 1.10701 (97.5?%), followed by Pseudomonas sagittaria JCM 18195(T) (97.4?%), P. oleovorans subsp. lubricantis DSM 21016(T) (96.6?%), P. tuomuerensis JCM 14085(T) (96.5?%) and P. alcaliphila JCM 10630(T) (96.4?%). Strain SgZ-6(T) showed the highest gyrB gene sequence similarity of 93.7?% to P. linyingensis CGMCC 1.10701 among all type strains of genus Pseudomonas. DNA-DNA pairing studies showed that strain SgZ-6(T) displayed 47.1 and 40.3?% relatedness to P. linyingensis CGMCC 1.10701 and P. sagittaria JCM 18195(T), respectively. The major isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone 9 (Q-9). The whole-cell fatty acids consisted mainly of summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?6c and/or C16?:?1?7c), C16?:?0 and summed feature 8 (C18?:?1?6c and/or C18?:?1?7c). The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.1 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain SgZ-6(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas guangdongensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SgZ-6(T) (?=?CCTCC AB 2012022(T)?=?KACC 16606(T)). An emended description of the genus Pseudomonas is also proposed.
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DNA duplexes with hydrophobic modifications inhibit fusion between HIV-1 and cell membranes.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Discovery of new drugs for the treatment of AIDS typically possessing unique structures associated with novel mechanisms of action has been of great importance due to the quick drug-resistant mutations of HIV-1 strains. The work presented in this report describes a novel class of DNA duplex-based HIV-1 fusion inhibitors. Hydrophobic groups were introduced into a DNA duplex skeleton either at one end, at both ends, or in the middle. These modified DNA duplexes inhibited fusion between HIV-1 and human cell membranes at micro- or submicromolar concentrations. Respective inhibitors adopted an aptamer pattern instead of a base-pairing interaction pattern. Structure-activity relationship studies of the respective DNA duplexes showed that the rigid and negatively charged DNA skeletons, in addition to the presence of hydrophobic groups, were crucial to the anti-HIV-1 activity of these compounds. A fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based inhibitory assay showed that these duplex inhibitors interacted with the primary pocket in the gp41 N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) instead of interacting with the lipid bilayers.
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[In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity and cytocompatibility of antibacterial stainless steel containing copper].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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To study the in vitro antibacterial activity and biocompatibility of 317L stainless steel containing 4.5% copper alloy (317L-Cu), we produced 317L-Cu stainless steel with epsilon-Cu phase. The cell proliferation of osteoblasts on material surface was detected in vitro. Escherichia coli was cultured with 317L-Cu for evaluating the antibacterial activity. We found that the 317L-Cu could effectively kill the Escherichia coli on material surface. The cell proliferation of osteoblasts on material surface was not different significantly, compared with titanium material. Our study clearly demonstrated that the 317L-Cu alloys had a significant antimicrobial activity and was biocompatible in vitro, so it would be suitable to be used as a new medical material with antibacterial activity.
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SCG10 promotes non-amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein by facilitating its trafficking to the cell surface.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a key event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease. As certain cleavage pathways tend to occur in particular subcellular compartments, the processing of APP is greatly influenced by factors that regulate its trafficking. Here we report that SCG10 directly interacts with the KFFEQ motif of the APP intracellular domain and promotes the non-amyloidogenic processing of the APP. Knockdown of SCG10 led to decreases in ? cleavage products, sAPP? and CTF?, while increases of both A?1-40 and A?1-42. Elevation of SCG10 induced APP accumulation in post-Golgi vesicles and on the cell surface by facilitating its secretory pathway. In addition, the APP processing was dependent on the palmitoylation-mediated membrane-anchoring of SCG10. Furthermore, elevation of SCG10 reduced A? accumulation and amyloid plaque formation in the hippocampus of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Taken together, these results show that SCG10 has a potential role in preventing and treating Alzheimers disease.
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Foraging habitat use of oriental white stork (Ciconia boyciana) recently breeding in China.
Zool. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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The Yellow River Delta, a stopover site, has become one of the breeding sites of oriental white storks (Ciconia boyciana) in China, with 28 breeding pairs. To gain insight into the characteristics of foraging habitat use during the breeding season, we surveyed the foraging habitats in 2009 and 2010. In 2009, using a quadrat sampling technique, we surveyed 74 quadrats in two breeding phases. Fourteen variables were analyzed with DCA. Oriental white storks mainly foraged in the reed swamp of recovered wetlands during the early breeding phase (70.29%), and in the reed swamp of unrecovered area during the late phase (32.74%), and in the open water of recovered wetlands (29.95%). The variation in proportional habitat use was not significant in the two breeding phases. Differences of the foraging sites in the two phases were extremely significant in terms of plant density, distance from nest, and distance from highway. In 2010, the storks also mainly used the reed wetlands for foraging (87.00%). The top three parameters on the first axis with the highest scores were distance from nest, plant height, plant coverage; on the second axis, the top three variables with the highest scores were plant density, number of other waterbird species, and water depth. These results showed that there are differences in the foraging habitat use of oriental white storks in the early and the late breeding phases. It is favorable for the breeding of oriental white storks to recover the reed wetland and to preserve a certain area of open water habitats.
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Protective effects of HBSP on ischemia reperfusion and cyclosporine a induced renal injury.
Clin. Dev. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Ischemia reperfusion (IR) and cyclosporine A (CsA) injuries are unavoidable in kidney transplantation and are associated with allograft dysfunction. Herein, the effect and mechanism of a novel tissue protective peptide, helix B surface peptide (HBSP) derived from erythropoietin, were investigated in a rat model. The right kidney was subjected to 45?min ischemia, followed by left nephrectomy and 2-week reperfusion, with or without daily treatment of CsA 25?mg/kg and/or HBSP 8?nmol/kg. Blood urea nitrogen was increased by CsA but decreased by HBSP at 1 week and 2 weeks, while the same changes were revealed in urinary protein/creatinine only at 2 weeks. HBSP also significantly ameliorated tubulointerstitial damage and interstitial fibrosis, which were gradually increased by IR and CsA. In addition, apoptotic cells, infiltrated inflammatory cells, and active caspase-3+ cells were greatly reduced by HBSP in the both IR and IR + CsA groups. The 17?kD active caspase-3 protein was decreased by HBSP in the IR and IR + CsA kidneys, with decreased mRNA only in the IR + CsA kidneys. Taken together, it has been demonstrated, for the first time, that HBSP effectively improved renal function and tissue damage caused by IR and/or CsA, which might be through reducing caspase-3 activation and synthesis, apoptosis, and inflammation.
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The toxicity mechanism of sodium fluoride on fertility in female rats.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Recognition of the harmful effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) on human reproduction is increasing, especially as it relates to female reproduction. However, the mechanism by which NaF interferes with female reproduction is unclear. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of fluoride exposure on female fertility and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these effects. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: one control group and two NaF-treated groups (100 and 200mg/L in the drinking water for 12weeks). Several parameters were evaluated, including: (i) fluoride concentrations; (ii) estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P) concentrations; (iii) estrogen receptor alpha protein (ER?); (iv) progesterone receptor (PgR) protein; (v) follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) protein. The results indicated that administration of NaF lead to significant decreases in E2 and P levels in the serum and in the expression of FSHR protein. In addition, fluoride exposure significantly increased Er? and PgR protein expression levels and LHR protein expression. These results suggest that the reproductive hormone reduction and the abnormalities of related receptor proteins expression are important factors underlying the decreased fertility observed in female rats that have been exposed to NaF.
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Graphene oxide as nanogold carrier for ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay of Shewanella oneidensis with silver enhancement strategy.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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The genus Shewanella is ubiquitous in environment and has been extensively studied for their applications in bioremediation. A novel immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of Shewanella oneidensis was presented based on graphene oxide (GO) as nanogold carrier with silver enhancement strategy. The enhanced sensitivity was achieved by employing conjugate-featuring gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and antibodies (Ab) assembled on bovine serum albumin (BSA)-modified GO (Ab/AuNPs/BSA/GO). After a sandwich-type antigen-antibody reaction, Ab/AuNPs/BSA/GO conjugate binding on the target analyte produced an enhanced immune-recognition response by the reduction of silver ion in the present of hydroquinone. The deposited silver metal was dissolved with nitric acid and subsequently quantified by anodic stripping voltammetry. The high AuNPs loading capacity of GO and the obvious signal amplification by gold-catalyzed silver deposition offer an excellent detection method with a wide range of linear relationship between 7.0 × 10(1) and 7.0 × 10(7)cfu/mL. Furthermore, the immunoassay developed in this work exhibited high sensitivity, acceptable stability and reproducibility. This simple and sensitive assay method has promising application in various fields for rapid detection of bacteria, protein and DNA.
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Helmets prevent motorcycle injuries with significant economic benefits.
Traffic Inj Prev
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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The number of registered motorcycles in the United States has been steadily increasing, as have the number of motorcycle injuries and fatalities. The Midwest has the lowest incidence of helmet use in the country. Iowa in particular has no helmet law.
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Increased sphingosine-1-phosphate improves muscle regeneration in acutely injured mdx mice.
Skelet Muscle
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Presently, there is no effective treatment for the lethal muscle wasting disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here we show that increased sphingosine-1-phoshate (S1P) through direct injection or via the administration of the small molecule 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydroxybutyl imidazole (THI), an S1P lyase inhibitor, has beneficial effects in acutely injured dystrophic muscles of mdx mice.
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Antimicrobial Resistance and Prevalence of Resistance Genes of Obligate Anaerobes Isolated From Periodontal Abscesses.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Background: This study attempted to determine the antimicrobial resistance profiles of obligate anaerobic bacteria that were isolated from a periodontal abscess and to evaluate the prevalence of resistance genes in these bacteria. Methods: Forty-one periodontal abscess samples were cultivated on selective and non-selective culture media to isolate the oral anaerobes. Their antibiotic susceptibilities to clindamycin, doxycycline, amoxicillin, imipenem, cefradine, cefixime, roxithromycin and metronidazole were determined using the agar dilution method and PCR assays were performed to detect the presence of the ermF, tetQ, nim and cfxA drug resistance genes. Result: A total of 60 different bacterial colonies were isolated and identified. All of the isolates were sensitive to imipenem. Of the strains, 6.7%, 13.3%, 16.7% and 25% were resistant to doxycycline, metronidazole, cefixime and amoxicillin, respectively. The resistance rates for clindamycin and roxithromycin were each 31.7%. Approximately 60.7% of the strains had the ermF gene, and 53.3% of the amoxicillin-resistant strains were found to have the cfxA gene. Two nim genes that were found in eight metronidazole-resistant strains were identified as nimB. Conclusions: In our study, the Prevotella species were the most frequently isolated obligate anaerobes from periodontal abscesses. Our results show their alarmingly high resistance rate against clindamycin and roxithromycin; thus, the use of these antibiotics is unacceptable for the empirical therapy of periodontal abscesses. We also demonstrate a brief prevalence of four resistance genes in the anaerobic bacteria that isolated.
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Traumatic scratch injury in astrocytes triggers calcium influx to activate the JNK/c-Jun/AP-1 pathway and switch on GFAP expression.
Glia
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Astrocyte activation is a hallmark of central nervous system injuries resulting in glial scar formation (astrogliosis). The activation of astrocytes involves metabolic and morphological changes with complex underlying mechanisms, which should be defined to provide targets for astrogliosis intervention. Astrogliosis is usually accompanied by an upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Using an in vitro scratch injury model, we scratched primary cultures of cerebral cortical astrocytes and observed an influx of calcium in the form of waves spreading away from the wound through gap junctions. Using the calcium blocker BAPTA-AM and the JNK inhibitor SP600125, we demonstrated that the calcium wave triggered the activation of JNK, which then phosphorylated the transcription factor c-Jun to facilitate the binding of AP-1 to the GFAP gene promoter to switch on GFAP upregulation. Blocking calcium mobilization with BAPTA-AM in an in vivo stab wound model reduced GFAP expression and glial scar formation, showing that the calcium signal, and the subsequent regulation of downstream signaling molecules, plays an essential role in brain injury response. Our findings demonstrated that traumatic scratch injury to astrocytes triggered a calcium influx from the extracellular compartment and activated the JNK/c-Jun/AP-1 pathway to switch on GFAP expression, identifying a previously unreported signaling cascade that is important in astrogliosis and the physiological response following brain injury.
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Breaking the conservation of guanine residues in the catalytic loop of 10-23 DNAzyme by position-specific nucleobase modifications for rate enhancement.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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10-23 DNAzyme has been used as a very good model for exploring the potential of functional nucleic acids. Its 15-mer catalytic core has been demonstrated to be the optimized in vitro selection result. However, with the introduction of protein-like functional groups through 2-deoxyguanosine analogues, its two highly conserved guanine residues (G2 and G14) can be modified for more efficient 10-23 DNAzyme analogues. This result implies that chemical modifications of functional nucleic acids with well-designed nucleoside analogues of each canonical residue could be used as the first step in the efforts toward more powerful functions of nucleic acids.
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Outcome of antegrade continent enema (ACE) procedures in children and young adults.
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Intractable incontinence affects a large number of children and young adults in the US. The goal of this study is to evaluate the long-term outcomes of surgical access for administration of antegrade continence enemas (ACE) in affected children and young adults.
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Cep57 protein is required for cytokinesis by facilitating central spindle microtubule organization.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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Cytokinesis is the final stage of cell division in which the cytoplasm of a cell is divided into two daughter cells after the segregation of genetic material, and the central spindle and midbody are considered to be the essential structures required for the initiation and completion of cytokinesis. Here, we determined that the centrosome protein Cep57, which is localized to the central spindle and midbody, acts as a spindle organizer and is required for cytokinesis. Depletion of Cep57 disrupted microtubule assembly of the central spindle and further led to abnormal midbody localization of MKLP1, Plk1, and Aurora B, which resulted in cytokinesis failure and the formation of binuclear cells. Furthermore, we found that Cep57 directly recruited Tektin 1 to the midbody matrix to regulate microtubule organization. Thus, our data reveal that Cep57 is essential for cytokinesis via regulation of central spindle assembly and formation of the midbody.
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LRRC45 is a centrosome linker component required for centrosome cohesion.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2013
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During interphase, centrosomes are connected by a proteinaceous linker between the proximal ends of the centrioles, which is important for the centrosomes to function as a single microtubule-organizing center. However, the composition and regulation of centrosomal linker remain largely unknown. Here, we show that LRRC45 is a centrosome linker that localizes at the proximal ends of the centrioles and forms fiber-like structures between them. Depletion of LRRC45 results in centrosome splitting during interphase. Moreover, LRRC45 interacts with both C-Nap1 and rootletin and is phosphorylated by Nek2A at S661 during mitosis. After phosphorylation, both LRRC45 centrosomal localization and fiber-like structures are significantly reduced, which subsequently leads to centrosome separation. Thus, LRRC45 is a critical component of the proteinaceous linker between two centrioles and is required for centrosome cohesion.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.