CCN2 is a matricellular protein that appears to be important in scar formation. CCN2 mediates the pro-fibrotic effects in hypertrophic scars (HTSs) through an unknown mechanism. However, many activities of CCN2 protein are known to be mediated by direct binding to integrin receptors. In this study, we investigated the role of integrin ?(?)?(3) in the differentiation of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HTSFs) induced by CCN2. The levels of integrin ?(?)?(3) between normal skin and hypertrophic scar (HTS) tissues were compared, and integrin ?(?)?(3) was found to be upregulated in HTS. CCN2 was shown to induce HTSF differentiation and collagen (COL) synthesis at the mRNA and protein levels. Based on these results, the expression of integrin ?(?)?(3) was upregulated by CCN2 stimulation during HTSF differentiation. Blockade of integrin ?(?)?(3) prevented CCN2-induced HTSF differentiation and COL synthesis. Furthermore, the CCN2-induced increase in contractility of the HTSF in COL lattices was inhibited by integrin ?(?)?(3) blocking antibodies. HTSs were established in a rabbit ear model, and the inhibitor of integrin ?(?)?(3) signi?cantly improved the architecture of the rabbit ear scar. Results of the present study showed that integrin ?(?)?(3) contributes to pro-fibrotic CCN2 signaling. Blocking this pathway may therefore be beneficial for the treatment of HTS.
Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD) is a rare, non-cancerous entity characterized by enlarged, abnormally developed cerebellar folia containing dysplastic cells. Symptomatic LDD is commonly observed in adults (adult-onset LDD, aLDD) as an isolated condition or associated with Cowden's disease (CD). The present study aimed to investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics and the underlying pathological findings in 7 cases of aLDD, with emphasis on the association with CD and the need for active cancer surveillance once the diagnosis of LDD is confirmed. The MRI findings along with the clinical and histopathological data collected from 7 patients with aLDD were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnosis of CD was based on a range of clinical characteristics, according to the International Cowden Consortium Criteria. A thorough review of the published data was conducted and our results indicated that all 7 cases shared similar MRI characteristics, whether the aLDD was sporadic (2 cases) or associated with CD (5 cases), including a highly typical non-enhancing striated MRI appearance of thickened folia, consisting of alternating bands on T1- and T2-weighted images. On gross examination, the involved cerebellar folia were distorted and enlarged, whereas the histopathological examination revealed that the molecular layer was widened and occupied by abnormal ganglion cells. Moreover, a reduction in the number or absence of the Purkinje cells and hypertrophy of the granular cell layer were observed. Our findings were consistent with the diagnosis of LDD. Variable levels of vacuolization of the white matter and the molecular layer were observed in all the cases. Notably, CD34 immunohistochemical analysis revealed the presence of angiogenesis within the lesions. aLDD associated with CD exhibited no pathological or immunohistochemical characteristics that were distinct from those of isolated aLDD. Of the 7 cases of aLDD, 5 presented with symptoms suggestive of CD, which is a syndrome associated with a high risk of multiple benign and malignant neoplasms. In conclusion, aLDD exhibits characteristic MRI and histopathological findings and displays a strong association with CD. Therefore, we recommend that the MRI diagnosis of aLDD triggers active cancer surveillance and preventive care.
Burn wound-related sepsis is associated with the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). This study is aimed at investigating the development and progression of SIS and MODS in a mouse model of skin burn sepsis. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into the sham, burn, Pseudomonas, and burn/Pseudomonas groups. The back skin of the sham, burn, and burn/Pseudomonas groups was burned about 10% of total area with using 37°C or 98°C water for 8 s, respectively, followed by inoculating with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The Pseudomonas group was infected with P. aeruginosa without burn injury. Their body weights, mortality, organ histology, and function as well as systemic inflammation were measured longitudinally. The burn/Pseudomonas mice lost more body weights than did mice from the other groups and had a significantly higher mortality rate (P < 0.05). The burn/Pseudomonas mice exhibited significantly higher levels of bacterial loads in different organs and serum endotoxin, interleukin 1?, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor ?, and C-reactive protein than those in mice from the other groups (P < 0.05). The burn/Pseudomonas mice also displayed more severe liver, lung, and kidney tissue damage and impaired organ functions, particularly at 72 h after inoculation than did the burn and Pseudomonas groups of mice. Our data indicate that burn and P. aeruginosa infection induced severe sepsis and rapidly progressed into systemic inflammatory response syndrome and MODS in mice.
Severe burns initiate an inflammatory response characterized by the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine, which contributes to multiple organ injury. Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1) plays a significant role in several inflammatory processes. This study was designed to investigate the role of NHE1 in burn-induced inflammation and multiple organ injury.
Inflammation and oxidative stress exert important roles in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) have shown effective antioxidative and immunomodulatory functions in different models. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects and potential mechanisms of LBPs in intestinal IRI. Several free radical-generating and lipid peroxidation models were used to assess the antioxidant activities of LBPs in vitro. A common IRI model was used to induce intestinal injury by clamping and unclamping the superior mesenteric artery in rats. Changes in the malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, activated nuclear factor (NF)-?B, intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, E-selectin, and related antioxidant enzyme levels, polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) accumulation, intestinal permeability, and intestinal histology were examined. We found that LBPs exhibited marked inhibitory action against free radicals and lipid peroxidation in vitro. LBPs increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes and reduced intestinal oxidative injury in animal models of intestinal IRI. In addition, LBPs inhibited PMN accumulation and ICAM-1 expression and ameliorated changes in the TNF-? level, NF-?B activation, intestinal permeability, and histology. Our results indicate that LBPs treatment may protect against IRI-induced intestinal damage, possibly by inhibiting IRI-induced oxidative stress and inflammation.
CCN2 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertrophic scars (HTSs). Although CCN2 is involved in many fibroproliferative events, the CCN2 induction signaling pathway in HTSs is yet to be elucidated. Here, we first investigated the effect of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) on CCN2-induced ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and collagen I expression in human HTS fibroblasts (HTSFs). Then, we established HTSs in a rabbit ear model and determined the effect of MAPKs on the pathogenesis of HTSs. MAPK pathways were activated by CCN2 in HTSFs. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors significantly inhibited CCN2-induced expression of ?-SMA and collagen I in HTSFs. In the rabbit ear model of the HTS, JNK and ERK inhibitors significantly improved the architecture of the rabbit ear scar and reduced scar formation on the rabbit ear. Our results indicate that ERK and JNK mediate collagen I expression and scarring of the rabbit ear, and may be considered for specific drug therapy targets for HTSs.
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) of the intestine is associated with high morbidity and mortality in surgical and trauma patients. T cells participate in the pathogenesis of intestinal IRI, and T-cell depletion has been shown to inhibit inflammatory responses and diminish intestinal damage. However, the mechanism by which T cells contribute to intestinal IRI is not completely understood. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a specific subset of T cells that suppress immune responses and protect against tissue injuries. We hypothesized that Tregs might be involved in intestinal IRI.
Fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition is a key event during wound healing and hypertrophic scar formation. Previous studies suggested Wnt/?-catenin signaling might be involved in the wound healing. However, its specific role in skin fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition remains unclear.
To evaluate the reproductive health of women in the aftermath of the 2008 Richter scale 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in China.
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