JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Elevated levels of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in patients with severe or uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Severe malaria is characterized by a massive release of proinflammatory cytokines in the context of sequestration of parasitized and normal red cells (RBCs). High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a DNA- and heparin-binding protein that also acts as a cytokine when released from cells in the extracellular milieu after a proinflammatory stimulus. In this study, we have measured the circulating levels of HMGB1 in 76 children with severe or uncomplicated malaria. Sera from both severe (P = 0.0022) and uncomplicated (P = 0.0049) patients had significantly higher circulating HMGB1 levels compared with healthy controls. Elevated HMGB1 in patients with ongoing Plasmodium falciparum infections might prolong inflammation and the febrile state of malaria and could offer a potential target for therapeutic intervention.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum infections in mild and severe malaria of children from Kampala, Uganda.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diversity in parasite virulence is one of the factors that contribute to the clinical outcome of malaria infections. The association between the severity of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and the number of distinct parasite populations infecting the host (multiplicity of infection) or polymorphism within any of the specific antigen genes was investigated. The study included 164 children presenting with mild and severe malaria from central Uganda where malaria is meso-endemic. The polymorphic regions of the circumsporozoite protein (csp), merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 (msp1 and msp2), and glutamate-rich protein (glurp) were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction methods and fragment analysis by gel electrophoresis. In a subset of samples fragment analysis was also performed by fluorescent PCR genotyping followed by capillary electrophoresis. The multiplicity of infection (MOI), determined as the highest number of alleles detected within any of the four genetic loci, was significantly higher in severe than in mild malaria cases (mean 3.7 and 3.0, respectively, P=0.002). No particular genotype or allelic family of msp1 or msp2 was associated with severity of malaria, and nor did the genotyping method reveal any significant difference in MOI when only assessed by msp2 genotyping. Severity of malaria was not linked to the predominance of any particular msp1 or msp2 allelic types, independent of methods used for genotyping. Monitoring the dynamics of multiple clone infections in relation to disease outcome, host immune status and genetic factors will provide more insight into parasite virulence mechanisms.
Related JoVE Video
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and cerebral malaria in children in Uganda: a case-control study.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection increases the burden of malaria by increasing susceptibility to infection and decreasing the response to malarial treatment. HIV-1 has also been found to suppress the immune system and predispose to severe forms of malaria in adults. There is still a paucity of data on the association between HIV-1 infection and cerebral malaria in children. The aim of this study was to determine whether HIV-1 infection is a risk factor for cerebral malaria in children.
Related JoVE Video
Severe neurological sequelae and behaviour problems after cerebral malaria in Ugandan children.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cerebral malaria is the most severe neurological complication of falciparum malaria and a leading cause of death and neuro-disability in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to describe functional deficits and behaviour problems in children who survived cerebral malaria with severe neurological sequelae and identify patterns of brain injury.
Related JoVE Video
Seizure activity and neurological sequelae in Ugandan children who have survived an episode of cerebral malaria.
Afr Health Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Seizures are a common presenting feature in children with cerebral malaria (CM) and neurologic deficits have been described in survivors of CM. However few prospective studies have described the frequency of seizure activity and neurologic deficits in survivors of CM over time.
Related JoVE Video
Socioeconomic predictors of cognition in Ugandan children: implications for community interventions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several interventions to improve cognition in at risk children have been suggested. Identification of key variables predicting cognition is necessary to guide these interventions. This study was conducted to identify these variables in Ugandan children and guide such interventions.
Related JoVE Video
Enteric bacterial pathogens in HIV-infected children with acute diarrhea in Mulago referral and teaching hospital, Kampala, Uganda.
J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic)
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
HIV-infected children develop severe bacterial infections. We set out to determine the enteric bacterial pathogens in HIV-infected children and HIV-negative controls with acute diarrhea and their antimicrobial sensitivities.
Related JoVE Video
Predictors of anti-convulsant treatment failure in children presenting with malaria and prolonged seizures in Kampala, Uganda.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In endemic areas, falciparum malaria remains the leading cause of seizures in children presenting to emergency departments. In addition, seizures in malaria have been shown to increase morbidity and mortality in these patients. The management of seizures in malaria is sometimes complicated by the refractory nature of these seizures to readily available anti-convulsants. The objective of this study was to determine predictors of anti-convulsant treatment failure and seizure recurrence after initial control among children with malaria.
Related JoVE Video
var gene transcription dynamics in Plasmodium falciparum patient isolates.
Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A major feature of Plasmodium falciparum parasitized red blood cells (pRBC) is their capacity to sequester in the microcirculation. The binding is mediated by PfEMP1 (P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1), a variable protein encoded by the var gene family. P. falciparum avoids the host antibody response generated against previously used variants by switching the expression of PfEMP1, which may affect the disease outcome. We have here studied var gene transcription over time within the life cycle of the parasite by semi-quantitative PCR and sequencing by employing three sets of degenerate primers to the 5-prime end of the var genes (corresponding to the DBL1alpha-domain). To accurately determine transcript levels, subsequent in-depth analysis was made by amplifying the 10 most frequently expressed var sequences identified in each developmental stage by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR). The maximum peak in var gene transcription seems to vary in time among parasites. In five out of seven parasites, var gene transcription was found to be higher or equal at 22-26h post-invasion compared to 4-10h post-invasion. Our data indicate that the intra-isolate var gene transcription dominance order may change between different developmental stages. The transcription of var genes in field isolates is more complex than in laboratory strains and often changes after in vitro adaption of the parasite. By using semi-quantitative PCR employing degenerate primers combined with quantitative-PCR using specific primers it is possible to monitor var gene transcription in detail during the life cycle of the parasite. The work presented here suggests that trophozoite pRBC is likely to be the optimal source of RNA for predicting the translated var gene species.
Related JoVE Video
Detection of copy number variation and single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in drug resistance and other phenotypic traits in P. falciparum clinical isolates collected from Uganda.
Acta Trop.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is an increasing interest in mapping the genes of pathogens which underlie important phenotypic traits such as virulence and drug resistance. The Plasmodium falciparum genome exhibits sequence variation that contributes to the pathogenic mechanisms of the parasite. Determining the prevalence of resistance markers could provide a prediction about drug efficacy. Copy number polymorphism (CNP) of genes has been shown to influence important parasite phenotypes. In this work, CNPs within genes involved in drug resistance and other phenotypic traits namely P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr-1), GTP cyclo hydrolase (gch1), Ring infected erythrocyte surface antigen precursor (resa) and a hypothetical protein coding gene were analyzed by quantitative real time-polymerase reaction (qRT-PCR) among clinical isolates collected from Uganda. The pfmdr-1 codons 86 and 1246 and P. falciparum chloroquine resistance (pfcrt) codon 76 were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and the proportion of resistance associated mutations were determined among mild and severe malaria cases using the chi-square test. Forty and 42 P. falciparum isolates collected from children with mild and severe malaria respectively were analyzed for CNPs. Seventy five and 81 P. falciparum isolates from children with mild or severe malaria were analyzed for SNPs. No pfmdr-1, gch1 or novel gene amplifications were identified among the P. falciparum clinical isolates. Although chloroquine was officially withdrawn from policy use since 7 years, all P. falciparum isolates presented the associated pfcrt K76T mutation, whatever the clinical status and no specific mutation in the pfmdr-1 gene was associated with disease type. In conclusion, this study provides baseline measures for continued surveillance for changes in copy number and SNP types among genes implicated in drug resistance and other important phenotypes that may have a potential role in parasite virulence mechanisms or drug treatment outcomes.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.