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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Distinct aetiopathogenesis in subgroups of functional dyspepsia according to the Rome III criteria.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Whether there is distinct pathogenesis in subgroups of functional dyspepsia (FD), the postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) remains controversial. We aimed to identify the risk factors of FD and its subgroups in the Chinese population.
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Target-controlled infusion of propofol versus intermittent bolus of a sedative cocktail regimen in deep sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy: comparison of cardiovascular and respiratory parameters.
J Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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To investigate whether target-controlled infusion (TCI) with propofol, a method that has theoretically better control of drug concentration, produces less cardiovascular and respiratory suppression than an intermittent bolus of a sedative cocktail regimen in deep sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy.
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Multiple-frequency excitation wideband MRI (ME-WMRI).
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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In this study multiple-frequency excitation wideband MRI (ME-WMRI), a technique designed to acquire simultaneously excited images without blurring was proposed.
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Prevention of peritendinous adhesions with electrospun chitosan-grafted polycaprolactone nanofibrous membranes.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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As one of the common complications after tendon injury and subsequent surgery, peritendinous adhesions could be minimized by directly placing a physical barrier between the injured site and the surrounding tissue. With the aim of solving the shortcomings of current biodegradable anti-adhesion barrier membranes, we propose the use of an electrospun chitosan-grafted polycaprolactone (PCL-g-CS) nanofibrous membrane (NFM) to prevent peritendinous adhesions. After introducing carboxyl groups on the surface by oxygen plasma treatment, the polycaprolactone (PCL) NFM was covalently grafted with chitosan (CS) molecules, with carbodiimide as the coupling agent. Compared with PCL NFM, PCL-g-CS NFM showed a similar fiber diameter, permeation coefficient for bovine serum albumin, ultimate tensile strain, reduced pore diameter, lower water contact angle, increased water sorption and tensile strength. With its submicrometer pore diameter (0.6-0.9?m), both NFMs could allow the diffusion of nutrients and waste while blocking fibroblast penetration to prevent adhesion formation after tendon surgery. Cell culture experiments verified that PCL-g-CS NFM can reduce fibroblast attachment while maintaining the biocompatibility of PCL NFM, implicating a synergistic anti-adhesion effect to raise the anti-adhesion efficacy. In vivo studies with a rabbit flexor digitorum profundus tendon surgery model confirmed that PCL-g-CS NFM effectively reduced peritendinous adhesion from gross observation, histology, joint flexion angle, gliding excursion and biomechanical evaluation. An injured tendon wrapped with PCL-g-CS NFM showed the same tensile strength as the naturally healed tendon, indicating that the anti-adhesion NFM will not compromise tendon healing.
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Preparation and characterization of antiadhesion barrier film from hyaluronic acid-grafted electrospun poly(caprolactone) nanofibrous membranes for prevention of flexor tendon postoperative peritendinous adhesion.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Peritendinous adhesion is one of the common complications encountered after tendon injury and subsequent surgery, and it can be minimized by introducing a physical barrier between the injured site and the surrounding tissue. An electrospun hyaluronic acid-grafted poly(caprolactone) (PCL-g-HA) nanofibrous membrane (NFM) is proposed as an alternative to current antiadhesion barrier films. HA is covalently grafted to surface-aminolyzed PCL nanofibers, using carbodiimide as the coupling agent. Pristine PCL and PCL-g-HA NFMs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and mechanical testing. In vitro cell culture with fibroblasts showed that PCL-g-HA NFMs reduced cellular adhesion on the membrane surface while maintaining cell proliferation. Animal experiments using a rabbit flexor digitorum profundus tendon model confirmed the efficacy of PCL-g-HA in reducing peritendinous adhesion, based on gross observation, histology, joint flexion-angle measurements, gliding tests, and biomechanical evaluation.
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Trends in the incidence and management of acute myocardial infarction from 1999 to 2008: get with the guidelines performance measures in Taiwan.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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The American Heart Association Get With the Guidelines (GWTG) program has improved care quality of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with important implications for other countries in the world. This study evaluated the incidence and care of AMI in Taiwan and assessed the compliance of GWTG in Taiwan.
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Repeated amphetamine treatment alters spinal magnetic resonance signals and pain sensitivity in mice.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) has been extensively used in studying the structural and functional features of the central nervous system (CNS). Divalent manganese ion (Mn(2+)) not only enhances MRI contrast, but also enters cells via voltage-gated calcium channels or ionotropic glutamate receptors, which represents an index of neural activities. In the current mouse model, following the repeated amphetamine (Amph) treatment, a reduction of reactivity to thermal pain stimulus was noticed. Since the spinal dorsal horn is the first relay station for pain transmission in CNS, we examined the changes of neural activity in the dorsal spinal cord, particularly the superficial dorsal horn, by analyzing manganese-enhanced T1-weighted MR images (T1WIs). Our data revealed a temporal correlation between reduced pain sensitivity and increased MEMR signals in the spinal dorsal horn subsequent to repeated Amph treatments.
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Evaluation of immunomagnetic separation for the detection of Salmonella in surface waters by polymerase chain reaction.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Salmonella spp. is associated with fecal pollution and capable of surviving for long periods in aquatic environments. Instead of the traditional, time-consuming biochemical detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid identification of Salmonella directly concentrated from water samples. However, prevalence of Salmonella may be underestimated because of the vulnerability of PCR to various environmental chemicals like humic acid, compounded by the fact that various DNA polymerases have different susceptibility to humic acid. Because immunomagnetic separation (IMS) theoretically could isolate Salmonella from other microbes and facilitate removal of aquatic PCR inhibitors of different sizes, this study aims to compare the efficiency of conventional PCR combined with immunomagnetic separation (IMS) for Salmonella detection within a moderately polluted watershed. In our study, the positive rate was increased from 17.6% to 47% with nearly ten-fold improvement in the detection limit. These results suggest the sensitivity of Salmonella detection could be enhanced by IMS, particularly in low quality surface waters. Due to its effects on clearance of aquatic pollutants, IMS may be suitable for most DNA polymerases for Salmonella detection.
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Epinecidin-1 has immunomodulatory effects, facilitating its therapeutic use in a mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are garnering attention as possible alternatives to antibiotics. Here, we describe the antimicrobial properties of epinecidin-1 against a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate of P. aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa R) and a P. aeruginosa strain from ATCC (P. aeruginosa ATCC 19660) in vivo. The MICs of epinecidin-1 against P. aeruginosa R and P. aeruginosa ATCC 19660 were determined and compared with those of imipenem. Epinecidin-1 was found to be highly effective at combating peritonitis infection caused by P. aeruginosa R or P. aeruginosa ATCC 19660 in mouse models, without inducing adverse behavioral effects or liver or kidney toxicity. Taken together, our results indicate that epinecidin-1 enhances the rate of survival of mice infected with the bacterial pathogen P. aeruginosa through both antimicrobial and immunomodulatory effects.
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A double-blind, randomized comparison study of efficacy and safety of intramuscular olanzapine and intramuscular haloperidol in patients with schizophrenia and acute agitated behavior.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Studies of intramuscular (IM) olanzapine in Asian and Taiwanese populations are limited. This study examined the efficacy and safety of IM olanzapine in Taiwanese patients with schizophrenia and acute agitated behavior.This was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel study comparing the efficacy and safety of 10 mg/d IM olanzapine (n = 25) against 7.5 mg/d haloperidol (n = 24). The primary objective was to assess the change of agitation from baseline to 2 hours after the first IM injection on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale-Excited Component Scale.The changes of Positive and Negative Symptom Scale-Excited Component Scale score from baseline to 2 hours after the first IM injection did not show statistically significant difference between study groups (olanzapine -9.0 ± 5.7, haloperidol -7.9 ± 4.0, P = 0.254). Both groups reported insomnia as the most common treatment-emergent adverse event, and no serious adverse event was reported.Intramuscular olanzapine and IM haloperidol are similarly effective antipsychotic agents in treating agitated symptoms in Taiwanese patients with schizophrenia. Both IM olanzapine and IM haloperidol were proven to be safe and well tolerated, which also provided alternative options in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia with agitation.
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Feasibility study: home telemonitoring for patients with lung cancer in a mountainous rural area.
Oncol Nurs Forum
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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To explore the feasibility of rural home telemonitoring for patients with lung cancer.
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Composite chitosan/silk fibroin nanofibers for modulation of osteogenic differentiation and proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Nanofibrous membrane scaffolds of chitosan (CS), silk fibroin (SF) and CS/SF blend were prepared by electrospinning and studied for growth and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The morphology and physico-chemical properties of all membrane scaffolds were compared. The influence of CS and SF on cell proliferation was assessed by the MTS assay, whereas osteogenic differentiation was determined from the Alizarin Red staining, alkaline phosphatase activity and expression of osteogenic marker genes. The osteogenic differentiation and proliferation of hMSCs were enhanced by CS and SF nanofibers, respectively. Blending CS with SF retained the osteogenesis nature of CS without negatively influencing the cell proliferative effect of SF. By taking advantage of the differentiation/proliferation cues from individual components, the electrospun CS/SF composite nanofibrous membrane scaffold is suitable for bone tissue engineering.
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Revealing spatio-spectral electroencephalographic dynamics of musical mode and tempo perception by independent component analysis.
J Neuroeng Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Music conveys emotion by manipulating musical structures, particularly musical mode- and tempo-impact. The neural correlates of musical mode and tempo perception revealed by electroencephalography (EEG) have not been adequately addressed in the literature.
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Analysis of the width of vertical root fracture in endodontically treated teeth by 2 micro-computed tomography systems.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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Early detection of vertical root fracture (VRF) is important for clinical endodontic practice. The purpose of this study was to measure the fracture width (distance between 2 sides of the fracture) of VRF teeth in vitro by using 2 micro-computed tomography (?-CT) systems with different spatial resolution and voxel size.
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Pharmacokinetic analysis and uptake of 18F-FBPA-Fr after ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier disruption for potential enhancement of boron delivery for neutron capture therapy.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Boronophenylalanine has been applied in clinical boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of high-grade gliomas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of 4-borono-2-(18)F-fluoro-L-phenylalanine-fructose ((18)F-FBPA-Fr) in F98 glioma-bearing Fischer 344 rats by means of intravenous injection of (18)F-FBPA-Fr both with and without blood-brain barrier disruption (BBB-D) induced by focused ultrasound (FUS).
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Independent value of cardiac troponin T and left ventricular global longitudinal strain in predicting all-cause mortality among stable hemodialysis patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Using a speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE), we recently demonstrated that a left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) ? -15% and the serum cardiac troponin T (cTnT) concentration are associated with mortality in stable hemodialysis patients with preserved LV ejection fraction (LVEF). In this study, we explored the relationship between cTnT and echocardiographic parameters and evaluated whether the prognostic value provided by cTnT is independent of a GLS ? -15% and vice versa. Eighty-eight stable hemodialysis patients with preserved LVEF were followed for 31 months. STE studies and measurements of cTnT were performed at baseline. CTnT concentration had a modest correlation with GLS (rs = 0.44; P < 0.001) but had a weak or nonsignificant correlation with other echocardiographic parameters. Adjusting for clinical parameters, hazard ratios for each increase of 0.01 ng/mL in cTnT, and a GLS ? -15% on mortality were 1.13 (P = 0.009) and 3.09 (P = 0.03) without significant interaction between cTnT and GLS ? -15%. In addition, an increased cTnT concentration, a GLS ? -15%, or their combination showed significant additional predictive value for mortality when included in models consisting of clinical parameters. Therefore, both cTnT and a GLS ? -15% are independent predictors of mortality and are useful for risk stratification.
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Cost-effectiveness of dabigatran etexilate for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in atrial fibrillation in Taiwan.
Thromb. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Economic evaluation of dabigatran, a new anti-antithrombotic agent, is done mostly in Western countries. It remains to be seen whether dabigatran will be cost effective in a practice environment where warfarin is significantly underused and the costs of both warfarin and international normalized ration INR monitoring are cheap.
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Transgenic expression of salmon delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase in zebrafish muscle inhibits the growth of Vibrio alginolyticus and affects fish immunomodulatory activity.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Marine fish are an important nutritional source for highly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). PUFA biosynthesis requires the following key enzymes: delta-4 (?-4) desaturase, delta-5 (?-5) desaturase, delta-6 (?-6) desaturase, delta-5 (?-5) elongase, and delta-6 (?-6) elongase. The effect of overexpressing delta-5 desaturase and/or delta-6 desaturase in zebrafish muscle has not previously been reported. Herein, we investigated the effects of these proteins on antibacterial and immunomodulatory activity in transgenic zebrafish infected with Vibrio alginolyticus. Overexpression of delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase enhanced antibacterial activity at 4 and 12 h after injection of bacteria into muscle, as compared to controls. Furthermore, expression of immune-related genes (IL-1?, IL-22, and TNF-?) was observed to be altered in transgenic fish after 4 h of bacterial infection, resulting in a significant decrease in the inflammatory response, as compared to control fish. These results demonstrate that muscle-specific expression of transgenic desaturases in zebrafish not only enhance PUFA production, but also enhance antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. Overall, these results identify delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase as novel candidate genes for use in aquaculture, to enhance both disease resistance and fish oil production.
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Selective laser sintered poly-?-caprolactone scaffold hybridized with collagen hydrogel for cartilage tissue engineering.
Biofabrication
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Selective laser sintering (SLS), an additive manufacturing (AM) technology, can be used to produce tissue engineering scaffolds with pre-designed macro and micro features based on computer-aided design models. An in-house SLS machine was built and 3D poly-?-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were manufactured using a layer-by-layer design of scaffold struts with varying orientations (0°/45°/0°/45°, 0°/90°/0°/90°, 0°/45°/90°/135°), producing scaffolds with pores of different shapes and distribution. To better enhance the scaffold properties, chondrocytes were seeded in collagen gel and loaded in scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. Gel uptake and dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrated the better suitability of the 0°/90°/0°/90° scaffolds for reconstructive cartilage tissue engineering purposes. Chondrocytes were then seeded onto the 0°/90°/0°/90° scaffolds in collagen I hydrogel (PCL/COL1) and compared to medium-suspended cells in terms of their cartilage-like tissue engineering parameters. PCL/COL1 allowed better cell proliferation when compared to PCL or two-dimensional tissue culture polystyrene. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy observations demonstrated a similar trend for extracellular matrix production and cell survival. Glycosaminoglycan and collagen II quantification also demonstrated the superior matrix secretion properties of PCL/COL1 hybrid scaffolds. Collagen-gel-suspended chondrocytes loaded in SLS-manufactured PCL scaffolds may provide a means of producing tissue-engineered cartilage with customized shapes and designs via AM technology.
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A three-stage genome-wide association study combining multilocus test and gene expression analysis for young-onset hypertension in taiwan han chinese.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Although many large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been performed, only a few studies have successfully identified replicable, large-impact hypertension loci; even fewer studies have been done on Chinese subjects. Young-onset hypertension (YOH) is considered to be a more promising target disorder to investigate than late-onset hypertension because of its stronger genetic component.
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The mechanisms by which pardaxin, a natural cationic antimicrobial peptide, targets the endoplasmic reticulum and induces c-FOS.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Pardaxin is a cationic antimicrobial peptide derived from Red Sea Moses sole. Previous studies have shown that pardaxin selectively triggers the death of cancer cells, initiating the development of a pardaxin-based cancer vaccine; however, the underlying mechanism by which pardaxin kills cancer cells has not yet been elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that this mechanism involves endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeting and c-FOS induction. Transcriptiome analysis of pardaxin-treated HT-1080 cells revealed induction of the gene encoding c-FOS, an AP-1 transcription factor. Pardaxin mediates cell death by activating c-FOS, but not other AP-1 transcription factors. Overexpression of c-FOS caused a dramatic increase in cell death, while knockdown of c-FOS induced pardaxin resistance; such effects were observed in both an in vitro cell model and an in vivo xenograft tumor model. Treatment with pardaxin also increased the level of calcium, and blockage of cellular calcium signaling disrupted pardaxin-induced cell death. Immunocytochemistry was used to demonstrate targeting of pardaxin to the endoplasmic reticulum, but not to the Golgi apparatus or mitochondria. Importantly, pardaxin treatment or c-FOS overexpression induced cell death in diverse cancer cell lines, indicating that pardaxin and c-FOS may possess therapeutic potential for use in cancer treatment.
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Identification and quantification of the Acanthamoeba species and genotypes from reservoirs in Taiwan by molecular techniques.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The occurrence of Acanthamoeba was investigated from 21 main reservoirs of Taiwan with 12 (57.1%) testing positive. Analysis of the 18S rRNA gene PCR product was performed in order to identify the Acanthamoeba isolates. Acanthamoeba spp. concentrations were determined according to TaqMan real-time qPCR. Acanthamoeba genotypes of all isolates were identified T4. The species were categorized to Acanthamoeba culbertsoni, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, Acanthamoeba castellanii and Acanthamoeba hatchetti. The concentration of Acanthamoeba spp. in detected positive reservoir water samples was in the range of 3.0-1.8 × 10(3) cells/L. These results highlight the importance of Acanthamoeba in reservoirs of potential pathogens and its possible role in the spread of bacterial genera with interest in public and environmental health.
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Surface modification of polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated via selective laser sintering for cartilage tissue engineering.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Surface modified porous polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated via rapid prototyping techniques were evaluated for cartilage tissue engineering purposes. Polycaprolactone scaffolds manufactured by selective laser sintering (SLS) were surface modified through immersion coating with either gelatin or collagen. Three groups of scaffolds were created and compared for both mechanical and biological properties. Surface modification with collagen or gelatin improved the hydrophilicity, water uptake and mechanical strength of the pristine scaffold. From microscopic observations and biochemical analysis, collagen-modified scaffold was the best for cartilage tissue engineering in terms of cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production. Chondrocytes/collagen-modified scaffold constructs were implanted subdermally in the dorsal spaces of female nude mice. Histological and immunohistochemical staining of the retrieved implants after 8 weeks revealed enhanced cartilage tissue formation. We conclude that collagen surface modification through immersion coating on SLS-manufactured scaffolds is a feasible scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering in craniofacial reconstruction.
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A novel SNP associated with nighttime pulse pressure in young-onset hypertension patients could be a genetic prognostic factor for cardiovascular events in a general cohort in Taiwan.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Pulse pressure (PP) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It has been reported that ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and nighttime BP parameters are heritable traits. However, the genetic association of pulse pressure and its clinical impact remain undetermined.
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Repeated BOLD-fMRI imaging of deep brain stimulation responses in rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a picture of the global spatial activation pattern of the brain. Interest is growing regarding the application of fMRI to rodent models to investigate adult brain plasticity. To date, most rodent studies used an electrical forepaw stimulation model to acquire fMRI data, with ?-chloralose as the anesthetic. However, ?-chloralose is harmful to animals, and not suitable for longitudinal studies. Moreover, peripheral stimulation models enable only a limited number of brain regions to be studied. Processing between peripheral regions and the brain is multisynaptic, and renders interpretation difficult and uncertain. In the present study, we combined the medetomidine-based fMRI protocol (a noninvasive rodent fMRI protocol) with chronic implantation of an MRI-compatible stimulation electrode in the ventroposterior (VP) thalamus to repetitively sample thalamocortical responses in the rat brain. Using this model, we scanned the forebrain responses evoked by the VP stimulation repeatedly of individual rats over 1 week. Cortical BOLD responses were compared between the 2 profiles obtained at day1 and day8. We discovered reproducible frequency- and amplitude-dependent BOLD responses in the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex (S1). The S1 BOLD responses during the 2 sessions were conserved in maximal response amplitude, area size (size ratio from 0.88 to 0.91), and location (overlap ratio from 0.61 to 0.67). The present study provides a long-term chronic brain stimulation protocol for studying the plasticity of specific neural circuits in the rodent brain by BOLD-fMRI.
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Elevated serum interleukin-18 level is associated with all-cause mortality in stable hemodialysis patients independently of cardiac dysfunction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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High circulating interleukin (IL)-18 level predicts a higher hospitalization rate among dialysis patients, possibly through cardiovascular mechanisms; however, whether higher IL-18 level is associated with mortality in dialysis patients is less clear. In addition, its impacts on left ventricular (LV) function are also unknown. We conducted a cohort study to examine the impacts of IL-18 level on LV function and prognosis among clinically stable hemodialysis patients.
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Variant GADL1 and Response to Lithium Therapy in Bipolar I Disorder.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2013
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Background Lithium has been a first-line choice for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorders to prevent relapse of mania and depression, but many patients do not have a response to lithium treatment. Methods We selected subgroups from a sample of 1761 patients of Han Chinese descent with bipolar I disorder who were recruited by the Taiwan Bipolar Consortium. We assessed their response to lithium treatment using the Alda scale and performed a genomewide association study on samples from one subgroup of 294 patients with bipolar I disorder who were receiving lithium treatment. We then tested the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that showed the strongest association with a response to lithium for association in a replication sample of 100 patients and tested them further in a follow-up sample of 24 patients. We sequenced the exons, exon-intron boundaries, and part of the promoter of the gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase-like protein 1 (GADL1) in 94 patients who had a response to lithium and in 94 patients who did not have a response in the genomewide association sample. Results Two SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium, rs17026688 and rs17026651, that are located in the introns of GADL1 showed the strongest associations in the genomewide association study (P=5.50×10(-37) and P=2.52×10(-37), respectively) and in the replication sample of 100 patients (P=9.19×10(-15) for each SNP). These two SNPs had a sensitivity of 93% for predicting a response to lithium and differentiated between patients with a good response and those with a poor response in the follow-up cohort. Resequencing of GADL1 revealed a novel variant, IVS8+48delG, which lies in intron 8 of the gene, is in complete linkage disequilibrium with rs17026688 and is predicted to affect splicing. Conclusions Genetic variations in GADL1 are associated with the response to lithium maintenance treatment for bipolar I disorder in patients of Han Chinese descent. (Funded by Academia Sinica and others.).
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Use of the antimicrobial peptide pardaxin (GE33) to protect against MRSA infection in mice with skin injuries.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have recently been determined to be potential candidates for treating drug-resistant bacterial infections. GE33, a marine antimicrobial peptide also known as pardaxin, has been reported to possess antimicrobial function. In this study, we investigated whether GE33 promoted healing of contaminated wounds in mice. One square centimeter of outer skin was excised from the ventral region of mice, and a lethal dose of MRSA was applied in the presence or absence of methicillin, vancomycin, or GE33. While untreated mice and mice treated with methicillin died within three days, mice treated with GE33 survived infection. GE33 decreased MRSA bacterial counts in the wounded region, and also enhanced wound closure. Re-epithelialization and dermal maturation were also faster in mice treated with GE33, as compared to mice treated with vancomycin. In addition, GE33 treatment controlled excess recruitment of monocytes and macrophage cells, and increased the expression of VEGF. In conclusion, these results suggest that GE33 is capable of enhancing wound healing. Furthermore, this study provides an excellent platform for comparing the antimicrobial activities of peptide and non-peptide antibiotics.
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Accuracy of faecal occult blood test and Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test for detection of upper gastrointestinal lesions.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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Highly sensitive guaiac-based faecal occult blood (Hemoccult SENSA) and Helicobacter pylori stool antigen testing might help detect upper gastrointestinal lesions when appended to a colorectal cancer screening programme with faecal immunochemical testing. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracies of two stool tests in detecting upper gastrointestinal lesions.
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Laser sintered porous polycaprolacone scaffolds loaded with hyaluronic acid and gelatin-grafted thermoresponsive hydrogel for cartilage tissue engineering.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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The aim of this study is to evaluate a soft/hard bi-phase scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. Chondrocyte proliferation, glycoaminoglycan production and total collagen content are compared between laser-sintered porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with and without a thermoresponsive hydrogel grafted with hyaluronic acid and gelatin. The in vitro results show that scaffolds loaded with hydrogel have a higher initial chondrocyte attachment than PCL scaffolds. At day 21 and 28, scaffolds loaded with hydrogel have a significantly higher glycosaminoglycan (GAG) production than PCL scaffolds alone, and total collagen content including collagen type II in the hydrogel-loaded group is three times higher than the group without hydrogel. It is concluded that the laser-sintered porous PCL scaffold has good cytocompatibility, and that the hydrogel phase is able to enhance initial chondrocytes attachment as well as GAG and collagen production of chondrocytes. This study suggests that a soft/hard bi-phase scaffold may be used for cartilage tissue engineering to enhance in vitro chondrogenesis.
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Quantitative assessment of cerebral glucose metabolic rates after blood-brain barrier disruption induced by focused ultrasound using FDG-MicroPET.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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The goal of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ((18)F-FDG) and the expression of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) protein after blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption of normal rat brains by focused ultrasound (FUS). After delivery of an intravenous bolus of ~37MBq (1mCi) (18)F-FDG, dynamic positron emission tomography scans were performed on rats with normal brains and those whose BBBs had been disrupted by FUS. Arterial blood sampling was collected throughout the scanning procedure. A 2-tissue compartmental model was used to estimate (18)F-FDG kinetic parameters in brain tissues. The rate constants Ki, K1, and k3 were assumed to characterize the uptake, transport, and hexokinase activity, respectively, of (18)F-FDG. The uptake of (18)F-FDG in brains significantly decreased immediately after the blood-brain barrier was disrupted. At the same time, the derived values of Ki, K1, and k3 for the sonicated brains were significantly lower than those for the control brains. In agreement with the reduction in glucose, Western blot analyses confirmed that focused ultrasound exposure significantly reduced the expression of GLUT1 protein in the brains. Furthermore, the effect of focused ultrasound on glucose uptake was transient and reversible 24h after sonication. Our results indicate that focused ultrasound may inhibit GLUT1 expression to decrease the glucose uptake in brain tissue during the period of BBB disruption.
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Expression characterization and promoter activity analysis of the tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) myosin light chain 3 promoter in skeletal muscle of fish.
Transgenic Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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A tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) myosin light chain 3 (Mlc3) promoter region (~4.3 kb) was isolated and characterized. Sequence analysis of the clone revealed high similarity with a tilapia gene encoding the Mlc3 promoter region, exon 1, and intron 1. The clone contained several putative binding sequences for transcription factors, including MEF-2, MYOG, MyoD, PKNOX1, and AREB6. Deletion of a region of the tilapia Mlc3 promoter (801 to -3,881 bp) enhanced promoter activity, as determined by direct injection of a luciferase reporter construct into skeletal muscle of Archocentrus nigrofasciatus. These findings suggest that the region between -801 and -3,881 bp may contain negative regulatory elements. Stable germline transgenic strains of the ornamental fish species A. nigrofasciatus var. carrying the Taiwan coral red fluorescent protein (TcRFP) driven by the Mlc3 promoter were established. F1 adult transgenic A. nigrofasciatus var. exhibited brilliant pink fluorescence in skeletal muscles in the daylight. Therefore, our current study demonstrates the feasibility of using the tilapia Mlc3 promoter to drive fluorescence in new fish species, such as Perciformes.
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Use of the antimicrobial peptide Epinecidin-1 to protect against MRSA infection in mice with skin injuries.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes infections through open skin injuries, and its resistance makes treatment difficult. The antimicrobial peptide Epinecidin-1 (Epi-1) has been reported to possess antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antitumor functions. This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of Epi-1 against skin trauma-mediated MRSA infection in mice. One square centimeter of outer skin was excised from the ventral region of mice, and a lethal dose of MRSA was applied in the presence or absence of methicillin, vancomycin, or Epi-1. While untreated mice and mice treated with methicillin died within four days, mice treated with Epi-1 survived infection. Epi-1 decreased MRSA bacterial counts in the wounded region, enhanced wound closure, and increased angiogenesis at the injury site. Treatment with Epi-1 decreased serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-6, and MCP-1, and regulated the recruitment of monocytes and clearance of lymphocytes around the wounded region during healing. In conclusion, Epi-1 may be effective at treating clinical MRSA, and may enhance wound recovery when combined with collagen.
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A cancer vaccine based on the marine antimicrobial peptide pardaxin (GE33) for control of bladder-associated tumors.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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The marine antimicrobial peptide (AMP) GE33, also known as pardaxin, possesses antimicrobial and anticancer properties, and modulates host signaling. GE33 has cytotoxic effects on murine bladder carcinoma (MBT-2) cells. Here, we investigated the potential of GE33 combined with inactivated MBT-2 as a cancer vaccine. The presence of up to 12.5 ?g of GE33 did not inhibit the proliferation or endogenous nitrous oxide (NO) levels of RAW264.7 cells. However, the secretion of MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-12 by RAW264.7 cells was affected by GE33. We proceeded to test the effectiveness of the vaccine by immunizing mice at 7, 14, and 21 days of age, and injecting live MBT-2 cells on the 28th day. Tumor growth by the 58th day was attenuated in mice treated with the vaccine, as compared to the control group. Induction of MBT-2 specific-tumor antigens was increased in mice immunized with our vaccine. Furthermore, activation of T-cell receptors, cytotoxic T-cells, and NK cells was enhanced, and these showed high specificity for targeting tumor cells. Finally, immunization controlled excess recruitment of monocytes, lymphocytes, T-helper cells, and NK cells, and decreased the expression of VEGF. This report provides empirical evidence that our GE33-based vaccine enhances antitumor immunity in mice.
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Electrotransfer of the epinecidin-1 gene into skeletal muscle enhances the antibacterial and immunomodulatory functions of a marine fish, grouper (Epinephelus coioides).
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Electrotransfer of plasmid DNA into skeletal muscle is a common non-viral delivery system for the study of gene function and for gene therapy. However, the effects of epinecidin-1 (epi) on bacterial growth and immune system modulation following its electrotransfer into the muscle of grouper (Epinephelus coioides), a marine fish species, have not been addressed. In this study, pCMV-gfp-epi plasmid was electroporated into grouper muscle, and its effect on subsequent infection with Vibrio vulnificus was examined. Over-expression of epi efficiently reduced bacterial numbers at 24 and 48 h after infection, and augmented the expression of immune-related genes in muscle and liver, inducing a moderate innate immune response associated with pro-inflammatory infiltration. Furthermore, electroporation of pCMV-gfp-epi plasmid without V. vulnificus infection induced moderate expression of certain immune-related genes, particularly innate immune genes. These data suggest that electroporation-mediated gene transfer of epi into the muscle of grouper may hold potential as an antimicrobial therapy for pathogen infection in marine fish.
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Dabigatran versus warfarin: effects on ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes and bleeding in Asians and non-Asians with atrial fibrillation.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Intracranial hemorrhage rates are higher in Asians than non-Asians, especially in patients receiving warfarin. This randomized evaluation of long-term anticoagulation therapy subgroup analysis assessed dabigatran etexilate (DE) and warfarin effects on stroke and bleeding rates in patients from Asian and non-Asian countries.
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mPlum-IFP 1.4 fluorescent fusion protein may display Förster resonance energy transfer associated properties that can be used for near-infrared based reporter gene imaging.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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ABSTRACT. Bacteriophytochrome infrared fluorescent protein (IFP) has a long emission wavelength that is appropriate for detecting pathophysiological effects via near-infrared (NIR) based imaging. However, the brightness and photostability of IFP are suboptimal, although an exogenous supply of biliverdin (BV) IX? is able to enhance these properties. In this study, we fused a far red mPlum fluorescent protein to IFP 1.4 via a linker deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence encoding eight amino acids. The brightness of mPlum-IFP 1.4 fusion protein at the IFP emission channel was comparable to that of native IFP 1.4 protein when fusion protein and IFP 1.4 were excited by 543 and 633 nm using confocal microscopy, respectively. Visualization of IFP 1.4 fluorescence by excitation of mPlum in mPlum-IFP 1.4 fusion protein is likely to be associated with Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The FRET phenomenon was also predicted by acceptor photobleaching using confocal microscopy. Furthermore, the expression of mPlum-IFP 1.4 fusion protein could be detected in cell culture and in xenograft tumors in the absence of BV using in vivo imaging system, although the BV was still essential for detecting native IFP 1.4. Therefore, this innovativefluorescent fusion protein would be useful for NIR-based imaging in vitro and in vivo.
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Association of left ventricular longitudinal strain with mortality among stable hemodialysis patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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Little is known about the optimal echocardiographic parameters for risk stratification in stable dialysis patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (ejection fraction ? 50%). Left ventricular (LV) global peak systolic longitudinal strain (GLS) is the ratio of the maximal change in myocardial longitudinal length in systole to the original length and reliably and accurately assesses LV function. During systole, LV myocardium in the longitudinal direction shortens and GLS is represented by a negative value. The more negative value of GLS, the better the LV function is. This study hypothesized that subtle abnormalities of GLS are associated with an adverse prognosis.
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Development of Cre-loxP technology in zebrafish to study the regulation of fish reproduction.
Fish Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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One cannot seek permission to market transgenic fish mainly because there is no field test or any basic research on technological developments for evaluating their biosafety. Infertility is a necessary adjunct to exploiting transgenic fish unless completely secure land-locked facilities are available. In this study, we report the generation of a Cre transgenic zebrafish line using a cytomegalovirus promoter. We also produced fish carrying the Bax1 and Bax2 plasmids; these genes were separated by two loxP sites under a zona pellucida C promoter or were driven by an anti-Müllerian hormone promoter. We inserted a red fluorescent protein gene between the two loxP sites. After obtaining transgenic lines with the two transgenic fish crossed with each other (Cre transgenic zebrafish x loxP transgenic zebrafish), the floxed DNA was found to be specifically eliminated from the female or male zebrafish, and apoptosis gene expressions caused ovarian and testicular growth cessation and degeneration. Overexpression of the Bax1 and Bax2 genes caused various expression levels of apoptosis-related genes. Accordingly, this transgenic zebrafish model system provides a method to produce infertile fish and may be useful for application to genetically modified fish.
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Proteomic analysis reveals that pardaxin triggers apoptotic signaling pathways in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells: cross talk among the UPR, c-Jun and ROS.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Pardaxin, an antimicrobial peptide secreted by the Red Sea flatfish Pardachirus marmoratus, inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human cancer cell lines. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are only partially understood at present. In this study, we used proteomic approaches and network reconstruction to clarify the mechanism of pardaxin-induced apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. We identified that pardaxin-regulated proteins predominantly function in the unfolded protein response, oxidative stress and cytoskeletal distribution. Molecular examination of signal transduction and cellular localization demonstrated that the activator protein-1 transcription factor was activated, which eventually caused apoptosis via both caspase- and apoptosis-inducing factor-dependent pathways. Scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) alleviated c-Jun activation, and small interfering RNA knockdown of c-Jun abrogated pardaxin-induced caspase activation and cell death, thereby implicating ROS and c-Jun in pardaxin-induced apoptosis signaling. In summary, this study provides the first protein-interacting network maps and novel insights into the biological responses and potential toxicity of pardaxin.
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Preparation and characterization of gelatin/hyaluronic acid cryogels for adipose tissue engineering: in vitro and in vivo studies.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Macroporous elastic scaffolds containing gelatin (4% or 10%) and 0.25% hyaluronic acid (HA) were fabricated by cryogelation for application in adipose tissue engineering. These cryogels have interconnected pores (?200 ?m), high porosity (>90%) and a high degree of cross-linking (>99%). The higher gelatin concentration reduced the pore size, porosity and swelling ratio of the cryogel but improved its swelling kinetics. Compressive mechanical testing of cryogel samples demonstrated non-linear stress-strain behavior and hysteresis loops during loading-unloading cycles, but total recovery from large strains. The presence of more gelatin increased the elastic modulus, toughness and storage modulus and yielded a cryogel that was highly elastic, with a loss tangent equal to 0.03. Porcine adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were seeded in the cryogel scaffolds to assess their proliferation and differentiation. In vitro studies demonstrated a good proliferation rate and the adipogenic differentiation of the ADSCs in the cryogel scaffolds, as shown by their morphological change from a fibroblast-like shape to a spherical shape, decreased actin cytoskeleton content, growth arrest, secretion of the adipogenesis marker protein leptin, Oil Red O staining for triglycerides and expression of early (LPL and PPAR?) and late (aP2 and leptin) adipogenic marker genes. In vivo studies of ADSCs/cryogel constructs implanted in nude mice and pigs demonstrated adipose tissue and new capillary formation, the expression of PPAR?, leptin and CD31 in immunostained explants, and the continued expression of adipocyte-specific genes. Both the in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that the gelatin/HA cryogel provided a structural and chemical environment that enabled cell attachment and proliferation and supported the biological functions and adipogenesis of the ADSCs.
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Truncated antimicrobial peptides from marine organisms retain anticancer activity and antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were recently determined to be potential candidates for treating drug-resistant bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to develop shorter AMP fragments that combine maximal bactericidal effect with minimal synthesis cost. We first synthesized a series of truncated forms of AMPs (anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from shrimp, epinecidin from grouper, and pardaxin from Pardachirus marmoratus). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of modified AMPs against ten bacterial species were determined. We also examined the synergy between peptide and non-peptide antibiotics. In addition, we measured the inhibitory rate of cancer cells treated with AMPs by MTS assay. We found that two modified antibacterial peptides (epinecidin-8 and pardaxin-6) had a broad range of action against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, epinecidin and pardaxin were demonstrated to have high antibacterial and anticancer activities, and both AMPs resulted in a significant synergistic improvement in the potencies of streptomycin and kanamycin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Neither AMP induced significant hemolysis at their MICs. In addition, both AMPs inhibited human epithelial carcinoma (HeLa) and fibrosarcoma (HT-1080) cell growth. The functions of these truncated AMPs were similar to those of their full-length equivalents. In conclusion, we have successfully identified shorter, inexpensive fragments with maximal bactericidal activity. This study also provides an excellent basis for the investigation of potential synergies between peptide and non-peptide antibiotics, for a broad range of antimicrobial and anticancer activities.
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Incorporation of biphasic calcium phosphate microparticles in injectable thermoresponsive hydrogel modulates bone cell proliferation and differentiation.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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To provide osteoblast cells with a three-dimensional environment closer to bone matrix, an engineered construct mimicking bone components have been designed and evaluated. A biocompatible injectable thermo-responsive hydrogel, hyaluronic acid-g-chitosan-g-poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (HA-CPN), was used as a biomimetic organic gel matrix while embedded biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramic micoparticles were used to replace mineralized matrix. The physicochemical properties of HA-CPN/BCP hydrogel composite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimeric analysis, differential scanning calorimetric, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Human fetal osteoblast cells were cultured in vitro in HA-CPN and HA-CPN/BCP scaffold to study cell viability, proliferation, gene expression, and maintenance of their osteoblastic differential potentials. Overall, HA-CPN/BCP can serve as a better injectable carrier for bone cells than HA-CPN with enhanced proliferation rate and alkaline phosphatase activity from biochemical assays, improved calcium deposition and mineralization of extracellular matrix by histological examinations, and elevated gene expression of all essential osteoblastic genes from quantitative real-time PCR, to provide a cell/scaffold construct with higher mechanical strength and elasticity. From in vivo nude mice subcutaneous implantation experiments, the injected cell mass can form ectopic bone tissue in HA-CPN/BCP hydrogel composite.
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Investigation of attenuation correction for small-animal single photon emission computed tomography.
Comput Math Methods Med
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The quantitative accuracy of SPECT is limited by photon attenuation and scatter effect when photons interact with atoms. In this study, we developed a new attenuation correction (AC) method, CT-based mean attenuation correction (CTMAC) method, and compared it with various methods that were often used currently to assess the AC phenomenon by using the small-animal SPECT/CT data that were acquired from various physical phantoms and a rat. The physical phantoms and an SD rat, which were injected with (99m)Tc, were scanned by a parallel-hole small-animal SPECT, and then they were imaged by the 80?kVp micro-CT. Scatter was estimated and corrected by the triple-energy window (TEW) method. Absolute quantification was derived from a known activity point source scan. In the physical-phantom studies, we compared the images with original, scatter correction (SC) only, and the scatter-corrected images with AC performed by using Changs method, CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC), CT-based iterative attenuation compensation during reconstruction (CTIACR), and the CTMAC. From the correction results, we find out that the errors of the previous six configurations are mostly quite similar. The CTMAC needs the shortest correction time while obtaining good AC results.
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Hemodynamic and neuropathological analysis in rats with aluminum trichloride-induced Alzheimers disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Hemodynamic normality is crucial to maintaining the integrity of cerebral vessels and, therefore, preserving the cognitive functions of Alzheimers disease patients. This study investigates the implications of the hemodynamic changes and the neuropathological diversifications of AlCl3-induced AD.
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Brain deactivation in the outperformance in bimodal tasks: an FMRI study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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While it is known that some individuals can effectively perform two tasks simultaneously, other individuals cannot. How the brain deals with performing simultaneous tasks remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to assess which brain areas corresponded to various phenomena in task performance. Nineteen subjects were requested to sequentially perform three blocks of tasks, including two unimodal tasks and one bimodal task. The unimodal tasks measured either visual feature binding or auditory pitch comparison, while the bimodal task required performance of the two tasks simultaneously. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results are compatible with previous studies showing that distinct brain areas, such as the visual cortices, frontal eye field (FEF), lateral parietal lobe (BA7), and medial and inferior frontal lobe, are involved in processing of visual unimodal tasks. In addition, the temporal lobes and Brodmann area 43 (BA43) were involved in processing of auditory unimodal tasks. These results lend support to concepts of modality-specific attention. Compared to the unimodal tasks, bimodal tasks required activation of additional brain areas. Furthermore, while deactivated brain areas were related to good performance in the bimodal task, these areas were not deactivated where the subject performed well in only one of the two simultaneous tasks. These results indicate that efficient information processing does not require some brain areas to be overly active; rather, the specific brain areas need to be relatively deactivated to remain alert and perform well on two tasks simultaneously. Meanwhile, it can also offer a neural basis for biofeedback in training courses, such as courses in how to perform multiple tasks simultaneously.
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Comparison of fMRI BOLD response patterns by electrical stimulation of the ventroposterior complex and medial thalamus of the rat.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The objective of this study was to compare the functional connectivity of the lateral and medial thalamocortical pain pathways by investigating the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation patterns in the forebrain elicited by direct electrical stimulation of the ventroposterior (VP) and medial (MT) thalamus. An MRI-compatible stimulation electrode was implanted in the VP or MT of ?-chloralose-anesthetized rats. Electrical stimulation was applied to the VP or MT at various intensities (50 µA to 300 µA) and frequencies (1 Hz to 12 Hz). BOLD responses were analyzed in the ipsilateral forelimb region of the primary somatosensory cortex (iS1FL) after VP stimulation and in the ipsilateral cingulate cortex (iCC) after MT stimulation. When stimulating the VP, the strongest activation occurred at 3 Hz. The stimulation intensity threshold was 50 µA and the response rapidly peaked at 100 µA. When stimulating the MT, The optimal frequency for stimulation was 9 Hz or 12 Hz, the stimulation intensity threshold was 100 µA and we observed a graded increase in the BOLD response following the application of higher intensity stimuli. We also evaluated c-Fos expression following the application of a 200-µA stimulus. Ventroposterior thalamic stimulation elicited c-Fos-positivity in few cells in the iS1FL and caudate putamen (iCPu). Medial thalamic stimulation, however, produced numerous c-Fos-positive cells in the iCC and iCPu. The differential BOLD responses and c-Fos expressions elicited by VP and MT stimulation indicate differences in stimulus-response properties of the medial and lateral thalamic pain pathways.
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Early detection of Lewis lung carcinoma tumor control by irradiation using diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To investigate the correlation between diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) derived parameters and radioresponsiveness of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumor.
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A temperature-stable cryo-system for high-temperature superconducting MR in-vivo imaging.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To perform a rat experiment using a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) surface resonator, a cryostat is essential to maintain the rats temperature. In this work, a compact temperature-stable HTS cryo-system, keeping animal rectal temperature at 37.4°C for more than 3 hours, was successfully developed. With this HTS cryo-system, a 40-mm-diameter Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) surface resonator at 77 K was demonstrated in a 3-Tesla MRI system. The proton resonant frequency (PRF) method was employed to monitor the rats temperature. Moreover, the capacity of MR thermometry in the HTS experiments was evaluated by correlating with data from independent fiber-optic sensor temperature measurements. The PRF thermal coefficient was derived as 0.03 rad/°C and the temperature-monitoring architecture can be implemented to upgrade the quality and safety in HTS experiments. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the HTS surface resonator at 77 K was higher than that of a professionally made copper surface resonator at 300 K, which has the same geometry, by a 3.79-fold SNR gain. Furthermore, the temperature-stable HTS cryo-system we developed can obtain stable SNR gain in every scan. A temperature-stable HTS cryo-system with an external air-blowing circulation system is demonstrated.
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Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for delivery of tissue plasminogen activator.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 12-26-2011
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Magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) modified by carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) was synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, superconducting quantum interference device, dynamic light-scattering, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffraction. CMD coating on the particle surface provides abundant -COOH functional groups for conjugating with a thrombolytic drug, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA). CMD-coated MNP (CMD-MNP) prepared with higher CMD/MNP ratios had higher CMD content, less iron content, more -COOH surface groups, smaller hydrodynamic diameter, and smaller saturation magnetization. The in vitro biocompatibility study using lactate dehydrogenase assays indicated that CMD-MNP elicited no cell cytotoxicity. The optimum drug loading could be achieved by contacting 0.25 mg rtPA with 5 mg CMD-MNP where all rtPA is immobilized to the magnetic nanocarrier with full retention of its thrombolytic activity.
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Antiproliferative effects of N-heterocyclic indolyl glyoxylamide derivatives on human lung cancer cells.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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N-Heterocyclic indolyl glyoxylamide compounds are derived from the antimicrotubule agent D-24851, which exhibits anticancer activity after oral administration. The actions of these compounds on lung cancer cells are still unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of two N-heterocyclic indolyl glyoxylamides, BPR0C259 and BPR0C123, on non-small human lung cancer cells.
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Active coping with stress suppresses glucose metabolism in the rat hypothalamus.
Stress
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
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We used 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose small-animal positron-emission tomography to determine whether different styles of coping with stress are associated with different patterns of neuronal activity in the hypothalamus. Adult rats were subjected to immobilization (IMO)-stress or to a non-immobilized condition for 30 min, in random order on separate days, each of which was followed by brain-scanning. Some rats in the immobilized condition were allowed to actively cope with the stress by chewing a wooden stick during IMO, while the other immobilized rats were given nothing to chew on. Voxel-based statistical analysis of the brain imaging data shows that chewing counteracted the stress-induced increased glucose uptake in the hypothalamus to the level of the non-immobilized condition. Region-of-interest analysis of the glucose uptake values further showed that chewing significantly suppressed stress-induced increased glucose uptake in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and the anterior hypothalamic area but not in the lateral hypothalamus. Together with the finding that the mean plasma corticosterone concentration at the termination of the IMO was also significantly suppressed when rats had an opportunity to chew a wooden stick, our results showed that active coping by chewing inhibited the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to reduce the endocrine stress response.
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Pardaxin, an antimicrobial peptide, triggers caspase-dependent and ROS-mediated apoptosis in HT-1080 cells.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
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Pardaxin is an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that was first isolated from secretions of the Red Sea Moses sole. The role of pardaxin in inducing apoptosis for preventing cancer has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we examined the antitumor activity of pardaxin against human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells; pardaxin inhibited cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis, as demonstrated by an increase in the externalization of plasma membrane phosphatidylserine and the presence of chromatin condensation. Additionally, pardaxin-treated cells showed elevation of caspase-3/7 activities, disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Inhibition of ROS production and caspase-3/7 activities reduced pardaxin-induced effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that pardaxin may be a potential anticancer agent for selectively inducing apoptosis in cancer cells.
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Generalizations of the subject-independent feature set for music-induced emotion recognition.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based emotion recognition has been an intensely growing field. Yet, how to achieve acceptable accuracy on a practical system with as fewer electrodes as possible is less concerned. This study evaluates a set of subject-independent features, based on differential power asymmetry of symmetric electrode pairs [1], with emphasis on its applicability to subject variability in music-induced emotion classification problem. Results of this study have evidently validated the feasibility of using subject-independent EEG features to classify four emotional states with acceptable accuracy in second-scale temporal resolution. These features could be generalized across subjects to detect emotion induced by music excerpts not limited to the music database that was used to derive the emotion-specific features.
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Osteogenic differentiation and ectopic bone formation of canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in injectable thermo-responsive polymer hydrogel.
Tissue Eng Part C Methods
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
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This study describes an injectable, thermo-responsive hyaluronic acid-g-chitosan-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (HA-CPN) copolymer for bone tissue engineering. The wettability, temperature-dependent change of water content, and volume of HA-CPN hydrogel were measured, together with its biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo. The dried hydrogel morphology shows a three-dimensional, porous structure with interconnected pores. Canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (cBMSCs) were encapsulated in HA-CPN hydrogel and osteoinduction was assessed by comparing samples with different osteogenic differentiation induction times but with the same total cell culture time. Cell proliferation and time-dependent osteogenic differentiation, evident from secretion of extracellular matrix and formation of mineral deposits, were observed. The cells showed better proliferation in HA-CPN hydrogel than on tissue culture polystyrene after osteo-induced for 21 days and higher alkaline phosphatase activity regardless of osteo-induction times. Mineralization extent of cBMSCs in HA-CPN followed by Alizarin red stains showed positive stained nodules after osteo-induced longer than 7 days. The cells/hydrogel construct also showed increased mechanical strength and elasticity after osteogenic differentiation, and the increase could be correlated with osteo-induction time. In vivo studies confirmed the biocompatibility and bioresorption of the HA-CPN hydrogel and ectopic bone formation when the hydrogel was used as a cell carrier for osteo-induced cBMSCs and implanted in nude mice subcutaneously. Taken together, the results indicate the feasibility and efficacy of HA-CPN hydrogel as an injectable bone tissue engineering scaffold with cBMSCs.
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Occurrence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli genes in raw water of water treatment plants.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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The high incidences of waterborne diseases are frequently associated with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC). DEC may pose a health risk to people who contact surface water for recreation or domestic use. However, there is no published report on the monitoring of DEC in drinking water sources in Taiwan. In this study, the occurrence of DEC genes in raw water for water treatment plants in Taiwan was investigated.
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A genome-wide association study reveals a quantitative trait locus of adiponectin on CDH13 that predicts cardiometabolic outcomes.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2011
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The plasma adiponectin level, a potential upstream and internal facet of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, has a reasonably high heritability. Whether other novel genes influence the variation in adiponectin level and the roles of these genetic variants on subsequent clinical outcomes has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we aimed not only to identify genetic variants modulating plasma adiponectin levels but also to investigate whether these variants are associated with adiponectin-related metabolic traits and cardiovascular diseases.
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BrainKnowledge: a human brain function mapping knowledge-base system.
Neuroinformatics
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2011
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Associating fMRI image datasets with the available literature is crucial for the analysis and interpretation of fMRI data. Here, we present a human brain function mapping knowledge-base system (BrainKnowledge) that associates fMRI data analysis and literature search functions. BrainKnowledge not only contains indexed literature, but also provides the ability to compare experimental data with those derived from the literature. BrainKnowledge provides three major functions: (1) to search for brain activation models by selecting a particular brain function; (2) to query functions by brain structure; (3) to compare the fMRI data with data extracted from the literature. All these functions are based on our literature extraction and mining module developed earlier (Hsiao, Chen, Chen. Journal of Biomedical Informatics 42, 912-922, 2009), which automatically downloads and extracts information from a vast amount of fMRI literature and generates co-occurrence models and brain association patterns to illustrate the relevance of brain structures and functions. BrainKnowledge currently provides three co-occurrence models: (1) a structure-to-function co-occurrence model; (2) a function-to-structure co-occurrence model; and (3) a brain structure co-occurrence model. Each model has been generated from over 15,000 extracted Medline abstracts. In this study, we illustrate the capabilities of BrainKnowledge and provide an application example with the studies of affect. BrainKnowledge, which combines fMRI experimental results with Medline abstracts, may be of great assistance to scientists not only by freeing up resources and valuable time, but also by providing a powerful tool that collects and organizes over ten thousand abstracts into readily usable and relevant sources of information for researchers.
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Fasting blood glucose level and prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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Diabetes has been consistently linked to many forms of cancers, such as liver, colorectal, pancreatic, and breast cancer, however, the role of diabetes in outcome among cancer patients remains unclear. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records of 342 inpatients newly diagnosed with NSCLC referred by a teaching hospital cancer center in southern Taiwan between 2005 and 2007 to examine the effects of fasting glucose levels at time of cancer diagnosis on overall survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). All patients were followed up until the end of 2010. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare survival curves for patients with and without diabetes. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios for the association between diabetes, other prognostic factors and patient survival. We observed that significant prognostic factors for poor overall survival in patients with NSCLC included older age, smoking, poor performance status, advanced stage (stage IIIB or IV), and no cancer-directed surgery treatment. Particularly, we identified that diabetic state defined by fasting blood glucose level ?126 mg/dl was another independent prognostic factor for these patients. Compared with those who had normal range of fasting glucose level (70-99 mg/dl), patients with high fasting glucose level (?126 mg/dl) had 69% excess risk of all-cause mortality in patients with NSCLC. In conclusion: Diabetes as indicated by elevated fasting blood glucose was independently associated with a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality in patients with NSCLC, indicating that diabetes or hyperglycemia effectively controlled may present an opportunity for improving prognosis in NSCLS patients with abnormal glucose level.
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Empirical modified sequential therapy containing levofloxacin and high-dose esomeprazole in second-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection: a multicentre clinical trial.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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Sequential therapy appears to achieve a higher Helicobacter pylori eradication rate than triple therapy. We assessed the efficacy and tolerability of modified sequential therapy containing levofloxacin and high-dose esomeprazole in second-line therapy.
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Insights into the antibacterial and immunomodulatory functions of the antimicrobial peptide, epinecidin-1, against Vibrio vulnificus infection in zebrafish.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2011
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In the present study, we used Vibrio vulnificus and a zebrafish model system to investigate the inhibitory effect of epinecidin-1 on acute bacterial infection and studied the impacts of pretreatment, co-treatment, and post-treatment with epinecidin-1 on its protective efficacy. In vivo experiments showed that co-treatment with epinecidin-1 and V. vulnificus achieved 78%-97% survival rates after 30 days. When epinecidin-1 and V. vulnificus were co-injected into zebrafish and zebrafish were re-challenged with V. vulnificus after 30 days, zebrafish had survival rates of 22%-47%. Pretreatment and post-treatment with epinecidin-1 obtained respective survival rates of 57% and 60%. In addition, epinecidin-1 modulated the expressions of immune-responsive genes like interleukin (IL)-10, IL-1b, tumor necrosis factor-?, and interferon-? as analyzed by a microarray and qPCR approach. This study demonstrates the use of epinecidin-1 to develop inactivated material for fish bacterial infections which can provide guidelines for the future design of epinecidin-1-bacterial formulations for various in vivo applications.
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Dual targeted delivery of doxorubicin to cancer cells using folate-conjugated magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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By combining the advantage of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNs), we develop a magnetic dual-targeted nanocarrier for drug delivery. MWCNTs were functionalized with poly(acrylic acid) through free radical polymerization, decorated with MNs, conjugated with a targeting ligand folic acid (FA), for loading of an anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). The proposed methodology provides dual targeted delivery of the anti-cancer drug to cancer cells under the guidance of a magnetic field and through ligand-receptor interactions. The chemico-physical properties of the nanocarrier were characterized, in addition to its drug loading efficiency and drug releasing characteristics. Doxorubicin could be loaded to MWCNTs with high efficiency via ?-? stacking and hydrogen bonding and showed enhanced cytotoxicity toward U87 human glioblastoma cells compared with free DOX. From transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, we confirmed that DOX-FA-MN-MWCNT could be efficiently taken up by U87 cells with subsequent intracellular release of DOX, followed by transport of DOX into the nucleus with the nanocarrier left in the cytoplasm. These properties make the magnetic nanocarrier a potential candidate for targeted delivery of DOX for cancer treatment.
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Transgenic expression of tilapia hepcidin 1-5 and shrimp chelonianin in zebrafish and their resistance to bacterial pathogens.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
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Recently, tilapia hepcidin (TH)1-5 was characterized, and its antimicrobial functions against several pathogens were reported. The antimicrobial functions of another shrimp antimicrobial peptide (AMP), chelonianin, were also characterized using a recombinant chelonianin protein (rcf) that was expressed by a stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line against pathogen infections in fish. The function of the overexpression of both AMPs in zebrafish muscles was not examined in previous studies. Herein, we investigated the antimicrobial functions of TH1-5 and chelonianin against Vibrio vulnificus (204) and Streptococcus agalactiae (SA48) in transgenic TH1-5 zebrafish and transgenic chelonianin zebrafish. The presence of TH1-5 and chelonianin enhanced the inhibitory ability in transgenic AMP zebrafish against the two different bacterial infections. The bacterial number of either V. vulnificus (204) or S. agalactiae (SA48) had decreased at 96 h after injection into transgenic AMP zebrafish muscle compared to non-transgenic zebrafish muscle. Additionally, immune-related gene expressions analyzed by real-time PCR studies showed the modulation of several genes including interleukin (IL)-10, IL-22, IL-26, MyD88, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-1, TLR-3, TLR-4, nuclear factor (NF)-?B, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and lysozyme, and significant differences were found between transgenic AMP zebrafish and wild-type zebrafish injected with PBS at 1-24 h. These results suggest that several immune-related gene expressions were induced in transgenic TH1-5 and chelonianin zebrafish which effectively inhibited bacterial growth. The survival rate dropped to 86.6% in transgenic chelonianin zebrafish after 28 days of infection compared of the 50% survival rate in transgenic TH1-5 zebrafish after 28 days of infection. Overall, these results indicate that TH1-5 and chelonianin possess the potential to be novel candidate genes for aquaculture applications to treat fish diseases.
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Mutations in BRAF correlate with poor survival of colorectal cancers in Chinese population.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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Mutations in KRAS and BRAF genes were associated with treatment failure from EGF receptor inhibitors in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. However, whether these mutations were associated with survival in patients not treated with EGF receptor inhibitors remained controversial. Moreover, few data were available in Chinese. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the impact of KRAS and BRAF mutations on the survival of Chinese CRC patients.
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Insights into the antibacterial and immunomodulatory functions of tilapia hepcidin (TH)2-3 against Vibrio vulnificus infection in mice.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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The antimicrobial and immunomodulatory functions of the antimicrobial peptide, tilapia hepcidin (TH)2-3, against a bacterial endotoxin under in vitro conditions was previously reported. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial and immunomodulatory functions of TH2-3 in mice infected with the pathogen, Vibrio vulnificus. A TH2-3 injection in V. vulnificus-infected mice produced an increased survival rate compared to mice injected with V. vulnificus only. In addition, a TH2-3 injection increased the bacteriostatic property against V. vulnificus in mice. Gene expressions examined using a microarray demonstrated that TH2-3 modulated several V. vulnificus-responsive genes in the host. A neutralizing antibody assay of mice serum against inactivated V. vulnificus antigen-coated plates demonstrated the induction of an immune response by TH2-3 against the pathogen. Taken together, TH2-3 enhanced the survival rate of mice against the bacterial pathogen V. vulnificus through both antimicrobial and immunomodulatory functions. These properties make the TH2-3 peptide a good candidate for development as a new antimicrobial drug and suggest that TH2-3 can underpin the design of adjuvants for further development of vaccines.
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Preparation and characterization of composite nanofibers of polycaprolactone and nanohydroxyapatite for osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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Nanocomposites of nanohydroxyapatite (nHAP) dispersed in poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) were prepared by electrospinning (ES) to obtain PCL/nHAP nanofibers. Nanofibers with similar diameters (340 ± 30 nm) but different nHAP concentrations (0-50%) were fabricated and studied for growth and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The nanofibrous membranes were subjected to detailed analysis for its physicochemical properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and mechanical tensile testing. nHAP particles (~30 nm diameter) embedded in nanofibers increased the nanofibrous membranes ultimate stress and the elastic modulus, while decreased the strain at failure. When cultured under an osteogenic stimulation condition on nanofibers, MSCs showed normal phenotypic cell morphology, and time-dependent mineralization and osteogenic differentiation from SEM observations and alkaline phosphatase activity assays. The nanofibers could support the growth of mesenchymal stem cells without compromising their osteogenic differentiation capability up to 21 days and the enhancement of cell differentiation by nHAP is positively correlated with its concentration in the nanofibers. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis of Ca and P elements indicated mineral deposits on the cell surface. The mineralization extent was significantly raised in nanofibers with 50% nHAP where a Ca/P ratio similar to that of bone was found. The present study indicated that electrospun composite PCL/nHAP nanofibrous membranes are suitable for mineralization of MSCs intended for bone tissue engineering.
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Neuroprotection effects of retained acupuncture in neurotoxin-induced Parkinsons disease mice.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2011
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The aim of this study was to investigate the role of retained acupuncture (RA) in neurotoxin-induced Parkinsons disease (PD) mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to induce the PD model. The mice were divided into four groups, namely, (1) normal; (2) MPTP+retained acupuncture (RA); (3) MPTP+electroacupuncture (EA); (4) MPTP+sham acupuncture (SA). After mice being manipulated with/without acupuncture at acupoints (Daling, PC 7), groups 2-4 were injected with MPTP (15 mg/kg/d). The mice were evaluated for behavioral changes, in terms of time of landing, after acupuncture treatment. The animals were sacrificed and their brains assayed for dopamine and its metabolites and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression by using HPLC and immunohistochemistry/Western blotting, respectively. [(123)I] IBZM-SPECT imaging between SA and RA groups were compared. The results showed that the time of landing of the three groups with treatment was significant longer than group 1 (normal) (4.33±0.15 s). Nonetheless, group 2 (RA) (7.13±0.20 s) had a shorter time of landing than group 4 (SA) (7.89±0.46 s). The number of TH (+) neurons and the expression of TH proteins were significantly higher in the RA group than in the SA/EA groups. RA also increased the uptake of [(123)I] IBZM into the triatum compared to the SA group. We conclude that RA possibly attenuates neuronal damage in MPTP-induced PD mice, which suggests RA may be useful as a complementary strategy when treating human PD.
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Impact of visual repetition rate on intrinsic properties of low frequency fluctuations in the visual network.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
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Visual processing network is one of the functional networks which have been reliably identified to consistently exist in human resting brains. In our work, we focused on this network and investigated the intrinsic properties of low frequency (0.01-0.08 Hz) fluctuations (LFFs) during changes of visual stimuli. There were two main questions to be discussed in this study: intrinsic properties of LFFs regarding (1) interactions between visual stimuli and resting-state; (2) impact of repetition rate of visual stimuli.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.