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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Current cervical cancer prevention strategies including cervical screening and prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccination: a review.
Curr Opin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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As screening methods evolve and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination efforts gain traction, knowledge of the current evidence on effectiveness of prevention methods is critical to support further development of programs.
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Long-term HPV type-specific risks of high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions: A 14-year follow-up of a randomized primary HPV screening trial.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Quantitative knowledge of the long-term human papillomavirus (HPV) type-specific risks for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias Grades 2 and 3 (CIN2 and CIN3) is useful for estimating the effect of elimination of specific HPV types and clinical benefits of screening for specific HPV types. We estimated HPV type-specific risks for CIN2 and CIN3 using a randomized primary HPV screening trial followed up for 14.6 years using comprehensive, nationwide registers. Poisson regression estimated cumulative incidences, population attributable proportions (PAR) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of high-grade lesions by baseline HPV type, with censoring at date of first CIN2/3 or last registered cytology. Multivariate analysis adjusted for coinfections. IRRs were highest during the first screening round, but continued to be high throughout follow-up (IRRs for CIN3 associated with high-risk (HR) HPV positivity were 226.9, 49.3, 17.7 and 10.3 during the first, second and third screening round and for >9 years of follow-up, respectively). Increased long-term risks were found particularly for HPV Types 16, 18 and 31 and for CIN3+ risks. HPV16/18/31/33 had 14-year cumulative incidences for CIN3+ above 28%, HPV35/45/52/58 had 14 year risks between 14% and 18% and HPV39/51/56/59/66/68 had risks <10%. HPV16 contributed to the greatest proportion of CIN2+ (first round PAR 36%), followed by Types 31, 52, 45 and 58 (7-11%). HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58 together contributed 73.9% of CIN2+ lesions and all HR types contributed 86.9%. In summary, we found substantial differences in risks for CIN2 and CIN3 between different oncogenic HPV types. These differences may be relevant for both clinical management and design of preventive strategies.
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Long-term HPV type-specific risks for ASCUS and LSIL: A 14-year follow-up of a randomized primary HPV screening trial.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections result in a significant burden of low-grade cervical lesions. Between 1997 and 2000, our randomized trial of primary HPV screening enrolled 12,527 women participating in population-based screening. Women between 32 and 38 years of age (median: 34, interquartile range: 33-37) were randomized to HPV and cytology double testing (intervention arm, n?=?6,257 enrolled, n?=?5,888 followed-up) or to cytology, with samples frozen for future HPV testing (control arm, n?=?6,270 enrolled, n?=?5,795 followed-up). We estimated the HPV type-specific, long-term absolute risks (AR), and population attributable proportions (PAR) for cytological diagnoses of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and for histopathologically diagnosed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1). The women were followed using comprehensive, nationwide register-based follow-up. During a mean follow-up time of 11.07 years, 886 ASCUS and LSIL lesions were detected, 448 in the intervention arm and 438 in the control arm. Poisson regression estimated the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of low-grade lesions by HPV type. The IRRs were strongly dependent on follow-up time. The IRRs for ASCUS/LSIL associated with high-risk HPV positivity were 18.6 (95% CI: 14.9-23.4) during the first screening round, 4.1 (95% CI: 2.8-6.2) during the second, 2.6 (95% CI: 1.7-4.1) during the third, and 1.1 (95% CI: 0.7-1.8) for >9 years of follow-up, with similar declines seen for the individual types. Type 16 contributed consistently to the greatest proportion of ASCUS, LSIL, and CIN1 risk in the population (first screening round PAR: ASCUS: 15.5% (95% CI: 9.7-21.9), LSIL: 14.7% (95% CI: 8.0-20.9), and CIN1: 13.4% (95% CI: 3.2-22.5)), followed by type 31 [8.4% (95% CI: 4.2-12.5) for ASCUS to 17.3% (95% CI: 6.8-26.6) for CIN1]. In summary, most ASCUS/LSIL lesions associated with HPV infection are caused by new HPV infections and most lesions are found during the first screening round.
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Long term duration of protective effect for HPV negative women: follow-up of primary HPV screening randomised controlled trial.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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To assess whether the increased sensitivity of screening for human papillomavirus (HPV) may represent overdiagnosis and to compare the long term duration of protective effect against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) in HPV based and cytology based screening.
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Triage of HR-HPV positive women with minor cytological abnormalities: a comparison of mRNA testing, HPV DNA testing, and repeat cytology using a 4-year follow-up of a population-based study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Expression of the viral E6/E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) is necessary for malignant conversion and maintenance in cervical tissue. In order to determine whether HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing more effectively predicts precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer than HR-HPV DNA testing, we aimed to compare triage using HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing by APTIMA HPV Assay (APTIMA) to HPV16 DNA testing, HPV16/18 DNA testing, and repeat cytology.
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Efficacy of HPV-based screening for prevention of invasive cervical cancer: follow-up of four European randomised controlled trials.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2013
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In four randomised trials, human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening for cervical cancer was compared with cytology-based cervical screening, and precursors of cancer were the endpoint in every trial. However, direct estimates are missing of the relative efficacy of HPV-based versus cytology-based screening for prevention of invasive cancer in women who undergo regular screening, of modifiers (eg, age) of this relative efficacy, and of the duration of protection. We did a follow-up study of the four randomised trials to investigate these outcomes.
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Community influences on married mens uptake of HIV testing in eight African countries.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Despite efforts to increase HIV testing in the African region, the proportion of men who report ever having been tested for HIV remains low. Research has focused on individual level determinants of womens testing however little is known about factors associated with mens testing behavior. This analysis investigates community influences on HIV testing among men ages 15-54, using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from Chad, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Multilevel models were fitted in each country for the outcome of ever receiving an HIV test. After controlling for individual and household level factors, community level factors of demographics, economics, and behavior and knowledge remain significantly associated with HIV testing among men. The results of this analysis highlight the need to recognize the impact of community influences on mens HIV test seeking behavior, and to harness these community factors in the design of programs aimed at encouraging the uptake of HIV testing among men in Africa.
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What happens after discharge? An analysis of long-term survival in cardiac surgical patients requiring prolonged intensive care.
J Card Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
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Cardiac surgical patients with postoperative complications frequently require prolonged intensive care yet survive to hospital discharge.
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Community environments shaping transactional sex among sexually active men in Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania.
AIDS Care
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Transactional sex, or the exchange of sex for material goods or money, is a risky sexual behavior that has been linked to HIV/AIDS and gender-based violence. Throughout sub-Saharan Africa, transactional sex remains a common practice, putting men and women at risk of HIV. However, little is known of how community environments shape mens participation in risky transactional sex. This analysis examines community-level influences on participation in risky transactional sex among sexually active men in three African countries (Malawi, Tanzania, and Nigeria). The analysis uses Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data to examine the association between mens report of risky transactional sex and community characteristics including economic, gender norms, HIV behavior and knowledge, and demographic factors. The results show that men residing in communities with more female education and later age of first birth are less likely to report risky transactional sex, while men who live in communities where men report higher number of sexual partners are more likely to report risky transactional sex. While programmatic interventions should continue to improve womens status individually and relative to men, such efforts should be extended to recognize that many community and cultural influences also affect mens sexual behavior. Programs that understand, discuss, and challenge community factors that influence mens sexual behavior may be able to provide a more effective intervention resulting in opportunities for communities to initiate behavioral change.
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Inference of type-specific HPV transmissibility, progression and clearance rates: a mathematical modelling approach.
PLoS ONE
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Quantifying rates governing the clearance of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and its progression to clinical disease, together with viral transmissibility and the duration of naturally-acquired immunity, is essential in estimating the impact of vaccination programmes and screening or testing regimes. However, the complex natural history of HPV makes this difficult. We infer the viral transmissibility, rate of waning natural immunity and rates of progression and clearance of infection of 13 high-risk and 2 non-oncogenic HPV types, making use of a number of rich datasets from Sweden. Estimates of viral transmissibility, clearance of initial infection and waning immunity were derived in a Bayesian framework by fitting a susceptible-infectious-recovered-susceptible (SIRS) transmission model to age- and type-specific HPV prevalence data from both a cross-sectional study and a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of primary HPV screening. The models fitted well, but over-estimated the prevalence of four high-risk types with respect to the data. Three of these types (HPV-33, -35 and -58) are among the most closely related phylogenetically to the most prevalent HPV-16. The fourth (HPV-45) is the most closely related to HPV-18; the second most prevalent type. We suggest that this may be an indicator of cross-immunity. Rates of progression and clearance of clinical lesions were additionally estimated from longitudinal data gathered as part of the same RCT. Our estimates of progression and clearance rates are consistent with the findings of survival analysis studies and we extend the literature by estimating progression and clearance rates for non-16 and non-18 high-risk types. We anticipate that such type-specific estimates will be useful in the parameterisation of further models and in developing our understanding of HPV natural history.
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The role of place in shaping contraceptive use among women in Africa.
PLoS ONE
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Contraceptive prevalence is low in the African region despite considerable family planning programmatic efforts. This study is the first to examine how community factors shape contraceptive use for married women in an entire region, comparing results across 21 African countries with a DHS in the last 5 years. The analysis builds on previous studies through an examination of the individual, household and community level factors that shape contraceptive use.
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Prediction of new onset atrial fibrillation after cardiac revascularization surgery.
Am. J. Cardiol.
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The aim of this study was to create a simple risk index to predict new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with histories of AF. AF after coronary artery bypass grafting (referred to here as AF) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Identifying patients at high risk for developing AF may help identify a group of patients who might benefit from strategies to prevent postoperative AF. A cohort of 18,517 patients enrolled from January 1, 1996, to December 31, 2009, was used to derive a risk index for AF prediction. A multivariate logistic regression model determined the independent predictive impact of clinical and demographic characteristics on the occurrence of AF. A subset of these variables was used to construct a risk index to predict AF. This risk index was validated in a sequential cohort of 1,378 consecutive patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting from January 1, 2010, to June 30, 2011. AF occurred in 3,486 patients in the calibration cohort (18.83%) and in 269 patients in the validation cohort (19.52%). After considering patients demographics, co-morbid conditions, and severity of illness, advanced age appeared as the most powerful predictor of AF (odds ratio 1.059/year, 95% confidence interval 1.055 to 1.063). Age, height, weight, and the presence of peripheral vascular disease contributed most to the prediction model. An AF risk index including these variables had adequate discriminatory power, with a concordance index of 0.68. In conclusion, using a large cohort of patients, a simple risk index relying only on preoperative clinical variables was developed, which will help predict AF. This risk index can be used clinically to identify patients at high risk for the development of AF.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.