Organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) and organic cation transporter 6 (OCT6) are involved in the uptake of taxanes and anthracyclines, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate expression levels of OATP1A2 and OCT6 as a predictor of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer. A total of 124 patients who received anthracycline/taxane-based NAC were included. Expression levels of OATP1A2 and OCT6 were immunohistochemically assessed in core needle biopsies obtained prior to NAC. A pathologic good response (pGR) and a pathologic complete response (pCR) were achieved in 24 and 10 % of patients, respectively. In univariate analysis of the entire cohort, negative hormone receptor (HR) status (pGR and pCR, P < 0.001), high Ki-67 level (pGR, P = 0.03; pCR, P = 0.02), triple negative (TN) subtype (pGR, P = 0.001; pCR, P < 0.001), and high OCT6 (pGR, P = 0.003) were associated with the response. In combined analysis, high OATP1A2/high OCT6 level was also a significant factor for pGR (P = 0.001) and pCR (P = 0.001). Two separate multivariate analyses showed that HR status, TN subtype and combined high OATP1A2/high OCT6 level were significant independent predictors. When TN and non-TN tumors were assessed separately in univariate analysis, high Ki-67 level (P = 0.04) were associated with pGR and combined high OATP1A2/high OCT6 level was associated with both pGR (P = 0.005) and pCR (P = 0.03) in the TN group. Multivariate analysis identified the combined high OATP1A2/high OCT6 level as the sole independent predictor of pGR. In the non-TN group, negative HR status (P = 0.03) and positive HER2 status (P = 0.005) were associated with pGR, but HER2 status was the sole independent predictor of pGR. These results suggest that response-associated predictors may differ between the TN and non-TN tumors. Combined high OATP1A2/high OCT6 may be a potential predictor of response to anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy in breast cancer, especially in TN tumors.
Well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma (WDPM) is a distinct subtype of mesothelial tumor from diffuse malignant mesothelioma (DMM), with an uncertain malignant potential. The relationship between WDPM and DMM, with regard to the ability of the former to develop into the latter, is also unknown. A 58-year-old woman, diagnosed with a rectal carcinoid tumor, underwent removal of the lymph nodes via the abdomen in 2004. A large number of white miliary nodules were identified on the mesentery and peritoneum, which were histologically diagnosed as WDPM. No further therapy was administered, but the patient was followed-up using imaging methods. Seven years later, an abdominal wall mass was discovered using positron emission tomography-computed tomography, and a laparotomy biopsy was performed. DMM was diagnosed, because mesothelioma with extended invasion had been histologically identified. Mesothelioma similar to papillary proliferation was present on the outer layer of the peritoneum, and an infiltrating lesion with continuous restiform or solid-like structures was noted. WDPM was believed to have undergone malignant transformation. Compared to DMM, WDPM has a good prognosis and is considered a benign or borderline neoplasm. Our findings suggest that WDPM does have malignant potential, however, because histological findings indicated a malignant transformation of WDPM to DMM.
The placenta plays a central role in governing local circulatory system that mediates maternal condition and fetal growth. In early gestational phases, the placenta exerts properties of invasion and neovascularization for successful placentation. Extravillous invasive trophoblasts replace uterine endometrial vasculature and establish local blood pathway to obtain oxygen and nutrients from the mother. In later phases, the placenta promotes villous angiogenesis and vascular maturation that are finely controlled by angiogenic and antiangiogenic molecules. Among various molecules involved in placental neovascularization, vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) and angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) mediate important signaling pathways for maternal circulatory system and fetal growth. VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 are functional receptors for placental growth factor (PlGF) and VEGF, respectively, and PlGF-VEGFR1 and VEGF-VEGFR2 interactions are disturbed in many preeclamptic patients by excess amount of soluble form of VEGFR1 (also named sFlt1), a natural PlGF/VEGF antagonist. Recent studies have disclosed that excessive sFlt1 production in the placenta and aberrant AT1 signaling in the mother are closely associated with the pathology of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In this paper, neovascularization of the placenta and pathological events associated with disrupted balance between angiogenic and antiangiogenic signaling in preeclampsia are discussed.
Lymphohistiocytoid mesothelioma (LHM), reported to be a rare variant of sarcomatoid mesothelioma, is challenging to differentiate from non-Hodgkins lymphoma due to marked lymphocytic infiltration. To aid accurate recognition of LHM, we examined immunohistochemical, in situ hybridization (ISH) of Epstein-Barr virus RNA (EBER-1) mRNA, fluorescence ISH (FISH) for homozygous deletion of 9p21, and asbestos analysis in four cases (three men and 1 woman). Three patients died, while Case 4 was still alive 19 months after extrapleural pneumonectomy. Histologically, these cases were characterized by heavy lymphocytic infiltration. All neoplastic cells were positive for calretinin, AE1/AE3, and epithelial membrane antigen, but negative for CEA. EBER1 factor was negative. FISH analysis demonstrated homozygous deletion of the 9p21 locus in three of the four cases. In Case 1: (i) autopsy findings showed mesothelioma primarily located in the right parietal pleura, but metastasized into the left lung and abdominal organs; (ii) the histological findings at autopsy indicated sarcomatoid mesothelioma; and (iii) we found asbestos bodies and fibers in extracts from lung tissue (Cases 1 & 4) using digestion with bleaching fluid. LHM, an infrequent variant of sarcomatoid mesothelioma, displayed homozygous deletion of the 9p21 locus (three of four cases), and has a relatively favorable prognosis for the sarcomatoid type.
This study aimed at evaluating the usefulness of topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) for predicting the effect of anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. The TOP2A status was examined using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in 14 pre-chemotherapeutic breast cancer tissues, and was also assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 14 pairs of pre- and post-chemotherapeutic breast cancer specimens. TOP2A gene aberration by IHC tended to show a correlation with pathological responses but this was not statistically significant (p=0.060). On the other hand, the low TOP2A/CEP17 ratio correlated with good pathological responses (p=0.012). TOP2A overexpression was not significantly associated with response (p=0.580). Our results thus suggest that the TOP2A/CEP17 ratio may be a useful predictor of the effects of anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.
Reported herein is a case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurring in a 25-year-old Japanese man who was diagnosed with Crohns disease (CD) at 14 years of age; treatment included predonisolone, azathioprine, and infliximab. The tumor was located in right upper lobe and the size was 8 cm in diameter; histology was poorly differentiated HCC with pleomorphic cellular changes. Adjacent normal liver showed no evidence of cirrhosis or viral hepatitis. Until now, only six cases of HCC arising in patients with CD have been reported in the English-language literature. Most of these patients had early onset of CD and HCC: none had cirrhosis or virus hepatitis. Most patients had a long disease history of CD and were being medicated with several immunosuppressive agents. Some factors associated with CD might indirectly or directly be related to the development of HCC in CD patients, although the possibility that these HCC occurred coincidentally in CD patients, including the present patient, cannot be ruled out. Accumulation of cases is necessary to evaluate the relationship between CD and HCC precisely.
Sebaceous carcinoma (SC) of the breast is a rare malignant tumor and only nine cases, including the present one, have been reported in the English-language literature. The present report describes a case of mammary SC in a 50-year-old Japanese woman. The tumor was gray-white on cut surface and separate from the skin and the nipple. Microscopically, lobules encircled by a fibrous envelope and cords or small cell nests in the stroma were noted. These two types of structures were composed of dark cells and clear foamy cells. The dark cells had large nuclei and amphophilic cytoplasm. The clear foamy cells had numerous lipid vacuoles, confirmed on immunostaining with anti-adipophilin antibody and electron microscopy. In the lobules the gradual transitions from basal dark cells to central clear foamy cells and comedo-like necrosis were observed. The tumor cells were positive on immunohistochemistry for cytokeratins (CAM5.2, AE1/AE3), Her2/neu and androgen receptor but negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors. This is the first case of an androgen receptor-positive mammary SC to be reported, and therefore contributes to the understanding of the clinicopathological features of SC of the breast.
Breast cancer is not a single entity. This study therefore aimed to identify differences in the impacts of anticancer agents and predictive factors between different breast cancer subtypes. A total of 234 patients with luminal (n = 109), luminal-HER2 (L-H, n = 29), HER-2 (n = 35), or triple negative (TN, n = 61) breast cancer subtypes were treated with standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of an anthracycline and/or taxane. Pathological response and prognosis were examined in each subtype. Expression levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, nuclear grade, MIB-1, p53, topoisomerase IIalpha (topoIIalpha), cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were examined in association with quasipathological complete response (QpCR). QpCR rates were 9.1% (10/109) in luminal, 45% (13/29) in L-H, 37% (13/35) in HER2, and 54.1% (33/61) in TN. Non-QpCR patients showed significantly poorer 3-year disease-free survival than QpCR patients in TN, but not in patients with other subtypes. No factors were associated with QpCR in luminal patients. Patients with higher nuclear grade were more likely to achieve QpCR in L-H. The proliferative markers MIB-1 and topoIlalpha had opposite impacts on pathological response in HER-2 and TN. The QpCR rate was significantly higher in TN lacking CK5/6 and/or EGFR expression, defined as nonbasal subtype, compared with basal subtype (p = 0.049). Cytotoxic anticancer agents were associated with different responses in different breast cancer subtypes. Identifying basal-type cancer and further subdivision of nonbasal types is important for treating TN patients.
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