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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Adsorption of Bisphenol A Based on Synergy between Hydrogen Bonding and Hydrophobic Interaction.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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The study mainly investigated the synergetic adsorption of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction. To simplify the adsorption driving forces and binding sites, the hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain was introduced onto polypropylene (PP) nonwoven. The amphiphilic structure was constructed for the adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA). A solvent shielding experiment was conducted to calculate the contributions of diverse interactions. Also, a specific structure without hydrophilic microdomain was constructed as comparison to determine the adsorption rate and quantify the diffusion behaviors. On the basis of double-exponential model, the adsorption process can be distinctly divided into three stages, namely film diffusion stage, intralayer diffusion stage, and dynamic equilibrium stage. The adsorption rate was dramatically improved due to the influence of hydrophilic microdomain and participation of hydrogen bonding adsorption. Discussions on adsorption priority were also proposed. The results of surface energy heterogeneity revealed that the hydrophilic microdomain or the hydrogen bonding site was occupied preferentially.
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Arterial stiffness is a potential mechanism and promising indicator of orthostatic hypotension in the general population.
VASA
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a disease prevalent among middle-aged men and the elderly. The association between arterial stiffness and OH is unclear. This study evaluates whether arterial stiffness is correlated with OH and tests the usefulness of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an arterial stiffness marker, with regard to identifying OH.
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Ligand-Exchange Assisted Formation of Au/TiO2 Schottky Contact for Visible-Light Photocatalysis.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Plasmonic noble metal nanoparticles have emerged as a promising material in sensitizing wide-bandgap semiconductors for visible-light photocatalysis. Conventional methods in constructing such heterocatalysts suffer from either poor control over the size of the metal nanoparticles or inefficient charge transfer through the metal/semiconductor interface, which limit their photocatalytic activity. To solve this problem, in this work we construct Au/TiO2 photocatalysts by depositing presynthesized colloidal Au nanoparticles with well-controlled sizes to TiO2 nanocrystals and then removing capping ligands on the Au surface through a delicately designed ligand-exchange method, which leads to close Au/TiO2 Schottky contact after a mild annealing process. Benefiting from this unique synthesis strategy, the obtained photocatalysts show superior activity to conventionally prepared photocatalysts in dye decomposition and water-reduction hydrogen production under visible-light illumination. This study not only opens up new opportunities in designing photoactive materials with high stability and enhanced performance for solar energy conversion but also provides a potential solution for the well-recognized challenge in cleaning capping ligands from the surface of colloidal catalyst nanoparticles.
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Nucleic Acid Chemistry in the Organic Phase: From Functionalized Oligonucleotides to DNA Side Chain Polymers.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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DNA-incorporating hydrophobic moieties can be synthesized by either solid-phase or solution-phase coupling. On a solid support the DNA is protected, and hydrophobic units are usually attached employing phosphoramidite chemistry involving a DNA synthesizer. On the other hand, solution coupling in aqueous medium results in low yields due to the solvent incompatibility of DNA and hydrophobic compounds. Hence, the development of a general coupling method for producing amphiphilic DNA conjugates with high yield in solution remains a major challenge. Here, we report an organic-phase coupling strategy for nucleic acid modification and polymerization by introducing a hydrophobic DNA-surfactant complex as a reactive scaffold. A remarkable range of amphiphile-DNA structures (DNA-pyrene, DNA-triphenylphosphine, DNA-hydrocarbon, and DNA block copolymers) and a series of new brush-type DNA side-chain homopolymers with high DNA grafting density are produced efficiently. We believe that this method is an important breakthrough in developing a generalized approach to synthesizing functional DNA molecules for self-assembly and related technological applications.
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Ultra-long Magnetic Nanochains for Highly Efficient Arsenic Removal from Water.
J Mater Chem A Mater Energy Sustain
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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The contamination of drinking water with naturally occurring arsenic is a global health threat. Filters that are packed with adsorbent media with a high affinity for arsenic have been used to de-contaminate water - generally iron or aluminium oxides are favored materials. Recently, nanoparticles have been introduced as adsorbent media due to their superior efficiency compared to their bulk counter-parts. An efficient nanoadsorbent should ideally possess high surface area, be easy to synthesize, and most importantly offer a high arsenic removal capacity. Achieving all the key features in a single step synthesis is an engineering challenge. We have successfully engineered such a material in the form of nanochains synthesized via a one step flame synthesis. The ultra-long ?-Fe2O3 nanochains possess high surface area (151.12 m(2) g(-1)), large saturation magnetization (77.1 emu g(-1)) that aids in their gas phase self-assembly into long chains in an external magnetic field, along with an extraordinary arsenic removal capacity (162 mg.g(-1)). A filter made with this material exhibited a relatively low-pressure drop and very little break-through of the iron oxide across the filter.
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Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Radix Hedysari enhance radiosensitivity of 12C6+ radiation in human liver cancer cells by modulating apoptosis protein.
Saudi Med J
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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To investigate the radiosensitizing effects of Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Hedysari (RAS-RH [an ultra-filtration extract]) and its underlying mechanisms in human liver cancer cells H22.
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Peptide-Induced Hierarchical Long-Range Order and Photocatalytic Activity of Porphyrin Assemblies.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Long-range structural order and alignment over different scales are of key importance for the regulation of structure and functionality in biology. However, it remains a great challenge to engineer and assemble such complex functional synthetic systems with order over different length scales from simple biologically relevant molecules, such as peptides and porphyrins. Herein we describe the successful introduction of hierarchical long-range order in dipeptide-adjusted porphyrin self-assembly by a thermodynamically driven self-orienting assembly pathway associated with multiple weak interactions. The long-range order and alignment of fiber bundles induced new properties, including anisotropic birefringence, a large Stokes shift, amplified chirality, and excellent photostability as well as sustainable photocatalytic activity. We also demonstrate that the aligned fiber bundles are able to induce the epitaxially oriented growth of Pt nanowires in a photocatalytic reaction.
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Design and characterization of 3-Azidothalidomide as a selective hydrogen sulfide probe.
Tetrahedron Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recently recognized as an important signaling molecule in biological systems. Herein, we report the development of a fluorescence turn-on probe based on the structure of pomalidomide, a FDA approved drug for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Various characterizations demonstrated high selectivity and sensitivity of this probe towards H2S. Furthermore, the application of this probe to detect H2S in living cells was confirmed by flow cytometry and fluorescence imaging studies.
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Neuronal necrosis is regulated by a conserved chromatin-modifying cascade.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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Neuronal necrosis induced by calcium overload causes devastating brain dysfunction in diseases such as stroke and brain trauma. It has been considered a stochastic event lacking genetic regulation, and pharmacological means to suppress neuronal necrosis are lacking. Using a Drosophila model of calcium overloading, we found JIL-1/mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1/2 is a regulator of neuronal necrosis through phosphorylation of histone H3 serine 28 (H3S28ph). Further, we identified its downstream events including displacement of polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and activation of Trithorax (Trx). To test the role of JIL-1/PRC1/Trx cascade in mammals, we studied the necrosis induced by glutamate in rat cortical neuron cultures and rodent models of brain ischemia and found the cascade is activated in these conditions and inhibition of the cascade suppresses necrosis in vitro and in vivo. Together, our research demonstrates that neuronal necrosis is regulated by a chromatin-modifying cascade, and this discovery may provide potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers for neuronal necrosis.
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Silencing ADAM10 inhibits the in vitro and in vivo growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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A disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) is a transmembrane protein associated with metastasis in a number of types of cancer. Little is known, however, regarding the role of ADAM10 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether downregulation of ADAM10 effects HCC cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell migration and cell invasion. A recombinant small hairpin RNA expression vector carrying ADAM10 was constructed and then transfected into the HepG2 human HCC cell line. In vitro cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell migration and cell invasion, and in vivo tumor growth were determined following the downregulation of ADAM10 by RNA interference. The results revealed that downregulation of ADAM10 expression in HepG2 tumor cells using the RNA silencing approach significantly suppressed cell proliferation, cell migration and cell invasion in vitro, and tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, ADAM10 silencing was able to significantly reduce constitutive phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt, which implies that ADAM10 is, at least partially, involved in the activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. These results suggest that ADAM10 is important in regulating the proliferation and metastasis of HCC. Thus, ADAM10 is a promising therapeutic target for the prevention of tumor metastases in HCC.
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Effect of green tea consumption on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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The studies investigating the effects of green tea on blood pressure (BP) have generated inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the effects of green tea on BP control. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library (updated to March 2014) were searched for randomized controlled trials evaluating the effects of green tea on BP. Pooled effect of green tea consumption on BP was evaluated using fixed-effects or random-effects model. Thirteen trials comprising a total of 1,367 subjects were included in the current meta-analysis. The overall outcome of the meta-analysis suggested that green tea consumption significantly decrease systolic blood pressure (SBP) level by -1.98 mmHg (95% CI: -2.94, -1.01 mmHg; P < 0.001). Compared with the control group, green tea also showed a significant lowering effect on diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in treatment group (-1.92 mmHg; 95% CI: -3.17, -0.68 mmHg; P = 0.002). Subgroup analyses further suggested that the positive effect of green tea polyphenols on BP was only showed in studies using a low-dose green tea polyphenol, with the long-term intervention duration or ruling out the confounding effects of caffeine. The meta-analysis suggested that green tea consumption had a favorable effect on decrease of BP.
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KSR-based medium improves the generation of high-quality mouse iPS cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from somatic cells have great potential for regenerative medicine. The efficiency in generation of iPS cells has been significantly improved in recent years. However, the generation of high-quality iPS cells remains of high interest. Consistently, we demonstrate that knockout serum replacement (KSR)-based medium accelerates iPS cell induction and improves the quality of iPS cells, as confirmed by generation of chimeras and all iPS cell-derived offspring with germline transmission competency. Both alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity assay and expression of Nanog have been used to evaluate the efficiency of iPS cell induction and formation of ES/iPS cell colonies; however, appropriate expression of Nanog frequently indicates the quality of ES/iPS cells. Interestingly, whereas foetal bovine serum (FBS)-based media increase iPS cell colony formation, as revealed by AP activity, KSR-based media increase the frequency of iPS cell colony formation with Nanog expression. Furthermore, inhibition of MAPK/ERK by a specific inhibitor, PD0325901, in KSR- but not in FBS-based media significantly increases Nanog-GFP+ iPS cells. In contrast, addition of bFGF in KSR-based media decreases proportion of Nanog-GFP+ iPS cells. Remarkably, PD can rescue Nanog-GFP+ deficiency caused by bFGF. These data suggest that MAPK/ERK pathway influences high quality mouse iPS cells and that KSR- and PD-based media could enrich homogeneous authentic pluripotent stem cells.
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A service brokering and recommendation mechanism for better selecting cloud services.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Cloud computing is becoming the new generation computing infrastructure, and many cloud vendors provide different types of cloud services. How to choose the best cloud services for specific applications is very challenging. Addressing this challenge requires balancing multiple factors, such as business demands, technologies, policies and preferences in addition to the computing requirements. This paper recommends a mechanism for selecting the best public cloud service at the levels of Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Platform as a Service (PaaS). A systematic framework and associated workflow include cloud service filtration, solution generation, evaluation, and selection of public cloud services. Specifically, we propose the following: a hierarchical information model for integrating heterogeneous cloud information from different providers and a corresponding cloud information collecting mechanism; a cloud service classification model for categorizing and filtering cloud services and an application requirement schema for providing rules for creating application-specific configuration solutions; and a preference-aware solution evaluation mode for evaluating and recommending solutions according to the preferences of application providers. To test the proposed framework and methodologies, a cloud service advisory tool prototype was developed after which relevant experiments were conducted. The results show that the proposed system collects/updates/records the cloud information from multiple mainstream public cloud services in real-time, generates feasible cloud configuration solutions according to user specifications and acceptable cost predication, assesses solutions from multiple aspects (e.g., computing capability, potential cost and Service Level Agreement, SLA) and offers rational recommendations based on user preferences and practical cloud provisioning; and visually presents and compares solutions through an interactive web Graphical User Interface (GUI).
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Probing local strain at MX(2)-metal boundaries with surface plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Interactions between metal and atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials can exhibit interesting physical behaviors that are of both fundamental interests and technological importance. In addition to forming a metal–semiconductor Schottky junction that is critical for electrical transport, metal deposited on 2D layered materials can also generate a local mechanical strain. We investigate the local strain at the boundaries between metal (Ag, Au) nanoparticles and MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S) layers by exploiting the strong local field enhancement at the boundary in surface plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We show that the local mechanical strain splits both the in-plane vibration mode E2g(1) and the out-of-plane vibration mode A1g in monolayer MoS2, and activates the in-plane mode E1g that is normally forbidden in backscattering Raman process. In comparison, the effects of mechanical strain in thicker MoS2 layers are significantly weaker. We also observe that photoluminescence from the indirect bandgap transition (when the number of layers is ?2) is quenched with the metal deposition, while a softened and broadened shoulder peak emerges close to the original direct-bandgap transition because of the mechanical strain. The strain at metal–MX2 boundaries, which locally modifies the electronic and phonon structures of MX2, can have important effects on electrical transport through the metal–MX2 contact.
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Knockout of ADAM10 enhances sorafenib antitumor activity of hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Sorafenib (SOR), a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitor, is in wide clinical use for the treatment and prevention of liver cancer. However, extended SOR administration for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induces drug resistance thereby limiting its efficacy and highlighting the need for improved therapeutic strategies. It has previously been demonstrated that knockout of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) via siRNA induced cancer apoptosis and decreased chemotherapy drug resistance. However, whether knockout of ADAM10 is able to decrease SOR resistance remains to be determined. Therefore, in the present study, the effect of siRNA-ADAM10 in combination with SOR was analyzed in HCC cell lines (HepG2) by inhibiting tumor growth and simultaneously reducing doses of SOR. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion and involvement in receptor signaling were determined after siRNA-ADAM10 was applied in combination with SOR treatment. Tumor growth ability in nude mice was also detected. The results showed that siRNA-ADAM10 in combination with SOR treatment in HCC cancer cells significantly suppressed proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced tumor apoptosis in vitro, and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. In addition, the results showed that knockout of ADAM10 by siRNA inhibited the constitutive phosphorylation of PI3K and AKT, which may contribute to the reduction of SOR resistance. Collectively, our experimental results indicate that knockout of ADAM10 by siRNA increased the SOR antitumor activity of liver cancer in vitro and in vivo, and that this additive combination is a promising drug candidate for treatment of HCC.
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Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate attenuates radiation-induced fibrosis damage in cardiac fibroblasts.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The main pathological change in radiation-induced heart disease is fibrosis. Emerging evidence has indicated that sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) was used for treating ?brosis diseases. The present study was undertaken to characterize the effect of STS on radiation-induced cardiac fibrosis (RICF) on cultured cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). CFs were irradiated with 1 or 2 Gy X-rays, and the expression of TGF-?1 and collagen I (Col-1) increased, indicating that low-dose X-rays promoted fibrosis damage effect. The fibrosis damage was accompanied by morphologic changes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), as well as an increase in the expression of the ER stress-related molecules, GRP78 and CHOP. Administration of STS reduced ROS production and decreased the expression of Col-1, TGF-?1, p-Smad2/3, GRP78, and CHOP in irradiated CFs, thus weakening the radiation-induced fibrosis damage and ER stress. Radiation-induced fibrosis damage was observed on a cellular level. The involvement of ER stress in radiation-induced fibrosis damage was demonstrated for the first time. STS attenuated the fibrosis damage effect in CFs and this effect may be related to its antioxidant action, and also related to its inhibition of ER stress and TGF-?1-Smad pathway. These results suggest that STS shows a good prospect in clinical prevention and treatment of RICF.
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Elastic properties of chemical-vapor-deposited monolayer MoS2, WS2, and their bilayer heterostructures.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Elastic properties of materials are an important factor in their integration in applications. Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) monolayer semiconductors are proposed as key components in industrial-scale flexible devices and building blocks of two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructures. However, their mechanical and elastic properties have not been fully characterized. Here we report high 2D elastic moduli of CVD monolayer MoS2 and WS2 (?170 N/m), which is very close to the value of exfoliated MoS2 monolayers and almost half the value of the strongest material, graphene. The 2D moduli of their bilayer heterostructures are lower than the sum of 2D modulus of each layer but comparable to the corresponding bilayer homostructure, implying similar interactions between the hetero monolayers as between homo monolayers. These results not only provide deep insight into understanding interlayer interactions in 2D van der Waals structures but also potentially allow engineering of their elastic properties as desired.
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Synergistic effects of co-expression plasmid?based ADAM10-specific siRNA and GRIM-19 on hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) has been demonstrated to correlate with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) grade and clinical outcome and its potential as a target for HCC therapy has been established. Gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality 19 (GRIM-19), a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3)-inhibitory protein, was identified as a potential tumor suppressor associated with growth inhibition and cell apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated whether a combined treatment with ADAM10-specific siRNA and GRIM19 gene could have an enhanced anticancer effectiveness on HCC in vitro and in vivo. We developed a dual expression plasmid that co-expressed ADAM10-specific siRNA and GRIM19, to evaluate its effects on HCC growth. Our results showed that simultaneous expression of ADAM10-specific siRNA and GRIM19 (pSi-ADAM10-GRIM19) in HepG2 cancer cells significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis in vitro, and it also suppressed tumor growth in a nude mouse model when compared to the controls, either ADAM10-specific siRNA or GRIM-19 alone. In summary, our data demonstrated that a combined strategy of co-expressed ADAM10-specific siRNA and GRIM19 synergistically and more effectively suppressed HCC tumor growth, and has therapeutic potential for the treatment of HCC.
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[Primary report of single rib-cartilage recombination transplantation in binder syndrome treatment].
Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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To explore the surgical methods and advantages of single rib-cartilage recombination transplantation in Binder syndrome treatment.
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Outcomes of surgical treatment for gastric cancer patients: 11-year experience of a Chinese high-volume hospital.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. We report our experience with surgery-related parameters and survival outcomes at a single Chinese center. This study analyzed patients following gastric resection between 2000 and 2010, and overall survival was the primary end point. In this study, 1,936 patients who underwent gastrectomy were collected from 2000 to 2010. Curative gastrectomy (R0 resection) was performed in 86.6 % of patients. D1/D1+ lymphadenectomy was frequently performed from 2000 to 2005, and the proportion of D2/D2+ lymphadenectomy increased after 2006. The number of harvested lymph nodes was 10.1 ± 6.0 in 2000 and increased to 28.0 ± 10.5 in 2010. Serosa-invasive lesions (pT4) accounted for 67.9 % of all cases. The 1-year overall survival (OS), 2-year OS, and 3-year OS rates were 89, 74, and 63 %, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified R status, tumor location, macroscopic type, and tumor stage (pT stage and pN stage) as the independent risk factors for overall survival. The prognosis of gastric cancer patients in China remains dismal. To improve the survival outcomes, further efforts toward early detection and multi-disciplinary treatment are needed.
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Concentration and chemical-state profiles at heterogeneous interfaces with sub-nm accuracy from standing-wave ambient-pressure photoemission.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Heterogeneous processes at solid/gas, liquid/gas and solid/liquid interfaces are ubiquitous in modern devices and technologies but often difficult to study quantitatively. Full characterization requires measuring the depth profiles of chemical composition and state with enhanced sensitivity to narrow interfacial regions of a few to several nm in extent over those originating from the bulk phases on either side of the interface. We show for a model system of NaOH and CsOH in an ~1-nm thick hydrated layer on ?-Fe2O3 (haematite) that combining ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and standing-wave photoemission spectroscopy provides the spatial arrangement of the bulk and interface chemical species, as well as local potential energy variations, along the direction perpendicular to the interface with sub-nm accuracy. Standing-wave ambient-pressure photoemission spectroscopy is thus a very promising technique for measuring such important interfaces, with relevance to energy research, heterogeneous catalysis, electrochemistry, and atmospheric and environmental science.
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Upper lesser curvature skeletonization in radical distal gastrectomy.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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To investigate the metastatic status of lymph nodes numbers (no.) 1, 3a, and 3b groups in radical distal gastrectomy with upper lesser curvature skeletonization and the risk factors for lesser curvature regional node (LCRN) metastasis.
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Application of 3.0 tesla magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis in the orthotopic nude mouse model of pancreatic cancer.
Exp. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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The aim of this study was to successfully establish an orthotopic murine model using two different human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines and to propose a 3.0 tesla MRI protocol for noninvasive characterization of this model. SW1990 and MIAPaca-2 tumor cells were injected into the pancreas of BALB/C nu/nu mice. Tumor growth rate and morphological information were assessed by 3.0 tesla MRI (T1WI, T2WI and DCE-MRI) and immunohistology. Proliferation of SW1990 was significantly faster than that of MIAPaca-2 (P=0.000), but MIAPaca-2 mice had a significantly shorter survival than SW1990 mice (41 days and 44 days respectively, P=0.027). MRI could reliably monitor tumor growth in both cell lines: the tumors exhibiting a spherical growth pattern showed a high-intensity signal, and the SW1990 group developed significantly larger tumors compared with the MIAPaCa-2 group. There were no statistical differences between the two groups in which tumor size was assessed using electronic calipers and an MRI scan (P=0.680). Both tumors showed a slow gradual enhancement pattern. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated tumor tissues showing high expression of Ki-67. This model closely mimics human pancreatic cancer and permits monitoring of tumor growth and morphological information by noninvasive 3.0 tesla MRI studies reducing the number of mice required.
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[Resource situation investigation about Rheum tanguticum and its sustainable utilization analysis in main production area of China].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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This study was conducted to investigate the wild and cultivated resource situation of Rheum tanguticum in main production area of China, estimate its reserves, and put forward the feasible approach for the sustainable utilization of R. tanguticum. On the basis of the literature data about R. tanguticum, conbined with interview, investigation and sampling investigation, the total reserve of resources is estimated using the route-quadrat method and the vegetation and soil-type map area method proposed by our research group. The results indicate that there is no obvious change between the present distribution ranges of the wild R. tanguticum and its historical records, but its population density has changed clearly. The reserve of the wild R. tanguticum has seriously declined in lots of place, even faced the exhaustion in some regions. According to the investigation, the resource reserve of the wild R. tanguticum is no more than 5 000 t, and the cultivated is about 1 607 t. The resource reserve of the wild R. tanguticum is nearly depleted, and this suggests that the wild R. tanguticum should be enrolled in the protection plant list, and the cultivated will become the main resource of Rhubarb in the future. So it is extremely neccessary to collect and protect the germplasm resource of R. tanguticum, establish the germplasm nursery and repository, and conduct breeding research on those bases.
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The TG/HDL-C Ratio Might Be a Surrogate for Insulin Resistance in Chinese Nonobese Women.
Int J Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Obejective. To examine the discriminatory power of triglyceride (TG) and triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C) for insulin resistance (IR) in a normoglycaemic Chinese population. Methods. The data were collected from 711 individuals. The normoglycaemic individuals were eventually included in the study (n = 533, age: 62.8 ± 6.6 years, male: 56.8%), who were with a fasting plasma glucose < 6.1?mmol/L and without a history of diabetes. IR was defined as the upper quintile (?1.6) of homeostasis model assessment of IR. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC) was used to examine the discriminatory power. Results. The discriminatory power of TG/HDL-C for IR was acceptable in women with a BMI < 24?kg/m(2) or waist circumference < 80?cm (AROCs: 0.718 and 0.713, resp.); however, the discriminatory power was not acceptable in the obese women. TG/HDL-C was not an acceptable marker of IR in men. The discriminatory power of TG for IR was not acceptable in both men and women. Conclusions. The discriminatory power of TG/HDL-C for IR differs by gender and obesity index in the normoglycaemic Chinese population, and TG/HDL-C could discriminate IR in the nonobese and normoglycaemic women.
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[The expression of miR-183 family in the pathogenesis and development of noise-induced deafness].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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To detect the expression variation of microRNA-183 family in cochlea of animal model characterized by noise-induced deafness at various time points, and to explore the mechanisms responsible for noise-induced deafness.
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Resurfacing severe facial burn scars: an algorithm based on three different types of prefabricated expanded flaps.
J Reconstr Microsurg
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Background?In the reconstruction of facial burn scars, large, thin, color-matching flaps are desirable due to aesthetic and functional demands. There have been many reports using prefabricated flaps to resurface facial skin lesions. However, an algorithm to select the most suitable treatment option for the individual patient is lacking. Methods?An algorithm for facial resurfacing based on three types of prefabricated flaps from the cervical, periclavicular, and lateral thoracic area was setup, and 15 were patients treated accordingly. Results?All 15 prefabricated flaps survived. Minor necrosis at the distal flap edge developed in three cases. After a follow-up of at least 6 months, all patients showed satisfactory aesthetic and functional outcomes. Conclusion?By individual selection of the most suitable option among these three types of prefabricated flaps, satisfactory resurfacing can be achieved for most facial burn scars.
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The antifungal metabolites obtained from the rhizospheric Aspergillus sp. YIM PH30001 against pathogenic fungi of Panax notoginseng.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Eight anthraquinones (1-8), three xanthones (11-13) and two phenols (9-10) were isolated from Aspergillus sp. associated with Panax notoginseng, and their structures were determined as ziganein-1-methyl ether (1), 8-O-methylchrysophanol (2), averythrin (3), averufin (4), 8-O-methyl averufin (5), versicolorin B (6), averantin (7), methyl-averantin (8), arugosin C (9), diorcinol (10), sterigmatocystin (11), demethylsterigmatocystin (12) and dihydrosterigmatocystin (13) by spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 1, 2 and 5 were the novel isolates from genus Aspergillus. Compounds 3, 6 and 7 exhibited antifungal activity against Fusariumsolani, pathogenic fungus of P. notoginseng, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 16-32 ?g/mL, and compounds 1, 3, 4, 7 and 9 showed antibacterial activity against Bacillussubtilis with MICs of 64-128 ?g/mL, 16-32 ?g/mL, 8-16 ?g/mL, 16-32 ?g/mL and 64-128 ?g/mL, respectively. The metabolites showed the potential value in the research of antifungal agents, especially in searching for a biocontrol of diseases of P. notoginseng. The preliminary structure-activity relationships have been discussed for some of the compounds.
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Characterization of Fe3O4/SiO2/Gd2O(CO3)2 core/shell/shell nanoparticles as T1 and T2 dual mode MRI contrast agent.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Core/shell/shell structured Fe3O4/SiO2/Gd2O(CO3)2 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized. Their properties as a new type of T1-T2 dual model contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging were investigated. Due to the introduce of a separating SiO2 layer, the magnetic coupling between Gd2O(CO3)2 and Fe3O4 could be modulated by the thickness of SiO2 layer and produce appropriate T1 and T2 signal. Additionally, the existence of Gd(3+) enhances the transverse relaxivity of Fe3O4 possibly because of the magnetic coupling between Gd(3+) and Fe3O4. The Fe3O4/SiO2/Gd2O(CO3)2 nanoparticles exhibit good biocompatibility, showing great potential for biomedical applications.
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Internal Mammary Artery Perforator-Supercharged Prefabricated Cervicothoracic Flap for Face and Neck Reconstruction.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Prefabricated flap is an important technique to reconstruct massive face and neck skin defects. But its vascularization remains unpredictable and often leads to abnormal blood supply of the harvested flap, even necrosis. Flap supercharging and turbo supercharging techniques are effectively used to improve flap blood supply. However, few studies have been reported on the application of these techniques in prefabricated induced expanded flaps.
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Unconventional route to encapsulated ultrasmall gold nanoparticles for high-temperature catalysis.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Ultrasmall gold nanoparticles (us-AuNPs, <3 nm) have been recently recognized as surprisingly active and extraordinarily effective green catalysts. Their stability against sintering during reactions, however, remains a serious issue for practical applications. Encapsulating such small nanoparticles in a layer of porous silica can dramatically enhance the stability, but it has been extremely difficult to achieve using conventional sol-gel coating methods due to the weak metal/oxide affinity. In this work, we address this challenge by developing an effective protocol for the synthesis of us-AuNP@SiO2 single-core/shell nanospheres. More specifically, we take an alternative route by starting with ultrasmall gold hydroxide nanoparticles, which have excellent affinity to silica, then carrying out controllable silica coating in reverse micelles, and finally converting gold hydroxide particles into well-protected us-AuNPs. With a single-core/shell configuration that prevents sintering of nearby us-AuNPs and amino group modification of the Au/SiO2 interface that provides additional coordinating interactions, the resulting us-AuNP@SiO2 nanospheres are highly stable at high temperatures and show high activity in catalytic CO oxidation reactions. A dramatic and continuous increase in the catalytic activity has been observed when the size of the us-AuNPs decreases from 2.3 to 1.5 nm, which reflects the intrinsic size effect of the Au nanoparticles on an inert support. The synthesis scheme described in this work is believed to be extendable to many other ultrasmall metal@oxide nanostructures for much broader catalytic applications.
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Near-infrared light triggered photodynamic therapy in combination with gene therapy using upconversion nanoparticles for effective cancer cell killing.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have drawn much attention in cancer imaging and therapy in recent years. Herein, we for the first time report the use of UCNPs with carefully engineered surface chemistry for combined photodynamic therapy (PDT) and gene therapy of cancer. In our system, positively charged NaGdF4:Yb,Er UCNPs with multilayered polymer coatings are synthesized via a layer by layer strategy, and then loaded simultaneously with Chlorin e6 (Ce6), a photosensitizing molecule, and small interfering RNA (siRNA), which targets the Plk1 oncogene. On the one hand, under excitation by a near-infrared (NIR) light at 980 nm, which shows greatly improved tissue penetration compared with visible light, cytotoxic singlet oxygen can be generated via resonance energy transfer from UCNPs to photosensitizer Ce6, while the residual upconversion luminescence is utilized for imaging. On the other hand, the silencing of Plk1 induced by siRNA delivered with UCNPs could induce significant cancer cell apoptosis. As the result of such combined photodynamic and gene therapy, a remarkably enhanced cancer cell killing effect is realized. Our work thus highlights the promise of UCNPs for imaging guided combination therapy of cancer.
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Multispectral upconversion luminescence intensity ratios for ascertaining the tissue imaging depth.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have in recent years emerged as excellent contrast agents for in vivo luminescence imaging of deep tissues. But information abstracted from these images is in most cases restricted to 2-dimensions, without the depth information. In this work, a simple method has been developed to accurately ascertain the tissue imaging depth based on the relative luminescence intensity ratio of multispectral NaYF4:Yb(3+),Er(3+) UCNPs. A theoretical mode was set up, where the parameters in the quantitative relation between the relative intensities of the upconversion luminescence spectra and the depth of the UCNPs were determined using tissue mimicking liquid phantoms. The 540 nm and 650 nm luminescence intensity ratios (G/R ratio) of NaYF4:Yb(3+),Er(3+) UCNPs were monitored following excitation path (Ex mode) and emission path (Em mode) schemes, respectively. The model was validated by embedding NaYF4:Yb(3+),Er(3+) UCNPs in layered pork muscles, which demonstrated a very high accuracy of measurement in the thickness up to centimeter. This approach shall promote significantly the power of nanotechnology in medical optical imaging by expanding the imaging information from 2-dimensional to real 3-dimensional.
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A novel synthesis of the oxazolidinone antithrombotic agent rivaroxaban.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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A facile synthetic route of rivaroxaban has been developed. Using commercially available (R)-epichlorohydrin and bromobenzene as the starting materials, rivaroxaban was obtained in 39% overall yield using a Goldberg coupling as the key step. The synthetic route represents a convenient procedure for the production of rivaroxaban.
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Free chlorine loss during spraying of membraneless acidic electrolyzed water and its antimicrobial effect on airborne bacteria from poultry house.
Ann Agric Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Spray-application of membraneless acidic electrolyzed water (MLAEW) is a novel technique for disinfection in livestock houses. This study investigated the loss of free chlorine (FC - the major germicidal component in MLAEW) over distance during spraying, as affected by air temperature and initial FC concentration. The anti-microbial effect of MLAEW on airborne bacteria from an aviary laying-hen house was examined.
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Altered Functional Connectivity Patterns of the Insular Subregions in Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures.
Brain Topogr
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are characterized by unstable cognitive-emotional and motor system, which is engaged in hyperactivity of limbic regions and sensorimotor area. The insula, which is a part of the limbic system, includes various subregions with some distinct connectivity patterns separately. However, whether these insular subregions show different connectivity patterns respectively in PNES remains largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the functional connectivity (FC) of insular subregions in PNES and extend the understanding of the complex pathophysiological mechanisms of this disease. A resting-state FC based on the insular subregions were conducted in 18 patients and 20 healthy controls. We examined the differences in FC values between PNES patients and controls using two sample t test. Our results showed patients had significantly stronger FC between insular subregions and sensorimotor network, lingual gyrus, superior parietal gyrus and putamen, which suggested a hyperlink pattern of insular subregions involved in abnormal emotion regulation, cognitive processes and motor function in PNES. Pearson correlation analysis between the mean FC values within abnormal regions and the frequency of PNES further indicated PNES exhibited abnormal functional organization whose stressful emotion of patients have great direct influence on their motor functions. The differentially impaired functional connectivity patterns of insular subregions might provide new insights into the complex neurological mechanism of PNES.
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Histone cross-talk connects protein phosphatase 1? (PP1?) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) pathways to regulate the functional transition of bromodomain-containing 4 (BRD4) for inducible gene expression.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Transcription elongation has been recognized as a rate-limiting step for the expression of signal-inducible genes. Through recruitment of positive transcription elongation factor P-TEFb, the bromodomain-containing protein BRD4 plays critical roles in regulating the transcription elongation of a vast array of inducible genes that are important for multiple cellular processes. The diverse biological roles of BRD4 have been proposed to rely on its functional transition between chromatin targeting and transcription regulation. The signaling pathways and the molecular mechanism for regulating this transition process, however, are largely unknown. Here, we report a novel role of phosphorylated Ser(10) of histone H3 (H3S10ph) in governing the functional transition of BRD4. We identified that the acetylated lysines 5 and 8 of nucleosomal histone H4 (H4K5ac/K8ac) is the BRD4 binding site, and the protein phosphatase PP1? and class I histone deacetylase (HDAC1/2/3) signaling pathways are essential for the stress-induced BRD4 release from chromatin. In the unstressed state, phosphorylated H3S10 prevents the deacetylation of nucleosomal H4K5ac/K8ac by HDAC1/2/3, thereby locking up the majority of BRD4 onto chromatin. Upon stress, PP1?-mediated dephosphorylation of H3S10ph allows the deacetylation of nucleosomal H4K5ac/K8ac by HDAC1/2/3, thereby leading to the release of chromatin-bound BRD4 for subsequent recruitment of P-TEFb to enhance the expression of inducible genes. Therefore, our study revealed a novel mechanism that the histone cross-talk between H3S10ph and H4K5ac/K8ac connects PP1? and HDACs to govern the functional transition of BRD4. Combined with previous studies on the regulation of P-TEFb activation, the intricate signaling network for the tight control of transcription elongation is established.
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Assessment of density gradient centrifugation (DGC) and sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) measurements in couples with male factor infertility undergoing ICSI.
J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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To investigate how effectively density gradient centrifugation (DGC) improves sperm nuclear integrity and to determine whether the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test of sperm nuclear integrity in native or DGC-treated semen can predict the outcome of assisted reproductive technology (ART) in couples undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).
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Reduced white matter integrity and cognitive deficits in maintenance hemodialysis ESRD patients: A diffusion-tensor study.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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The purpose of this investigation was to examine the association between cognition disorders and microstructural white matter (WM) changes in maintenance hemodialysis end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients.
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miR?222 regulates sorafenib resistance and enhance tumorigenicity in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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The miR?222 cluster has been demonstrated to function as oncomiR in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). miR?222 confers chemotherapy drug resistance in various cancers, including HCC. However, the effects and mechanisms by which miR?222 regulates liver tumorigenicity and confers sorafenib (SOR) resistance remain unclear. Here we first investigated the miR?222 effect on proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion of HCC. Our results demonstrated that miRNA inhibitors specially targeting miR?222 significantly suppressed cellular proliferation, migration, invasion and G1/S transition of the cell cycle, and induced cell apoptosis in HepG2 cells. In addition, we investigated whether miR?222 confers SOR resistance in HepG2 cells to explore it roles in acquisition of drug resistance. The results showed that miR?222 inhibitors induced sensitivity to the antitumor effect of sorafenib in human HepG2 cells. Importantly, our study also showed that miR?222 could regulate the expression of phosphorylation PI3K and AKT, which might contribute to miR?222 conferred SOR resistance in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that miR?222 can promote cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and decrease cell apoptosis, as well as enhance the resistance of HCC cells to sorafenib miR?222 through activating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
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Comparison of the clinicopathological characteristics and the survival outcomes between the Siewert type II/III adenocarcinomas.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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The aim of the study was to analyze the clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes in Siewert type II and Siewert type III tumors. The clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes were analyzed in patients diagnosed with Siewert II/III tumors, who underwent transabdominal gastrectomy from Jan 2006 to Dec 2010. A total of 321 patients diagnosed with Siewert II/III tumors who underwent gastrectomy were enrolled in this study. Siewert III tumors are larger and have a higher proportion of Borrmann 3-4 types than Siewert II tumors (p < 0.05). For Siewert II and the Siewert III tumors, the 3-year overall survival rate was 59.1 versus 57.1 %, respectively, and the median survival time was 46.0 (31.5-60.5) months versus 46.0 (31.3-60.7) months, respectively. Positive proximal resection margin, large tumor size, Borrmann 3-4 types, poor or undifferentiated degree and advanced T stages and N stages were found to be poor prognostic risk factors for the overall survival outcomes by univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that the differentiation degree (poor and undifferentiated) and advanced T and N stages were independent prognostic factors for poor overall survival. Siewert III tumors were larger and had a lower differentiation degree than Siewert II tumors, whereas there was no difference in the survival outcomes.
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Knockdown of BAMBI inhibits ?-catenin and transforming growth factor ? to suppress metastasis of gastric cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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The upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane?bound inhibitor (BAMBI) has been observed in several types of malignant cancer, including thyroid, ovarian, liver and colorectal cancer. However, the pathological role and the regulatory mechanism of BAMBI in gastric cancer remain to be elucidated. The present study revealed that the expression of BAMBI was upregulated in gastric cancer tissue, and was correlated with tumor metastasis, disease recurrence and low survival rates in patients. Knockdown of BAMBI in aggressive gastric cancer cell lines significantly inhibited their malignant behavior, including in vitro invasion and cell proliferation. ??catenin expression was downregulated as a result of knocking down of BAMBI, and TGF-? was downregulated in a similar manner. These results demonstrated the association between BAMBI expression and gastric cancer progression, and indicate a promising direction for developing novel strategies to improve the prognosis and therapy of gastric cancer.
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Tuning interlayer coupling in large-area heterostructures with CVD-grown MoS2 and WS2 monolayers.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Band offsets between different monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides are expected to efficiently separate charge carriers or rectify charge flow, offering a mechanism for designing atomically thin devices and probing exotic two-dimensional physics. However, developing such large-area heterostructures has been hampered by challenges in synthesis of monolayers and effectively coupling neighboring layers. Here, we demonstrate large-area (>tens of micrometers) heterostructures of CVD-grown WS2 and MoS2 monolayers, where the interlayer interaction is externally tuned from noncoupling to strong coupling. Following this trend, the luminescence spectrum of the heterostructures evolves from an additive line profile where each layer contributes independently to a new profile that is dictated by charge transfer and band normalization between the WS2 and MoS2 layers. These results and findings open up venues to creating new material systems with rich functionalities and novel physical effects.
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Discovery of 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-oxo-pentanoic acid [2-(5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)-ethyl]-amide as a neuroprotectant for Alzheimer's disease by hybridization of curcumin and melatonin.
ACS Chem Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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In our effort to develop effective neuroprotectants as potential treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD), hybrid compounds of curcumin and melatonin, two natural products that have been extensively studied in various AD models, were designed, synthesized, and biologically characterized. A lead hybrid compound (7) was discovered to show significant neuroprotection with nanomolar potency (EC50 = 27.60 ± 9.4 nM) in MC65 cells, a cellular AD model. Multiple in vitro assay results established that 7 exhibited moderate inhibitory effects on the production of amyloid-? oligomers (A?Os) in MC65 cells, but not on the aggregation of A? species. It also exhibited significant antioxidative properties. Further mechanistic studies demonstrated that 7's antioxidant effects correlate well with its neuroprotective potency for MC65 cells, and these effects might be due to its interference with the interactions of A?Os within the mitochondria of MC65 cells. Furthermore, 7 was confirmed to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and deliver a sufficient amount to brain tissue after oral administration. Collectively, these results strongly support the hybridization approach as an efficient strategy to help identify novel scaffolds with a desired pharmacology, and strongly encourage further optimization of 7 to develop more potent neuroprotectants for AD.
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Arsenic mobility in the arsenic-contaminated Yangzonghai Lake in China.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Coagulation-precipitation techniques have been used successfully in the remediation of arsenic (As) contamination, but insufficient data exist to evaluate the side effects on lake environments (especially secondary pollution). Yangzonghai Lake, a deep lake located in southwest China that was treated with flocculants after an accident resulted in As-contamination, was selected as a case study. We attempted to elucidate how As migrates and transforms in the lake based on water simulation experiments. The results were expected to facilitate evaluation of the suitability and safety of the technology when used in a natural water body. The results showed that the As that had already been precipitated into the sediment by FeCl3 would be released again into the water body due to the increasing activity of anaerobic microorganisms, thereby causing secondary pollution. This phenomenon was especially evident during summer because water temperature stratification reduced the dissolved oxygen (DO) at the sediment surface and led to anaerobic conditions, which enhanced the anaerobic activity at the bottom of the lake. In summer, the concentration of As in the water column increased with increasing depth. In contrast, during winter, the concentration of As was quite similar at all depths of the lake because the water temperature was uniform during this period. As was released from sediments to the aqueous phase in the form of trivalent As [As(III)] upon anaerobic incubation and was oxidized gradually into pentavalent As [As(V)] by the higher DO in the upper layers of the lake water. Contrary to expectation, the disturbance (turnover in the fall) did not increase, but rather decreased the As concentration in the lake, which might result in further coagulation and precipitation through intensive mixture of the unsaturated flocculants from the sediments.
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Stereospecific cis- and trans-ring fusions arising from common intermediates.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Highly concise and stereospecific routes to cis and trans fusion, carrying various functionality at one of the bridgehead carbons, have been accomplished.
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A feedback regulatory loop between HIF-1? and miR-21 in response to hypoxia in cardiomyocytes.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Accumulating evidence suggests that hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) regulates numerous miRNAs and is crucial for cellular response to hypoxia. However, the relationship between HIF-1? and miR-21 in hypoxic cardiomyocytes is little known. We found that hypoxia induced HIF-1? and miR-21 expression. HIF-1? knockdown increased cell apoptosis and reduced miR-21 expression. Furthermore, we found that HIF-1? transcriptionally enhanced miR-21 promoter activity by binding to its promoter, which required the recruitment of CBP/p300. In addition, we found that miR-21 inhibition increased cell apoptosis and reduced HIF-1? expression, and modulated the PTEN/Akt pathway. Our results indicate that HIF-1?-miR-21 feedback contributes to the adaptation of cardiomyocytes to hypoxia, and has potential as therapeutic target for myocardial ischemia.
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Self-assembly and horizontal orientation growth of VO2 nanowires.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Single-crystalline vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanostructures have attracted an intense research interest recently because of their unique single-domain metal-insulator phase transition property. Synthesis of these nanostructures in the past was limited in density, alignment, or single-crystallinity. The assembly of VO2 nanowires (NWs) is desirable for a "bottom-up" approach to the engineering of intricate structures using nanoscale building blocks. Here, we report the successful synthesis of horizontally aligned VO2 NWs with a dense growth mode in the [1-100]quartz direction of a polished x-cut quartz surface using a simple vapor transport method. Our strategy of controlled growth of VO2 NWs promisingly paves the way for designing novel metal-insulator transition devices based on VO2 NWs.
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[Engineering of a D-xylose metabolic pathway in eutropha W50].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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This study aimed to broaden the substrate spectrum of Ralstonia eutropha W50 to use D-xylose, which can produce poly-beta-hydroxybutyrates (PHB) at a high level.
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HIP-55 negatively regulates myocardial contractility at the single-cell level.
J Biomech
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Myocardial contractility is crucial for cardiac output and heart function. But the detailed mechanisms of regulation remain unclear. In the present study, we found that HIP-55, an actin binding protein, negatively regulates myocardial contractility at the single-cell level. HIP-55 was overexpressed and knocked down in cardiomyocytes with an adenovirus infection. The traction forces exerted by single cardiomyocyte were measured using cell traction force microscopy. The results showed that HIP-55 knockdown significantly increased the contractility of the cardiomyocytes and HIP-55 overexpression could markedly reverse this process. Furthermore, HIP-55 was obviously co-localized with F-actin in cardiomyocytes, suggesting that HIP-55 regulated cardiac contractile function through the interaction between HIP-55 and F-actin. This study reveals the regulatory mechanisms of myocardial contractility and provides a new target for preventing and treating cardiovascular disease.
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Intermediate electrostatic field for the elongation method.
J Mol Model
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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A simple way to improve the accuracy of the fragmentation methods is proposed. The formalism was applied to the elongation (ELG) method at restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock (ROHF) level of theory. The ?-helix conformer of polyglycine was taken as a model system. The modified ELG method includes a simplified electrostatic field resulting from point-charge distribution of the system's environment. In this way the long-distance polarization is approximately taken into account. The field attenuates during the ELG process to eventually disappear when the final structure is reached. The point-charge distributions for each ELG step are obtained from charge sensitivity analysis (CSA) in force-field atoms resolution. The presence of the intermediate field improves the accuracy of ELG calculations. The errors in total energy and its kinetic and potential contributions are reduced by at least one-order of magnitude. In addition the SCF convergence of ROHF scheme is improved.
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Examining the association between social health insurance participation and patients' out-of-pocket payments in China: the role of institutional arrangement.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Previous work on the relationship between social health insurance (SHI) participation and patients' out-of-pocket payments (OOP) in China has overlooked the mediating mechanisms of the institutional arrangement. This study establishes a conceptual framework involving the reimbursement, behavior management and purchasing mechanisms to elaborate on the institutional arrangement of SHI in China. Using structural equation modeling, data on 1645 hospitalized patients obtained from a nationally representative survey in China are analyzed. The results show that the behavior management and purchasing mechanisms of SHI perform poorly, undermining the function of the reimbursement mechanism and mitigating the association between SHI participation and OOP. As a result, SHI participation has a weak negative or even no significant association with the OOP of hospitalized patients. This seems to contradict the principles of SHI, which aims to reduce people's OOP and enhance their wellbeing. These findings are expected to provide valuable insights to the ongoing healthcare reform process in China.
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Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MR imaging in differentiation of lung cancer from obstructive lung consolidation: comparison and correlation with pharmacokinetic analysis from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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To test whether parameters derived from intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) can be used to distinguish lung cancer from obstructive pulmonary consolidation by comparing them with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI)-derived parameters and to evaluate the correlation between these quantitative parameters.
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Decreased neuronal bursting and phase synchrony in the hippocampus of streptozotocin diabetic rats.
J Diabetes Res
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the complications of diabetes. Cognitive dysfunction is the main consequence. Previous findings from neuroanatomical and in vitro electrophysiological studies showed that the structure and function of the hippocampus is impaired in diabetes, which may underlie the cognitive dysfunction induced by diabetes. However the study of electrophysiological abnormality of hippocampal neurons in intact networks is sparse. In the current study, we recorded the spontaneous firing of neurons in hippocampal CA1 area in anesthetized streptozotozin (STZ)-diabetic and age-matched control rats. Profound reduction in burst activity was found in diabetic rats. Compared to control rats, the intra-burst inter-spike intervals were prolonged significantly in diabetic rats, while the burst ratio and the mean number of spikes within a burst decreased significantly. Treatment with APP 17-mer peptide retarded the effects of diabetes on these parameters. In addition, the average PLV of diabetic rats was lower than that of control rats. These findings provide in vivo electrophysiological evidence for the impairment of hippocampal function in STZ-diabetic rats, and may have some implications in the mechanisms associated with cognitive deficits in diabetes.
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Use of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt combined with autologous bone marrow cell infusion in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis: an exploratory study.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Currently, there is no treatment for decompensated liver cirrhosis except for liver transplantation. The safety and effect on liver function of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) with and without autologous bone marrow cell (BMC) infusion in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis were determined.
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Turn on ESPT: novel salicylaldehyde based sensor for biological important fluoride sensing.
J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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A novel and simple salicylaldehyde based anion fluorescent sensor 1 has been designed, which can selectively sense fluoride by 'turn on' excited-state intermolecular proton transfer (ESPT). The binding constant and the stoichiometry were obtained by non-linear least-square analysis of the titration curves.
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Pancreatic tuberculosis mimicking pancreatic carcinoma during anti-tuberculosis therapy: A case report.
World J Clin Cases
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Pancreatic tuberculosis (TB) is a rare condition, even in immunocompetent hosts. A case is presented of pancreatic TB that mimicked pancreatic head carcinoma in a 40-year-old immunocompetent male patient. The patient was admitted to our hospital after suffering for nine days from epigastralgia and obstructive jaundice. Computed tomography revealed a pancreatic mass that mimicked a pancreatic head carcinoma. The patient had undergone an operation four months prior for thoracic TB and was undergoing anti-TB therapy. A previous abdominal ultrasound was unremarkable with the exception of gallbladder steroid deposits. The patient underwent surgery due to the progressive discomfort of the upper abdomen and a mass that resembled a pancreatic malignancy. A biopsy of the pancreas and lymph nodes was performed, revealing TB infection. The patient received a cholecystostomy tube and recovered after being administered standard anti-TB therapy for 15 mo. This case is reported to emphasize the rare contribution of pancreatic TB to pancreatic masses and obstructive jaundice.
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Input-output finite-time stabilization of linear systems with finite-time boundedness.
ISA Trans
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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The paper presents linear system Input-Output Finite-Time Stabilization (IO-FTS) method under Finite-Time Boundedness (FTB) constraint. A state feedback controller is designed, via Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs), to guarantee the system both IO-FTS and FTB. The proposed methods are applied to the guidance design of a class of terminal guidance systems to suppress disturbances with IO-FTS method and FTB constraints simultaneously satisfied. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
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Synergistic effects of guanidine-grafted CMC on enhancing antimicrobial activity and dry strength of paper.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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In order to improve the strength property and antimicrobial activity of paper simultaneously, we prepared a novel multifunctional agent based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) by a simple two-stage method. The first stage was the oxidation of CMC to obtain the dialdehyde CMC (DCMC), and the second stage was the graft of guanidine hydrochloride (GH) onto DCMC to obtain DCMC-GH polymer. The strength property and antimicrobial activity of DCMC-GH-coated copy paper have been studied by the tensile test and inhibition zone method, respectively. The results showed that the dry strength index could increase about 20% after the paper was coated with DCMC-GH. The coating of DCMC-GH on paper also resulted in excellent antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and the inhibition zone became larger as the GH content grafted on DCMC increased. The novel DCMC-GH polymer would be a multifunctional coating agent for food packaging paper.
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Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling quantifies cerebral blood flow in patients with acute ischemic stroke and chronic lacunar stroke.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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We employed non-invasive pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) to quantify cerebral blood flow (CBF) in infarcted and nearby neural regions in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and chronic lacunar stroke (CLS). The results were compared with CBF in healthy individuals.
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Prognoses and long-term outcomes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in han and uyghur patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy in the xinjiang autonomous region of china.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term outcomes and prognostic factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Han and Uyghur patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the Xinjiang region of China.
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Comparison of iodine-125 seed implantation and pancreaticoduodenectomy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This retrospective study compared the advantages and disadvantages of iodine-125 (125I) seed implantation and pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
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BRAF mutations in patients with non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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BRAF mutations have been well described in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for several years, but the clinical features of patients harboring BRAF mutations are still not well described. We performed a meta-analysis to identify common clinical features in NSCLC patients carrying BRAF mutations.
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A Two-Stage Framework for 3D Face Reconstruction From RGBD Images.
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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This paper proposes a new approach for 3D face reconstruction with RGBD images from an inexpensive commodity sensor. The challenges we face are: 1) substantial random noise and corruption are present in low-resolution depth maps; and 2) there is high degree of variability in pose and face expression. We develop a novel two-stage algorithm that effectively maps low-quality depth maps to realistic face models. Each stage is targeted toward a certain type of noise. The first stage extracts sparse errors from depth patches through the data-driven local sparse coding, while the second stage smooths noise on the boundaries between patches and reconstructs the global shape by combining local shapes using our template-based surface refinement. Our approach does not require any markers or user interaction. We perform quantitative and qualitative evaluations on both synthetic and real test sets. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is able to produce high-resolution 3D face models with high accuracy, even if inputs are of low quality, and have large variations in viewpoint and face expression.
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Surgical treatment of facial soft-tissue deformities in postburn patients: a proposed classification based on a retrospective study.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2013
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Postburn soft-tissue defects or scars can cause disfigurement and functional impairment and constitute a major therapeutic challenge. In the past 30 years, developments in reconstructive techniques have improved the treatment outcomes. However, these techniques are selected mainly according to the surgeons preference. There is no classification for postburn facial deformities that might contribute to high-level evidence and optimize management.
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Antimicrobial metabolites from a novel halophilic actinomycete Nocardiopsis terrae YIM 90022.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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A quinoline alkaloid 1 and five known compounds (2-6) were isolated from a novel halophilic actinomycete Nocardiopsis terrae YIM 90022, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic studies as 4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide (1), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (2), N-acetyl-anthranilic acid (3), indoly-3-carboxylic acid (4), cyclo(Trp-Gly) (5) and cyclo(Leu-Ala) (6). Compound 1 was isolated from natural resources for the first time. Compounds 1 and 3 showed antimicrobial activities against some plant pathogens.
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Stretching single polymer chains of donor-acceptor foldamers: toward the quantitative study on the extent of folding.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Single-molecule force spectroscopy has proven to be an efficient tool for the quantitative characterization of flexible foldamers on the single-molecule level in this study. The extent of folding has been estimated quantitatively for the first time to the best of our knowledge, which is crucial for a better understanding of the "folding-process" on single-molecule level. Therefore, this study may provide a guidance to regulate folding for realizing rational control over the functions of bulk materials.
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Efficient Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells from Granulosa Cells by Oct4 and Sox2.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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Various types of somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Somatic stem cells exhibit enhanced reprogramming efficiency by fewer factors, in contrast to fully differentiated cells. Nuclear LaminA is highly expressed in differentiated cells, and stem cells are characterized by the absence of LaminA. Granulosa cells (GCs) and cumulus cells in the ovarian follicles effectively and firstly generated cloned mice by somatic cell nuclear transfer, and these cells lack LaminA expression. We tested the hypothesis that GCs could be effectively used to generate iPS cells with fewer factors. We show that iPS cells are generated from GCs at high efficiency even with only two factors, Oct4 and Sox2, like the iPS cells generated using four Yamanaka factors. These iPS cells show pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, as evidenced by high expression of pluripotency-associated genes, Oct4, Nanog, and SSEA-1, differentiation into three embryonic germ layers by embryoid body formation and teratoma tests, as well as high efficient generation of chimeras. Moreover, the exogenous genes are effectively silenced in these iPS cells. These data provide additional evidence in supporting the notion that reduced expression of LaminA and stem cells can improve the reprogramming efficiency to pluripotency.
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Numerical investigation of haemodynamics in a helical-type artery bypass graft using non-Newtonian multiphase model.
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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The classic single-phase Newtonian blood flow model ignores the motion of red blood cells (RBCs) and their interaction with plasma. To address these issues, we adopted a multiphase non-Newtonian model to carry out a comparative study between a helical artery bypass graft (ABG) and a conventional ABG in which the blood flow is composed of plasma and RBCs. The investigation focused on the mechanism of RBC buildup in an ABG but the haemodynamic parameters obtained by single-phase and multiphase models were also compared. The aggregation of RBCs along the inside wall of a conventional ABG and at the heel of its distal anastomosis was predicted while a poor aggregation was observed along the helical ABG. In addition, RBCs were observed to gradually sediment along the gravity direction. However, the computed haemodynamic parameters by multiphase model qualitatively agreed well with those by single-phase model. It was concluded that (1) the single-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is reasonable to do the computation of haemodynamic parameters in ABGs; (2) secondary flow does not definitely produce buildup of RBCs in the inside curvature, its configuration played an important role in the movement of RBCs and the dominating one-way rotating flow in a helical ABG guaranteed no buildup of RBCs on its inside wall and (3) gravity direction is important for the movement of RBCs which may help to explain why doing exercise is good for human health. This study helps to shed light on the migration of RBCs in ABGs, which cannot be explored by single-phase CFD models, and provides more understanding of the underlying flow mechanism for ABG failure.
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