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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Genetic Variation in the Raptor Gene Is Associated With Overweight But Not Hypertension in American Men of Japanese Ancestry.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is pivotal for cell growth. Regulatory associated protein of mTOR complex I (Raptor) is a unique component of this pro-growth complex. The present study tested whether variation across the raptor gene (RPTOR) is associated with overweight and hypertension.
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Factors Associated with In-Hospital Death by Site of Consultation among Elderly Inpatients Receiving Pain and Palliative Care Consultations.
J Palliat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Abstract Background: Despite palliative care implementation, most deaths still occur in hospitals. Objectives: To identify factors associated with in-hospital death among elderly patients receiving palliative care, by site of consultation. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting/Subjects: All inpatients aged 65 years and older receiving pain and palliative care consultations in a 533-bed acute tertiary care hospital in Honolulu, Hawaii, from January 2005 through December 2009. Measurements: During consultation, demographics, diagnoses, consultation site (intensive care unit [ICU], non-ICU medical, non-ICU surgical, and rehabilitation floors), consultation indication (assistance with establishing goals of care versus pain and/or symptom management), Karnofsky scores, length of stay (LOS), discharge disposition, and in-hospital death were collected. Multiple logistic regression analyses examined factors associated with in-hospital death. Results: Of 1630 elderly inpatients receiving palliative care, 305 (19%) died in-hospital. In-hospital death among non-ICU medical patients was associated with needing consultation to assist with plan of care (odds ratio [OR]=1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.27-2.80). Likelihood of in-hospital death increased 2% for each additional hospital day before consultation (OR=1.02, 95% CI=1.01-1.03). Among elderly ICU patients, likelihood of in-hospital death increased 8% for each additional hospital day before consultation (OR=1.08, 95% CI=1.01-1.16). Conclusion: Among elderly non-ICU medical patients receiving palliative care consultations, the need for a consultation to assist with plan of care was associated with in-hospital death, while length of stay prior to consultation was important among both elderly ICU and non-ICU medical patients. Elderly hospitalized patients may benefit from earlier identification and palliative care consultation for assistance with plan of care to avoid in-hospital death.
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Combining quality improvement and geriatrics training: the nursing home polypharmacy outcomes project.
Gerontol Geriatr Educ
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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To examine sustained effects of an educational intervention, the authors repeated a successful quality improvement (QI) project on medication safety and cost effectiveness. In October 2007 and August 2008, the facility leadership and geriatrics faculty identified all patients receiving nine or more medications (polypharmacy cohort) in a 170-bed teaching nursing home. They then taught Geriatric Medicine fellows (n = 12 in 2007, 11 in 2008) to (a) systematically collect medication data; (b) generate medication recommendations (stop, taper, or continue) based on expert criteria (Beers criteria) or drug-drug interaction programs; (c) discuss recommendations with patients' attending physicians; and (d) implement approved recommendations. Over the two projects, the polypharmacy cohorts demonstrated decreased potentially inappropriate medications (odds ratio [OR] = .78, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] [0.69, 0.88], p < .001), contraindicated medications (OR = .63, 95% CI [0.47, 0.85], p = .002) and medication costs (OR = .97, 95% CI [0.96, 0.99], p < .001). Findings suggest that programs planning educational QI projects for trainees may benefit from a multiyear approach to maximize clinical and educational benefits.
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Late-life factors associated with healthy aging in older men.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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To identify potentially modifiable late-life biological, lifestyle, and sociodemographic factors associated with overall and healthy survival to age 85.
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Low dietary vitamin D in mid-life predicts total mortality in men with hypertension: the Honolulu heart program.
J Am Coll Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Vitamin D deficiency was associated with total mortality in previous epidemiological studies. Little is known about the effects of dietary vitamin D intake on mortality. We examined the association between mid-life dietary vitamin D intake and 45-year total mortality.
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Genetic Analysis of TOR Complex Gene Variation With Human Longevity: A Nested Case-Control Study of American Men of Japanese Ancestry.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is crucial for life span determination in model organisms. The aim of the present study was to test tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms that captured most of the genetic variation across key TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2) genes MTOR, RPTOR, and RICTOR and the important downstream effector gene RPS6KA1 for association with human longevity (defined as attainment of at least 95 years of age) as well as health span phenotypes. Subjects comprised a homogeneous population of American men of Japanese ancestry, well characterized for aging phenotypes and who have been followed for 48 years. The study used a nested case-control design involving 440 subjects aged 95 years and older and 374 controls. It found no association of 6 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms for MTOR, 61 for RPTOR, 7 for RICTOR, or 5 for RPS6KA1 with longevity. Of 40 aging-related phenotypes, no significant association with genotype was seen. Thus common genetic variation (minor allele frequency ?10%) in MTOR, RPTOR, RICTOR, and RPS6KA1 is not associated with extreme old age or aging phenotypes in this population. Further research is needed to assess the potential genetic contribution of other mTOR pathway genes to human longevity, gene expression, upstream and downstream targets, and clinically relevant aging phenotypes.
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Proteinuria in midlife and 39-year total mortality: the Honolulu Heart Program.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Previous population-based studies have shown that proteinuria is an independent predictor of total mortality. However, no studies have examined multiple proteinuria measurements or had a follow-up period longer than two decades.
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Regional pulse wave velocities and their cardiovascular risk factors among healthy middle-aged men: a cross-sectional population-based study.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Both carotid-femoral (cf) pulse wave velocity (PWV) and brachial-ankle (ba) PWV employ arterial sites that are not consistent with the path of blood flow. Few previous studies have reported the differential characteristics between cfPWV and baPWV by simultaneously comparing these with measures of pure central (aorta) and peripheral (leg) arterial stiffness, i.e., heart-femoral (hf) PWV and femoral-ankle (fa) PWV in healthy populations. We aimed to identify the degree to which these commonly used measures of cfPWV and baPWV correlate with hfPWV and faPWV, respectively, and to evaluate whether both cfPWV and baPWV are consistent with either hfPWV or faPWV in their associations with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors.
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Standardized patient and standardized interdisciplinary team meeting: validation of a new performance-based assessment tool.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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The interdisciplinary team (IDT) approach is critical in the care of elderly adults. Performance-based tools to assess IDT skills have not been well validated. A novel assessment tool, the standardized patient (SP) and standardized interdisciplinary team meeting (SIDTM), consisting of two stations, was developed. First, trainees evaluate a SP hospitalized after a fall. Second, trainees play the role of the physician in a standardized IDT meeting with a standardized registered nurse (SRN) and standardized medical social worker (SMSW) for discharge planning. The SP-SIDTM was administered to 52 fourth-year medical students (MS4s) and six geriatric medicine fellows (GMFs) in 2011/12. The SP, SRN, and SMSW scored trainee performance on dichotomous checklists of clinical tasks and Likert scales of communication skills, which were compared according to level of training using t-tests. Trainees rated the SP-SIDTM experience as moderately difficult, length of time about right, and believability moderate to high. Reliability was high for both cases (Cronbach ? = 0.73-0.87). Interobserver correlation between SRN and SMSW checklist scores (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.82, P < .001) and total scores (r = 0.69, P < .001) were high. The overall score on the SP-SIDTM case was significantly higher for GMF (75) than for MS4 (65, P = .002). These observations support the validity of this novel assessment tool.
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"Youre being paged!" outcomes of a nursing home on-call role-playing and longitudinal curriculum.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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Effectively handling telephone calls about nursing home (NH) residents is an important skill for healthcare professionals, but little formal training is typically provided. The objective of the current study was to describe and evaluate the effectiveness of a novel structured role-playing didactic session followed by an on-call NH longitudinal clinical experience. The effectiveness of the structured role-playing didactic session was compared in different learners, including geriatric medicine fellows (n = 10), family medicine residents and faculty (n = 14), nurse practitioner students (n = 31), and other learners (n = 7). The curriculum focused on common problems encountered while caring for NH residents during on-call periods. Learners rated themselves using an 18-item pre/post questionnaire including five attitude and 13 skills questions, using a 1-to-5 Likert scale. T-tests were used to compare means before and after sessions. Significant improvements were found in overall mean attitudes and skills scores. For all learners, the greatest improvements were seen in "comfort in managing residents at the NH," "managing feeding or gastrostomy tube dislodgement," "identifying different availability of medications, laboratory studies, and procedures in NH," and "describing steps to send NH residents to the emergency department." Geriatric medicine fellows attitudes and skills improved significantly after the longitudinal clinical experience. The faculty survey demonstrated improved documentation, communication, and fellows management of on-call problems after curriculum implementation. This novel curriculum used role-playing to provide training for on-call management of NH residents. This curriculum has been successfully disseminated on a national geriatrics educational resource website (POGOe) and is applicable to geriatric medicine fellowships, internal medicine and family medicine residency programs, and other training programs.
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Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and association with functional status in newly admitted male veteran nursing home residents.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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To provide the first report on prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in newly admitted nursing home (NH) residents and associations with functional disabilities and chronic diseases.
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Correlation of a self-report and direct measure of physical activity level in the electron-beam tomography and risk assessment among Japanese and US Men in the post World War II birth cohort (ERA JUMP) study.
J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2013
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Physical activity (PA) is complex and a difficult behavior to assess as there is no ideal assessment tool(s) that can capture all contexts of PA. Therefore, it is important to understand how different assessment tools rank individuals. We examined the extent to which self-report and direct assessment PA tools yielded the same ranking of PA levels.
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Relation of Serum Leptin and Adiponectin Level to Serum C-Reactive Protein: The INTERLIPID Study.
Int J Vasc Med
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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Objective. Despite considerable study, the relevance of leptin and adiponectin for atherosclerosis development is still unsettled. We investigated relations of serum leptin and adiponectin to serum C-reactive protein (CRP), using the INTERLIPID dataset on Japanese emigrants living in Hawaii and Japanese in Japan. Design and Methods. Serum leptin, adiponectin, and CRP were measured by standardized methods in men and women of ages 40 to 59 years from two population samples, one Japanese-American in Hawaii (83 men, 89 women) and the other Japanese in central Japan (111 men, 104 women). Participants with CRP >10?mg/L were excluded. Results. Sex-specific multiple linear regression analyses, with log-transformed leptin and adiponectin (log-leptin, log-adipo), site (Hawaii = 1, Japan = 0), SBP, HbA1c, smoking (cigarettes/day), and physical activity index score of the Framingham Offspring Study as covariates, showed that log-leptin directly related and log-adipo inversely related to log-CRP for both sexes (Ps < 0.05 to <0.01). Addition to the model of BMI and interaction terms (BMI × log-leptin, BMI × log-adipo, SITE × log-leptin, SITE × log-adipo) resulted in disappearance of statistical significance except for direct relation of log-leptin to log-CRP in men (P = 0.006). Conclusions. Leptin directly related to CRP independent of BMI and other confounding factors in men but not in women.
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Antihypertensive medication use and risk of cognitive impairment: the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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To determine the associations between classes of antihypertensive medication use and the risk of cognitive impairment among elderly hypertensive men.
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Prestroke factors associated with poststroke mortality and recovery in older women in the Womens Health Initiative.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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To examine prestroke lifestyle factors associated with poststroke mortality and recovery in older women.
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Association of Total Marine Fatty Acids, Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids, With Aortic Stiffness in Koreans, Whites, and Japanese Americans.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Few previous studies have reported the association of aortic stiffness with marine n-3 fatty acids (Fas) in the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the combined and independent associations of 2 major marine n-3 FAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with aortic stiffness evaluated using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) in Korean, white, and Japanese American men.
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Association Analyses of Insulin Signaling Pathway Gene Polymorphisms With Healthy Aging and Longevity in Americans of Japanese Ancestry.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Evidence from model organisms suggests that the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway has an important, evolutionarily conserved influence over rate of aging and thus longevity. In humans, the FOXO3 gene is the only widely replicated insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway gene associated with longevity across multiple populations. Therefore, we conducted a nested case-control study of other insulin/IGF-1 signaling genes and longevity, utilizing a large, homogeneous, long-lived population of American men of Japanese ancestry, well characterized for aging phenotypes. Genotyping was performed of single nucleotide polymorphisms, tagging most of the genetic variation across several genes in the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway or related gene networks that may be influenced by FOXO3, namely, ATF4, CBL, CDKN2, EXO1, and JUN. Two initial, marginal associations with longevity did not remain significant after correction for multiple comparisons, nor were they correlated with aging-related phenotypes.
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A cross-sectional association of obesity with coronary calcium among Japanese, Koreans, Japanese Americans, and U.S. whites.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Conflicting evidence exists regarding whether obesity is independently associated with coronary artery calcium (CAC), a measure of coronary atherosclerosis. We examined an independent association of obesity with prevalent CAC among samples of multi-ethnic groups whose background populations have varying levels of obesity and coronary heart disease (CHD).
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Ethnic difference in liver fat content: a cross-sectional observation among Japanese American in Hawaii, Japanese in Japan, and non-Hispanic whites in United States.
Obes Res Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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We recently reported that Japanese had higher liver fat at a lower level of BMI compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHW). Objective: We hypothesize that ethnic difference in fat storage capacity contributes to this ethnic difference in liver fat.
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Aging and caregiving in the Republic of Palau.
J Cross Cult Gerontol
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Aging has been an important population trend of the twentieth century, with most elderly people living in developing countries. Little has been published on the healthcare needs of elderly in the Pacific Islands. The Pacific Islands Geriatric Education Center, at the University of Hawaii, has a mission to promote training in geriatric education in the Pacific Islands to improve healthcare to the elderly. The aim of this project was to develop and test a family caregiver training program for Palau and was achieved in two phases: (1) assessing needs by interviewing key informants and surveying elders and (2) evaluating the caregiver training program that was designed based on findings from the assessment. The Ecological Systems Theory provided the theoretical framework for this study. The needs assessment identified training and education of family caregivers as a top priority, with the Palauan culture of family caring for seniors presently threatened by caregiver burnout. Nearly all of the long-term care in Palau is provided by families, and elders have high prevalence of geriatric syndromes. A family caregiver train-the-trainer workshop was subsequently conducted in February 2011. Forty-four trainers, including 12 from other Pacific Islands, attended the workshop. To assess changes in knowledge and confidence to teach, we compared scores on pre- and post-questionnaires using paired t tests. The train-the-trainer workshop resulted in significantly improved self-assessed competence and confidence to teach in all geriatric syndromes, including dealing with difficult behaviors, gait and transfer training, caregiver stress relief, and resources for caregivers (p?
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Evaluation of a nursing home medical directors curriculum for geriatric medicine fellows.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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To describe the evaluation of a nursing home medical directorship curriculum for geriatric medicine fellows.
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Prestroke Weight Loss Is Associated With Poststroke Mortality Among Men in the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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To examine baseline prestroke weight loss and poststroke mortality among men.
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Factors associated with weight loss, low BMI, and malnutrition among nursing home patients: a systematic review of the literature.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Weight loss and poor nutrition are important quality measures in long term care. Long term care professionals need to identify factors associated with weight loss and poor nutrition to target high-risk patients.
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Endothelin Type A Receptor Genotype is a Determinant of Quantitative Traits of Metabolic Syndrome in Asian Hypertensive Families: A SAPPHIRe Study.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Co-heritability of hypertension and insulin resistance (IR) within families not only implies genetic susceptibility may be responsible for these complex traits but also suggests a rational that biological candidate genes for hypertension may serve as markers for features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Thus we determined whether the T323C polymorphism (rs5333) of endothelin type A (ETA) receptor, a predominant receptor evoking potent vasoconstrictive action of endothelin-1, contributes to susceptibility to IR-associated hypertension in 1694 subjects of Chinese and Japanese origins. Blood pressures (BPs) and biochemistries were measured. Fasting insulin level, insulin-resistance homeostasis model assessment (HOMAIR) score, and area under curve of insulin concentration (AUCINS) were selected for assessing insulin sensitivity. Genotypes were obtained by methods of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Foremost findings were that minor allele frequency of the T323C polymorphism was noticeable lower in our overall Asian subjects compared to multi-national population reported in gene database; moreover both the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the polymorphism were significantly different between the two ethnic groups we studied. The genotype distributions at TT/TC/CC were 65, 31, 4% in Chinese and 51, 41, 8% in Japanese, respectively (p?
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Lifestyle and the risk of dementia in Japanese-american men.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2011
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To determine whether adhering to a healthy lifestyle in midlife may reduce the risk of dementia.
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Medical School Hotline: Developing communication skills for leading family meetings.
Hawaii Med J
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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Good clinician-family communication is essential for the provision of high-quality patient care. Families rate the communication skills of clinicians as critical clinical skills. However, there has been no structured training of fellow communication skills while leading family meetings in the University of Hawaii Geriatric Medicine Fellowship Program. Effective training to develop communication skills with families will better prepare Geriatric Medicine fellows for this important task, and ultimately improve the quality of care they provide to these patients and patients families.
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Significant inverse associations of serum n-6 fatty acids with plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
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Epidemiological studies suggested that n-6 fatty acids, especially linoleic acid (LA), have beneficial effects on CHD, whereas some in vitro studies have suggested that n-6 fatty acids, specifically arachidonic acid (AA), may have harmful effects. We examined the association of serum n-6 fatty acids with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). A population-based cross-sectional study recruited 926 randomly selected men aged 40-49 years without CVD during 2002-2006 (310 Caucasian, 313 Japanese and 303 Japanese-American men). Plasma PAI-1 was analysed in free form, both active and latent. Serum fatty acids were measured with gas-capillary liquid chromatography. To examine the association between total n-6 fatty acids (including LA and AA) and PAI-1, multivariate regression models were used. After adjusting for confounders, total n-6 fatty acids, LA and AA, were inversely and significantly associated with PAI-1 levels. These associations were consistent across three populations. Among 915 middle-aged men, serum n-6 fatty acids had significant inverse associations with PAI-1.
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White matter lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging scan and 5-year cognitive decline: the Honolulu-Asia aging study.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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To study white matter lesions (WMLs) and 5-year cognitive decline in elderly Japanese-American men.
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Risk factors for fractures among Japanese-American men: The Honolulu Heart Program and Honolulu-Asia Aging Study.
Arch Osteoporos
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
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Baseline risk factors were associated with fractures that developed after 29-31 years among Japanese-American men. Hip fracture risk increased with increasing BMI (28% increase for 1 U increase), physical activity (7% increase for 1 U increase), and was decreased with increasing arm girth (27% decrease for 1 U increase).
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The Impact of Depressive Symptoms on Neuropsychological Performance Tests in HIV-Infected Individuals: A Study of the Hawaii Aging with HIV Cohort.
World J AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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BACKGROUND: The frequency of neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals remains high despite the availability of potent antiretroviral therapy (ART). The concurrence of depression among HIV-infected patients with NCI is common, especially among older individuals. Depression has been implicated as a risk factor for impaired neuropsychological performance (NP). This study explored the relationship between depressive symptoms and NP testing in HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed within the Hawaii Aging with HIV Cohort, a large prospective study of cognition of older (50 or more years old) compared to younger (20 to 39 years old) HIV-infected individuals. RESULTS: Two hundred and eighty-five HIV infected participants (157 older and 128 younger) were administered a battery of NP tests to measure performance in major cognitive domains. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The rates of depressive symptoms and neuropsychological impairment were similar in older and younger groups. Multivariate analyses revealed depressive symptoms were associated with NP test impairment in the younger group. In the older group, depressive symptoms were not associated with NP. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that depressive symptoms are associated with NP test impairment in younger HIV-infected individuals, but not in older individuals.
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Urinary tract stone occurrence in the Womens Health Initiative (WHI) randomized clinical trial of calcium and vitamin D supplements.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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The Womens Health Initiative (WHI) randomized clinical trial (RCT) of calcium plus vitamin D (CaD) supplements found a 17% excess in urinary tract stone incidence in the supplemented group. This study evaluated whether this risk is modified by participant characteristics.
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Modeling regional vulnerability to Alzheimer pathology.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Latent growth curve (LGC) models estimate change over time in a cohorts serially obtained measurements. We have applied LGC techniques to a spatial distribution of Alzheimers disease (AD) pathology using autopsy data from 435 participants in the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) and neuritic plaques (NP) were distributed across differently ordered sets of anatomical regions. The gradient of spatial change in neuritic plaque (dNP), was significantly associated with that of neurofibrillary tangle (dNFT), but weakly and inversely (r = -0.12; p < 0.001). Both dNFT and dNP correlated significantly and inversely with Braak stage. Sixty-one percent of the variance in Braak stage was explained by dNFT independent of covariates. Only dNFT was significantly associated with longitudinal change in cognition. Only dNP was associated with apolipoprotein (APOE) e4 burden. This is the first application of LGC models to spatially-ordered data. The result is a quantification of the interindividual variation in the interregional vulnerability to Alzheimers disease lesions.
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Midlife muscle strength and human longevity up to age 100 years: a 44-year prospective study among a decedent cohort.
Age (Dordr)
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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We studied prospectively the midlife handgrip strength, living habits, and parents longevity as predictors of length of life up to becoming a centenarian. The participants were 2,239 men from the Honolulu Heart Program/Honolulu-Asia Aging Study who were born before the end of June 1909 and who took part in baseline physical assessment in 1965-1968, when they were 56-68 years old. Deaths were followed until the end of June 2009 for 44 years with complete ascertainment. Longevity was categorized as centenarian (?100 years, n = 47), nonagenarian (90-99 years, n = 545), octogenarian (80-89 years, n = 847), and ?79 years (n = 801, reference). The average survival after baseline was 20.8 years (SD = 9.62). Compared with people who died at the age of ?79 years, centenarians belonged 2.5 times (odds ratio (OR) = 2.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23-5.10) more often to the highest third of grip strength in midlife, were never smokers (OR = 5.75 95% CI = 3.06-10.80), had participated in physical activity outside work (OR = 1.13 per daily hour, 95% CI = 1.02-1.25), and had a long-lived mother (?80 vs. ?60 years, OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.06-5.01). Associations for nonagenarians and octogenarians were parallel, but weaker. Multivariate modeling showed that mothers longevity and offsprings grip strength operated through the same or overlapping pathway to longevity. High midlife grip strength and long-lived mother may indicate resilience to aging, which, combined with healthy lifestyle, increases the probability of extreme longevity.
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Impairments in activities of daily living in older Japanese men in hawaii and Japan.
J Aging Res
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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Introduction. Hypertension and cigarette smoking are dominant risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Japan while in westernized countries, broader effects encompass obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. This paper examines whether different associations also appear important in the manifestation of activities of daily living (ADL) in older Japanese men in Hawaii and Japan. Methods. Measures of ADL (feeding, toileting, dressing, bathing, and walking around the house) were assessed from 1995 to 1999 in 1,893 men in Hawaii and 543 men in Japan. Concomitant risk factors were measured from 1990 to 1993. Results. In Hawaii, diabetes increased the odds of ?1 ADL impairment nearly 1.5-fold (P = .020). A similar association was absent in Japan. In contrast, the odds of an ADL impairment in Japan was increased more than 5-fold in the presence of stroke (P < .001). The association in Hawaii was significantly weaker (P = .007). In both cohorts, past alcohol use was associated with a greater likelihood of ADL impairment. Conclusion. In this comparison of genetically similar samples, findings suggest that different strengths in risk factor associations with cardiovascular disease in Japan and westernized countries may also include different strengths in associations with impaired ADL.
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Physician intervention for medication reduction in a nursing home: the polypharmacy outcomes project.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
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To examine the effects of a medication review project by geriatricians and geriatric medicine fellows on polypharmacy in a teaching nursing home.
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Effect of walking distance on 8-year incident depressive symptoms in elderly men with and without chronic disease: the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2010
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To determine the effect of walking on incident depressive symptoms in elderly Japanese-American men with and without chronic disease.
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Use of spoken and written Japanese did not protect Japanese-American men from cognitive decline in late life.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2010
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Spoken bilingualism may be associated with cognitive reserve. Mastering a complicated written language may be associated with additional reserve. We sought to determine if midlife use of spoken and written Japanese was associated with lower rates of late life cognitive decline.
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Subtypes of mild cognitive impairment in older postmenopausal women: the Womens Health Initiative Memory Study.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transitional state between normal cognitive functioning and dementia. A proposed MCI typology classifies individuals by the type and extent of cognitive impairment, yet few studies have characterized or compared these subtypes. Four hundred forty-seven women 65 years of age and older from the Womens Health Initiative Memory Study were classified into the 4 MCI subgroups and a "no impairment" group and compared on clinical, sociodemographic, and health variables. A cognitive deficit in at least 1 domain was present in 82.1% of participants, with most (74.3%) having deficits in multiple cognitive domains. Only 4.3% had an isolated memory deficit, whereas 21.3% had an isolated nonmemory deficit. Of the 112 women who met all MCI criteria examined, the most common subtype was amnestic multidomain MCI (42.8%), followed by nonamnestic multiple domain MCI (26.7%), nonamnestic single domain (24.1%), and amnestic single domain MCI (6.3%). Subtypes were similar with respect to education, health status, smoking, depression, and prestudy and onstudy use of hormone therapy. Despite the attention it receives in the literature, amnestic MCI is the least common type highlighting the importance of identifying and characterizing other nonamnestic and multidomain subtypes. Further research is needed on the epidemiology of MCI subtypes, clinical and biologic differences between them, and rates for conversion to dementia.
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Lowering midlife levels of systolic blood pressure as a public health strategy to reduce late-life dementia: perspective from the Honolulu Heart Program/Honolulu Asia Aging Study.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2010
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To estimate the potential benefits of lowering systolic blood pressure (SBP) toward preventing late-life dementia, we estimated the population-attributable risk of elevated SBP for dementia. Analyses are based on the cohort of 8006 Japanese American men (born 1900-1919) followed since 1965 as a part of the Honolulu Heart Program, continued as the Honolulu Asia Aging Study. Midlife cardiovascular risk factors and late-life brain function are well described. We estimated the population-attributable risk of dementia cases attributed to midlife SBP, grouped by the seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria (<120, 120 to <140, and > or =140 mm Hg), taking into account treatment history, confounding factors, and competitive risk for death. The analysis is based on 7878 subjects, including 491 cases of dementia, with a mean interval of 25 years between measurement of blood pressure and dementia diagnosis. Compared with those with SBP <120 mm Hg, untreated, and <50 years of age at baseline, 17.7% (95% CI: 4.6% to 29.1%) of the cases were attributable to prehypertensive levels (SBP: 120 to <140 mm Hg) of SBP, translating into 11 excess cases per 1000. Among those who did not report taking antihypertensive medication in midlife, 27% (95% CI: 8.9% to 42.1%) of dementia cases can be attributed to systolic BP > or =120 mm Hg, translating into 17 excess cases per 1000. Although population-attributable risk estimates for population subgroups may differ by relative risk for dementia or prevalence of elevated levels of blood pressure, these data suggest that reducing midlife systolic BP is an effective prevention strategy to reduce risk for late-life dementia.
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Another treatment gap: restarting secondary prevention medications: the Womens Health Initiative.
J Clin Lipidol
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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Womens long-term patterns of evidence-based preventive medication utilization following a coronary heart disease (CHD) diagnosis have not been sufficiently studied.
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Factors associated with congruence between preferred and actual place of death.
J Pain Symptom Manage
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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Congruence between preferred and actual place of death may be an essential component in terminal care. Most patients prefer a home death, but many patients do not die in their preferred location. Specialized (physician, hospice, and palliative) home care visits may increase home deaths, but factors associated with congruence have not been systematically reviewed. This study sought to review the extent of congruence reported in the literature and examine factors that may influence congruence. In July 2009, a comprehensive literature search was performed using MEDLINE, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Reference lists, related articles, and the past five years of six palliative care journals were also searched. Overall congruence rates (percentage of met preferences for all locations of death) were calculated for each study using reported data to allow cross-study comparison. Eighteen articles described 30%-91% congruence. Eight specialized home care studies reported 59%-91% congruence. A physician-led home care program reported 91% congruence. Of the 10 studies without specialized home care for all patients, seven reported 56%-71% congruence and most reported unique care programs. Of the remaining three studies without specialized home care for all patients, two reported 43%-46% congruence among hospital inpatients, and one elicited patient preference "if everything were possible," with 30% congruence. Physician support, hospice enrollment, and family support improved congruence in multiple studies. Research in this important area must consider potential sources of bias, the method of eliciting patient preference, and the absence of a single ideal place of death.
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Late-life hemoglobin and the incidence of Parkinsons disease.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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Brain iron promotes neurodegeneration in Parkinsons disease (PD). While hemoglobin (Hb) is the most abundant source of peripheral iron in humans, its relationship with PD is uncertain. This report examines the association between Hb in late life and PD incidence. From 1991 to 1993, Hb was measured in 3507 men in the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Men were aged 71-93 years and without PD. Participants were followed until 2001 for incident PD. Hb levels declined markedly with age. For men aged 71-75 years, 14.8% had levels < 14 g/dL versus 53.6% in those aged 86 and older (p < 0.001). During follow-up, 47 men developed PD (19.8/10,000 person-years). After age adjustment, PD incidence rose significantly from 10.3 to 34.9/10,000 person-years as Hb increased from < 14 to ? 16 g/dL (p = 0.024; relative hazard 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-8.9). Associations persisted after accounting for early mortality and adjustments for concomitant risk factors. While Hb declines with advancing age, evidence suggests that Hb that remains high in elderly men is associated with an increased risk of PD.
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Midlife C-reactive protein and risk of cognitive decline: a 31-year follow-up.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2009
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There is evidence for a relationship between raised inflammatory markers, including high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), measured late in life, and an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. This study evaluates the association of midlife hs-CRP concentrations with late-life longitudinal trends in cognitive function. Data are from the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS), a longitudinal community-based study of Japanese American men. hs-CRP levels were measured on average 25 years before cognitive testing began in 1991. Subjects were followed from up to three follow-up examinations (mean of 6.1 years). At each exam, cognitive function was measured with the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI). This analysis includes a sub-sample of 691 subjects dementia-free in 1991. With incident dementia cases included, those with the highest quartile of hs-CRP had significantly more cognitive decline than those in the lowest quartile, after adjustment for baseline CASI score, demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. When cases were removed, there was no difference in cognitive decline by CRP quartile. This relationship was not modified by the presence of apolipoprotein E varepsilon4. These findings suggest that inflammatory mechanisms during midlife may reflect underlying processes contributing to dementia-related cognitive decline late in life.
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Bowel movement frequency in late-life and substantia nigra neuron density at death.
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2009
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Constipation is associated with future risk of Parkinsons disease (PD) and with incidental Lewy bodies (LB) in the locus ceruleus or substantia nigra (SN). Our purpose is to examine the independent association between bowel movement frequency in late-life and postmortem SN neuron density. Bowel movement frequency was assessed in the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study from 1991 to 1993 in 414 men aged 71 to 93 years with later postmortem evaluations. Brains were examined for LB in the SN and locus ceruleus and neurons were counted in four quadrants from a transverse section of SN. In nonsmokers, neuron densities (counts/mm(2)) for men with >1, 1, and <1 bowel movement daily were 18.5, 18.8, 10.1 (P < 0.001) for dorsomedial; 15.3, 16.4, 10.2 (P < 0.03) for ventromedial; and 18.6, 18.3, 10.9 (P = 0.011) for ventrolateral quadrants. Relationships were not significant in the dorsolateral quadrant or in any quadrant among smokers. After adjustment for age, time to death, coffee drinking, tricep skinfold thickness, excessive daytime sleepiness, cognitive function, PD, and incidental LB, density ratios in nonsmokers with 1 or more bowel movement(s) daily were significantly higher compared to those with <1 daily. Constipation is associated with low SN neuron density independent of the presence of LB.
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Midlife use of written Japanese and protection from late life dementia.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2009
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The cognitive reserve hypothesis would predict that use of written Japanese should confer protection against dementia because of the complexity of its ideograms compared with written English. We sought to test this hypothesis in analyses from a longitudinal study of Japanese-American men.
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Arthritis as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease in elderly Japanese-American males - the Honolulu Heart Program.
Bull NYU Hosp Jt Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2009
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Arthritis is the most common chronic disease in the elderly. Studies show that rheumatoid arthritis is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and osteoarthritis is associated with an unfavorable cardiovascular risk factor profile.
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Change in blood pressure and incident dementia: a 32-year prospective study.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2009
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Studies of the association of high blood pressure (BP) with dementia are not consistent. Understanding long-term trajectories in blood pressure of those who do and do not develop dementia can help clarify the issue. The Honolulu Heart Program/Honolulu-Asia Aging Study followed a cohort of Japanese American men for an average of 32 years, with systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) measured at 6 examinations and dementia assessed at the final 3. In an analysis of 1890 men who completed all 6 of the exams, 112 diagnosed with incident dementia at examination 6 were compared with the 1778 survivors without dementia. Trajectories in SBP and DBP up to and including the sixth examination were estimated with a repeated-measures analysis using 3 splines. From midlife to late life, men who went on to develop dementia had an additional age-adjusted increase in SBP of 0.26 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.51 mm Hg) per year compared with survivors without dementia. Over the late-life examinations, this group had an additional age-adjusted decline in SBP of 1.36 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.64 to 2.07 mm Hg) per year. These associations were strongest for vascular dementia and were reduced substantially in men who were previously taking antihypertensive medication. Similar changes in diastolic BP were observed, but only for vascular dementia, and the findings were not modified by antihypertensive treatment. Over a 32-year period, compared with men who did not, those who did develop dementia had a greater increase, followed by a greater decrease, in SBP. Both of these trends are modified by antihypertensive therapy.
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Thyroid function, the risk of dementia and neuropathologic changes: the Honolulu-Asia aging study.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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Thyroid dysfunction is associated with cognitive impairment and dementia, including Alzheimers disease (AD). It remains unclear whether thyroid dysfunction results from, or contributes to, Alzheimer pathology. We determined whether thyroid function is associated with dementia, specifically AD, and Alzheimer-type neuropathology in a prospective population-based cohort of Japanese-American men. Thyrotropin, total and free thyroxine were available in 665 men aged 71-93 years and dementia-free at baseline (1991), including 143 men who participated in an autopsy sub-study. During a mean follow-up of 4.7 (S.D.: 1.8) years, 106 men developed dementia of whom 74 had AD. Higher total and free thyroxine levels were associated with an increased risk of dementia and AD (age and sex adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) per S.D. increase in free thyroxine: 1.21 (1.04; 1.40) and 1.31 (1.14; 1.51), respectively). In the autopsied sub-sample, higher total thyroxine was associated with higher number of neocortical neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. No associations were found for thyrotropin. Our findings suggest that higher thyroxine levels are present with Alzheimer clinical disease and neuropathology.
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Japanese-English language equivalence of the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument among Japanese-Americans.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) was designed for use in cross-cultural studies of Japanese and Japanese-American elderly in Japan and the U.S.A. The measurement equivalence in Japanese and English had not been confirmed in prior studies.
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Factors associated with place of death for elderly Japanese-American men: the Honolulu Heart Program and Honolulu-Asia Aging Study.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2009
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Place of death is an indicator of health service utilization at the end of life and differs according to cause of death. Asian Americans may have a higher percentage of hospital deaths than Caucasian Americans, yet reasons for this finding are unclear. This study examined distribution of place of death and the associations between place and cause of death in elderly Japanese-American men in a longitudinal cohort: the Honolulu Heart Program and Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Data collected between 1991 and 1999 on 1,352 men aged 73 to 99 at death were analyzed for associations between cause-of-death characteristics and hospital, home, or nursing home location of death. Fifty-nine percent of men died in hospitals, 23% died at home, and 18% died in nursing homes. Of the dementia-related deaths, 43% occurred in hospitals (vs 16% in a national study), 37% occurred in nursing homes (vs 67% in a national study), and 20% occurred at home. Of the stroke deaths, 53% occurred in hospitals, 40% were in nursing homes, and 7% occurred at home. Of the cancer deaths, 53% occurred in hospitals, 34% occurred at home, and 13% were in nursing homes. Traditional family obligation to care for elderly people at home and inability to access care for dementia may account for the greater rate of hospital death and lower rate of nursing home deaths in this cohort. Attitudes of elderly Japanese Americans and their families regarding place of care at the end of life, particularly in the setting of dementia, merit future study.
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Prevalence and measures of nutritional compromise among nursing home patients: weight loss, low body mass index, malnutrition, and feeding dependency, a systematic review of the literature.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
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Weight loss and poor nutrition have been important considerations in measuring quality of nursing home care since 1987. Our purpose was to examine, synthesize, and provide a systematic review of the current literature on the prevalence and definitions of nutritional problems in nursing home residents. In the fall of 2011, we performed MEDLINE searches of English-language articles published after January 1, 1990. Articles were systematically selected for inclusion if they presented prevalence data for general nursing home populations on at least one of the following: weight loss, low body mass index, Mini-Nutritional Assessment or other measure of malnutrition, poor oral intake, or dependency for feeding. Data on each study, including study author, year, setting, population, type of study (study design), measures, and results, were systematically extracted onto standard matrix tables by consensus by a team of two fellowship-trained medical school faculty geriatrician clinician-researchers with significant experience in long term care. The MEDLINE search yielded 672 studies plus 229 studies identified through related citations and reference lists. Of the 77 studies included, 11 articles provided prevalence data from the baseline data of an intervention study, and 66 articles provided prevalence data in the context of an observational study of nutrition. There is a wide range of prevalence of low body mass index, poor appetite, malnutrition, and eating disability reported among nursing home residents. Studies demonstrate a lack of standardized definitions and great variability among countries. Of all the measures, the Minimum Data Set (MDS) weight loss definition of ?5% in 1 month or ?10% in 6 months had the narrowest range of prevalence rate: 6% to 15%. Weight loss, as measured by the MDS, may be the most easily replicated indicator of nutritional problems in nursing home residents for medical directors to follow for quality-improvement purposes. Additional studies are needed, reporting the prevalence of the MDS weight loss definition among international nursing home residents.
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Developing future nursing home medical directors: a curriculum for geriatric medicine fellows.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
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Long term care facilities are important sites of care for elderly adults. Despite a growing need and interest in medical direction in nursing homes, there have been limited educational opportunities in this area for geriatric medicine fellows. This article describes a novel medical directors curriculum for first-year geriatric medicine fellows to prepare them for the role of nursing home medical director. This novel curriculum has been integrated into the Department of Geriatric Medicines Fellowship training program at the John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii. The curriculum consists of seven seminars that have been integrated into the didactic sessions during the first year of fellowship. Core content areas include: (1) roles and responsibilities of the medical director, (2) infection control, (3) physician documentation, (4) federal regulations and state surveys, (5) quality improvement, (6) culture change in nursing homes, and (7) transitions in care. All topics were discussed using the framework described by the American Medical Directors Associations position statement on the roles and responsibilities of the nursing home medical director. To our knowledge, this is the first curriculum in the medical literature that is designed to prepare geriatric medicine fellows for roles as medical directors in nursing homes.
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Adiponectin, systolic blood pressure, and alcohol consumption are associated with more aortic stiffness progression among apparently healthy men.
Atherosclerosis
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Limited data are available about risk factors for the progression of aortic stiffness in healthy population. We examined several risk factors as possible independent predictors of aortic stiffness progression among a population-based sample of US men.
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A palliative care educational intervention for frontline nursing home staff: the IMPRESS project.
J Gerontol Nurs
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The purpose of this study was to examine nursing home staff perceptions of end-of-life (EOL) care skills after an educational intervention. IMPRESS (IMproving PRofessional Education and Sustaining Support) was a quality improvement EOL care educational intervention (six lectures on core palliative care concepts) for frontline nursing home staff at five community nursing homes. Questionnaires were completed to evaluate frequency of application of palliative care skills before and after the educational series. Nursing home staff reported applying palliative care skills significantly more frequently after the intervention. A significant dose-response association was noted between number of inservice sessions attended and improvement in scores: Scores increased 0.04 points for staff who attended two of the six sessions, 0.12 for four sessions attended, and 0.46 for five to six sessions attended (p = 0.03). The results indicate that frontline nursing home staff who attend inservice sessions on core palliative care topics can significantly increase self-reported application of palliative care skills.
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Brain organochlorines and Lewy pathology: the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study.
Mov. Disord.
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Although organochlorines have been reported more frequently in Parkinsons disease (PD) brains than in controls, the association with brain Lewy pathology is unknown. Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS) participants, exposed to organochlorines from a variety of sources during midlife, represent a population well suited to determining the relationship of brain organochlorines with Lewy pathology in decedents from the longitudinal HAAS. The study design included the measurement of 21 organochlorine levels in frozen occipital lobe samples from HAAS decedents. Alpha-synuclein immunostaining performed on 225 brains was used to identify Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. With the potential for spurious associations to appear between Lewy pathology and 17 organochlorine compounds found in at least 1 brain, initial assessments identified heptachlor epoxide isomer b, methoxychlor, and benzene hexachloride b as being most important. The prevalence of Lewy pathology was 75% (6 of 8) among brains with any 2 of the 3 compounds, 48.8% (79 of 162) among those with 1, and 32.7% (18 of 55) for those with neither (P = .007 test for trend). Although findings persisted after removing cases with PD and dementia with Lewy bodies and after adjustment for age at death, body mass index, pack-years of cigarette smoking, and coffee intake (P = .013), the results were insignificant when correcting for multiple testing. Although consistent with earlier accounts of an association between organochlorines and clinical PD, associations with Lewy pathology warrant further study.
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Reducing cost by reducing polypharmacy: the polypharmacy outcomes project.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
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To examine the effect of intervention by geriatric medicine fellows and a geriatrician on medication cost among long term care residents with polypharmacy.
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Influence of cigarette smoking on coronary artery and aortic calcium among random samples from populations of middle-aged Japanese and Korean men.
J Epidemiol Community Health
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Cigarette smoking is a risk factor of coronary heart disease. Vascular calcification such as coronary artery calcium (CAC) and aortic calcium (AC) is associated with coronary heart disease. The authors hypothesised that cigarette smoking is associated with coronary artery and aortic calcifications in Japanese and Koreans with high smoking prevalence.
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Serum levels of marine-derived n-3 fatty acids in Icelanders, Japanese, Koreans, and Americans--a descriptive epidemiologic study.
Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids
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In the 1990s Iceland and Japan were known as countries with high fish consumption whereas coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in Iceland was high and that in Japan was low among developed countries. We described recent data fish consumption and CHD mortality from publicly available data. We also measured CHD risk factors and serum levels of marine-derived n-3 and other fatty acids from population-based samples of 1324 men in Iceland, Japan, South Korea, and the US. CHD mortality in men in Iceland was almost 3 times as high as that in Japan and South Korea. Generally, a profile of CHD risk factors in Icelanders compared to Japanese was more favorable. Serum marine-derived n-3 fatty acids in Iceland were significantly lower than in Japan and South Korea but significantly higher than in the US.
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Low dietary vitamin D predicts 34-year incident stroke: the Honolulu Heart Program.
Stroke
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Vitamin D deficiency has been reported to contribute to the risk of cardiovascular disease, especially stroke. We examined the relationship between dietary vitamin D intake and 34-year incident stroke.
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Antidepressant use, depressive symptoms, and incident frailty in women aged 65 and older from the Womens Health Initiative Observational Study.
J Am Geriatr Soc
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To examine the associations between depressive symptoms, antidepressant use, and duration of use with incident frailty 3 years later in nonfrail women aged 65 and older.
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Aortic stiffness and calcification in men in a population-based international study.
Atherosclerosis
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Aortic stiffness, a hallmark of vascular aging, is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. The association of aortic stiffness with aortic calcification in middle-aged general population remains unknown although studies in patients with end-stage renal disease or elderly subjects suggest that aortic calcification is an important determinant of aortic stiffness. The goal of this study was to examine the association of aortic calcification and stiffness in multi-ethnic population-based samples of relatively young men.
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Outcomes of polypharmacy in nursing home residents.
Clin. Geriatr. Med.
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This article provides a comprehensive review of the outcomes of polypharmacy in nursing homes. Our review had some limitations. First, we only included studies beginning in 1990, and significant earlier studies are not included. Only English language articles were included. We only researched studies from MEDLINE, and may have missed studies based on our search terms and search tools. There are many definitions of polypharmacy in the literature, including number of medications or inappropriate medications. In this review, we defined polypharmacy as a high number of medications, but not inappropriate medications. It was not surprising that polypharmacy was consistently associated with an increased number of potentially inappropriate drugs. The majority of studies were viewed showed that polypharmacy was associated with increased ADEs, increased DDIs, and increased hospitalizations. We were surprised that polypharmacy was not consistently linked with falls, fractures, and mortality. For the mortality studies, it has been postulated that perhaps some patients receiving 10 or more medications may have been moribund or receiving end-of-life or hospice care. It is possible that the number of medications is not as important as the number of potentially in appropriate drugs. There need to be more studies on these outcomes, using different definitions of polypharmacy. Polypharmacy was associated with increased costs. The drug-related morbidity and mortality, including those resulting from inappropriate medications and increased staff time, led to increased costs. Use of consultant pharmacists has been shown to decrease polypharmacy costs.
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Factors associated with polypharmacy in nursing home residents.
Clin. Geriatr. Med.
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The prevalence of polypharmacy is very high in the nursing home setting. In this comprehensive review, we describe the many demographic, functional status, chronic disease, and healthcare financing factors associated with polypharmacy in nursing home patients. Recognition of the factors associated with polypharmacy is the first step for practitioners. A quality improvement intervention study previously conducted by the authors of this paper demonstrated that polypharmacy can be reduced in the nursing setting as a result of systematic review of medications by physicians.
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Coronary artery calcification by computed tomography in epidemiologic research and cardiovascular disease prevention.
J Epidemiol
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Both American and European guidelines recommend coronary artery calcification (CAC) as a tool for screening asymptomatic individuals at intermediate risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These recommendations are based on epidemiologic studies mostly in the United States. We review (1) the use of CAC in primary prevention of CHD in the United States, (2) epidemiologic studies of CAC in asymptomatic adults outside of the United States, and (3) international epidemiologic studies of CAC. This review will not consider clinical studies of CAC among patients or symptomatic individuals. US studies have shown that CAC is a strong independent predictor of CHD in both sexes among middle-aged and old age groups, various ethnic groups, and individuals with and without diabetes and that CAC plays an important role in reclassifying individuals from intermediate to high risk. Studies in Europe support these conclusions. The Electron-Beam Tomography, Risk Factor Assessment Among Japanese and US Men in the Post-World-War-II birth cohort (ERA JUMP) Study is the first international study to compare subclinical atherosclerosis, including CAC among Japanese, Japanese Americans, Koreans, and whites. It showed that as compared with whites, Japanese had lower levels of atherosclerosis, whereas Japanese Americans had similar or higher levels. CAC is being increasingly used as a screening tool for asymptomatic individuals in Europe and the United States. CAC is a powerful research tool, because it enables us to describe differences in atherosclerotic burden across populations. Such research could identify factors responsible for differences among populations, which may improve CHD prevention.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.