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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Expression of pref-1/dlk-1 is regulated by microRNA-143 in 3T3-L1 cells.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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Preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1), also known as a delta-like 1 protein, is a transmembrane and secreted protein containing the epidermal growth factor-like repeat. Pref-1 inhibits adipocyte differentiation by activating the ERK1/2 pathway. MicroRNAs, a new class of small noncoding RNAs of 20-24 nucleotides, act as negative regulators of gene expression and result in mRNA degradation or translational repression. MicroRNA-143 (miR-143) is known to induce adipocyte differentiation; however, miR-143 targets in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation remain unknown. In this study, we investigated whether pref-1 is a miR-143 target to regulate adipogenesis. After the induction of adipocyte differentiation the level of miR-143 was increased, whereas the expression of pref-1 mRNA was decreased. The pref-1 protein level was also down-regulated in preadipocytes ectopically expressing miR-143, and recovered by miR-143 inhibitor. The binding region for miR-143 was predicted to be located between positions 247 and 252 in the 3'-UTR of pref-1. The luciferase activity of the vector containing the wild-type 3'-UTR of pref-1 was decreased by 65 % in cells transfected with miR-143 mimic compared to that of the corresponding control. In contrast, the activity of the pref-1 mutant cells was not affected by the treatment with miR-143 mimic. The ectopic expression of miR-143 mimic suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 induced by pref-1 in 3T3-L1 cells. However, the suppressed phosphorylation was restored by miR-143 inhibitor. Taken together, these data suggest that miR-143 promotes adipogenesis by directly modulating the pref-1 expression in adipocytes.
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Comparison of the efficacy and safety of once-daily dosing and on-demand use of udenafil for type 2 diabetic patients with erectile dysfunction.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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We compared the efficacy and safety between once-daily dosing and on-demand use of udenafil for type 2 diabetic patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). A multi-center, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, 12-week study was conducted. 161 patients who improved with on-demand 200 mg of udenafil according to Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) diary Question 2 and 3 (Q2 and Q3) were randomized into 200 mg on-demand (n = 80) or 50 mg once-daily (n = 81) dosing groups for 8 weeks. The dosing period was followed by a 4-week treatment-free period. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) erectile function domain (EFD) score. The secondary efficacy endpoints included changes to the SEP diary Q2, Q3, IIEF Q3, Q4, other domains of IIEF, Global Assessment Question, and shift to the normal rate (EFD ? 26). Vascular endothelial markers were also assessed. The IIEF-EFD score of both groups improved after 8 weeks of treatment (P < 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference between two groups. Improvement was not maintained after the treatment-free follow-up period. Similar results were observed in the secondary efficacy endpoints. There was also no significant difference in vascular endothelial markers. Daily udenafil was well-tolerated, and there was no significant difference in the adverse drug reactions and adverse events between the two groups. Flushing and headache were the most frequent adverse events. Both regimens improved ED in diabetic patients and were well-tolerated. Further studies are needed to assess the effect of daily udenafil treatment in diabetic patients.
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The influence of feed energy density and a formulated additive on rumen and rectal temperature in hanwoo steers.
Asian-australas. J. Anim. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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The present study investigated the optimum blending condition of protected fat, choline and yeast culture for lowering of rumen temperature. The Box Benken experimental design, a fractional factorial arrangement, and response surface methodology were employed. The optimum blending condition was determined using the rumen simulated in vitro fermentation. An additive formulated on the optimum condition contained 50% of protected fat, 25% of yeast culture, 5% of choline, 7% of organic zinc, 6.5% of cinnamon, and 6.5% of stevioside. The feed additive was supplemented at a rate of 0.1% of diet (orchard grass:concentrate, 3:7) and compared with a control which had no additive. The treatment resulted in lower volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and biogas than the control. To investigate the effect of the optimized additive and feed energy levels on rumen and rectal temperatures, four rumen cannulated Hanwoo (Korean native beef breed) steers were in a 4×4 Latin square design. Energy levels were varied to low and high by altering the ratio of forage to concentrate in diet: low energy (6:4) and high energy (4:6). The additive was added at a rate of 0.1% of the diet. The following parameters were measured; feed intake, rumen and rectal temperatures, ruminal pH and VFA concentration. This study was conducted in an environmentally controlled house with temperature set at 30°C and relative humidity levels of 70%. Steers were housed individually in raised crates to facilitate collection of urine and feces. The adaptation period was for 14 days, 2 days for sampling and 7 days for resting the animals. The additive significantly reduced both rumen (p<0.01) and rectal temperatures (p<0.001) without depressed feed intake. There were interactions (p<0.01) between energy level and additive on ruminal temperature. Neither additive nor energy level had an effect on total VFA concentration. The additive however, significantly increased (p<0.01) propionate and subsequently had lower acetate:propionate (A/P) ratios than non-additive supplementation. High concentrate diets had significantly lower pH. Interactions between energy and additive were observed (p<0.01) in ammonia nitrogen production. Supplementation of diets with the additive resulted in lower rumen and rectal temperatures, hence the additive showed promise in alleviating undesirable effects of heat stress in cattle.
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Genome-wide Association Study of Integrated Meat Quality-related Traits of the Duroc Pig Breed.
Asian-australas. J. Anim. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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The increasing importance of meat quality has implications for animal breeding programs. Research has revealed much about the genetic background of pigs, and many studies have revealed the importance of various genetic factors. Since meat quality is a complex trait which is affected by many factors, consideration of the overall phenotype is very useful to study meat quality. For integrating the phenotypes, we used principle component analysis (PCA). The significant SNPs refer to results of the GRAMMAR method against PC1, PC2 and PC3 of 14 meat quality traits of 181 Duroc pigs. The Genome-wide association study (GWAS) found 26 potential SNPs affecting various meat quality traits. The loci identified are located in or near 23 genes. The SNPs associated with meat quality are in or near five genes (ANK1, BMP6, SHH, PIP4K2A, and FOXN2) and have been reported previously. Twenty-five of the significant SNPs also located in meat quality-related QTL regions, these result supported the QTL effect indirectly. Each single gene typically affects multiple traits. Therefore, it is a useful approach to use integrated traits for the various traits at the same time. This innovative approach using integrated traits could be applied on other GWAS of complex-traits including meat-quality, and the results will contribute to improving meat-quality of pork.
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Evaluation of Flap Tissue Viability by F-18 FDG PET/CT.
Nucl Med Mol Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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A 60-year-old man underwent vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap to reconstruct a left lateral chest wall defect. For assessment of viability of muscle flap, F-18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) was performed 15 days after surgery. The FDG PET/CT showed a small metabolic defect in the left lateral chest wall. During follow-up, necrotic change of the graft was observed, and the site was in accordance with the area where the metabolic defect was observed in the FDG PET/CT. As a result, debridement and wound closure was performed. This case suggested that the FDG PET/CT should be a useful method for the monitoring of muscle viability after flap surgery.
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Docosahexaenoic acid-induced apoptosis is mediated by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in human cancer cells.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3-PUFAs) in cancer prevention has been demonstrated; however, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer activity of ?3-PUFAs are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the relationship between the anticancer action of a specific ?3-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and the conventional mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 whose dysregulation has been implicated in human cancers.
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Role of cysteinyl leukotriene signaling in a mouse model of noise-induced cochlear injury.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most common types of sensorineural hearing loss. In this study, we examined the expression and localization of leukotriene receptors and their respective changes in the cochlea after hazardous noise exposure. We found that the expression of cysteinyl leukotriene type 1 receptor (CysLTR1) was increased until 3 d after noise exposure and enhanced CysLTR1 expression was mainly observed in the spiral ligament and the organ of Corti. Expression of 5-lipoxygenase was increased similar to that of CysLTR1, and there was an accompanying elevation of CysLT concentration. Posttreatment with leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA), montelukast, for 4 consecutive days after noise exposure significantly decreased the permanent threshold shift and also reduced the hair cell death in the cochlea. Using RNA-sequencing, we found that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) was up-regulated after noise exposure, and it was significantly inhibited by montelukast. Posttreatment with a MMP-3 inhibitor also protected the hair cells and reduced the permanent threshold shift. These findings suggest that acoustic injury up-regulated CysLT signaling in the cochlea and cochlear injury could be attenuated by LTRA through regulation of MMP-3 expression. This study provides mechanistic insights into the role of CysLTs signaling in noise-induced hearing loss and the therapeutic benefit of LTRA.
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Phosphorylation of PrxII promotes JNK-dependent apoptosis in adult cloned pig kidney.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Organ transplantation is the most effective medical therapy for end-stage renal disease patients; however, there is a critical shortage of human donor organs. Therefore, xenotransplantation using genetically modified cloned porcine kidney is considered as a viable solution, but its fundamental therapeutic mechanism and difference from non-cloned porcine or human kidney for its clinical application is not well known. Here, we performed proteomic analysis to investigate the differentially expressed molecules in kidney tissue obtained from cloned porcine by SCNT, when compared with normal porcine kidney in same age as a control. A total of 80 protein spots were differentially expressed between cloned porcine kidney and control kidney, including apoptotic proteins, structural and anti-oxidant related proteins. Furthermore, very interestingly, the differential expression pattern of PrxII in the cloned porcine kidney was distinguishable from that in the control kidney in terms of the pI and molecular weight. Along with this, apoptotic marker proteins were up-regulated in the cloned porcine kidney. We suggested that these alterations were induced by post-translational modification such as phosphorylation in PrxII and could be mediated by JNK. With this result, we also observed that the down-regulation of JNK activity was caused by blockage of phosphorylation in PrxII T89A region. Taken together, cloned porcine kidney is more susceptible in JNK-induced apoptosis caused by PrxII phosphorylation, in oxidative stress condition. These results will be helpful in the application of cloned porcine xeno-transplants for treating end-stage renal disease patients in a clinical setting.
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Pyrosequencing-based analysis of fecal microbial communities in three purebred pig lines.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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This study examined the fecal bacterial diversity of 15-week-old pigs from three purebred lines: Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire. Taxon-dependent and -independent analyses were performed to evaluate differences in the fecal bacterial communities and to identify bacterial genera that can be used to discriminate breeds, following high-throughput pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Among the breeds evaluated, Landrace had the most diverse bacterial community composition. Prevotella, Blautia, Oscillibacter, and Clostridium were detected in all samples regardless of breed. On the other hand, Catenibacterium, Blautia, Dialister, and Sphaerochaeta were differentially detected among breeds, as demonstrated by the canonical loading plot. The discriminant analysis of principal components plot also showed clear separation of the three purebred pig lines, with a certain degree of similarity between Landrace and Yorkshire pigs and a distinct separation between Duroc pigs and the other two breeds. Other factors not related to breed, such as season or time of sampling and pen effects, may contribute to shaping the gut microbiota of pigs.
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CRIPTO1 expression in EGFR-mutant NSCLC elicits intrinsic EGFR-inhibitor resistance.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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The majority of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harbor EGFR-activating mutations that can be therapeutically targeted by EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI), such as erlotinib and gefitinib. Unfortunately, a subset of patients with EGFR mutations are refractory to EGFR-TKIs. Resistance to EGFR inhibitors reportedly involves SRC activation and induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we have demonstrated that overexpression of CRIPTO1, an EGF-CFC protein family member, renders EGFR-TKI-sensitive and EGFR-mutated NSCLC cells resistant to erlotinib in culture and in murine xenograft models. Furthermore, tumors from NSCLC patients with EGFR-activating mutations that were intrinsically resistant to EGFR-TKIs expressed higher levels of CRIPTO1 compared with tumors from patients that were sensitive to EGFR-TKIs. Primary NSCLC cells derived from a patient with EGFR-mutated NSCLC that was intrinsically erlotinib resistant were CRIPTO1 positive, but gained erlotinib sensitivity upon loss of CRIPTO1 expression during culture. CRIPTO1 activated SRC and ZEB1 to promote EMT via microRNA-205 (miR-205) downregulation. While miR-205 depletion induced erlotinib resistance, miR-205 overexpression inhibited CRIPTO1-dependent ZEB1 and SRC activation, restoring erlotinib sensitivity. CRIPTO1-induced erlotinib resistance was directly mediated through SRC but not ZEB1; therefore, cotargeting EGFR and SRC synergistically attenuated growth of erlotinib-resistant, CRIPTO1-positive, EGFR-mutated NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that this combination may overcome intrinsic EGFR-inhibitor resistance in patients with CRIPTO1-positive, EGFR-mutated NSCLC.
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Characterization of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 in small-cell lung cancer.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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There remains a significant therapeutic need for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). We and others have reported high frequency of copy number gains in cytogenetic bands encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) in SCLC tumors and cell lines.
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The value of red blood cell distribution width in subclinical hypothyroidism.
Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between the subclinical hypothyroidism and red cell distribution width (RDW) levels in a healthy population.
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Characterization of a family B DNA polymerase from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis KIN4/I and its application to PCR.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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A family B DNA polymerase gene from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis KIN4/I was highly expressed under the control of T7lac promoter of pET-28ARG in Escherichia coli BL21-CodonPlus(DE3)-RIL cells. The produced I. hospitalis (Iho) DNA polymerase was purified by heat treatment followed by HisTrap™ HP column and HiTrap™ SP column chromatographies. The molecular mass of the purified Iho DNA polymerase was 88 kDa as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The optimal pH for Iho DNA polymerase activity was 7.0 and the optimal temperature was 70 °C. Iho DNA polymerase was strongly activated by the presence of magnesium ion at an optimum concentration of 3 mM. The optimal concentration of KCl for Iho DNA polymerase activity was 60 mM. The half-life of the enzyme at 94 °C was about 2 h. The optimal conditions for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were determined. Iho DNA polymerase possesses 3'?5' exonuclease activity, and the fidelity of the Iho DNA polymerase was similar to that of Pfu and Vent DNA polymerases. However, Iho DNA polymerase provided more enhanced efficiency of PCR amplification than Pfu and Vent DNA polymerases. Iho DNA polymerase could successfully amplify a 2-kb ? DNA target with a 10-s extension time and could amplify a DNA fragment up to 8 kb ? DNA.
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Houttuynia cordata Improves Cognitive Deficits in Cholinergic Dysfunction Alzheimer's Disease-Like Models.
Biomol Ther (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Cognitive impairment is a result of dementia of diverse causes, such as cholinergic dysfunction and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Saururaceae) has long been used as a traditional herbal medicine. It has biological activities including protective effects against amyloid beta (A?) toxicity, via regulation of calcium homeostasis, in rat hippocampal cells. To extend previous reports, we investigated the effects of water extracts of H. cordata herb (HCW) on tauopathies, also involving calcium influx. We then confirmed the effects of HCW in improving memory impairment and neuronal damage in mice with A?-induced neurotoxicity. We also investigated the effects of HCW against scopolamine-induced cholinergic dysfunction in mice. In primary neuronal cells, HCW inhibited the phosphorylation of tau by regulating p25/p35 expression in A?-induced neurotoxicity. In mice with A?-induced neurotoxicity, HCW improved cognitive impairment, as assessed with behavioral tasks, such as novel object recognition, Y-maze, and passive avoidance tasks. HCW also inhibited the degeneration of neurons in the CA3 region of the hippocampus in A?-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, HCW, which had an IC50 value of 79.7 ?g/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibition, ameliorated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment significantly in Y-maze and passive avoidance tasks. These results indicate that HCW improved cognitive impairment, due to cholinergic dysfunction, with inhibitory effects against tauopathies and cholinergic antagonists, suggesting that HCW may be an interesting candidate to investigate for the treatment of AD.
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Genetic traceability of black pig meats using microsatellite markers.
Asian-australas. J. Anim. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Pork from Jeju black pig (population J) and Berkshire (population B) has a unique market share in Korea because of their high meat quality. Due to the high demand of this pork, traceability of the pork to its origin is becoming an important part of the consumer demand. To examine the feasibility of such a system, we aim to provide basic genetic information of the two black pig populations and assess the possibility of genetically distinguishing between the two breeds. Muscle samples were collected from slaughter houses in Jeju Island and Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea, for populations J and B, respectively. In total 800 Jeju black pigs and 351 Berkshires were genotyped at thirteen microsatellite (MS) markers. Analyses on the genetic diversity of the two populations were carried out in the programs MS toolkit and FSTAT. The population structure of the two breeds was determined by a Bayesian clustering method implemented in structure and by a phylogenetic analysis in Phylip. Population J exhibited higher mean number of alleles, expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity value, and polymorphism information content, compared to population B. The FIS values of population J and population B were 0.03 and -0.005, respectively, indicating that little or no inbreeding has occurred. In addition, genetic structure analysis revealed the possibility of gene flow from population B to population J. The expected probability of identify value of the 13 MS markers was 9.87×10(-14) in population J, 3.17×10(-9) in population B, and 1.03×10(-12) in the two populations. The results of this study are useful in distinguishing between the two black pig breeds and can be used as a foundation for further development of DNA markers.
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Association between recent acetaminophen use and asthma: modification by polymorphism at TLR4.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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The risk of asthma has been increasing in parallel with use of acetaminophen, which is a potential source of oxidative stress. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a critical role not only in innate immunity, but also in mediating reactive oxygen species induced inflammation. Therefore, we investigated associations between acetaminophen usage and TLR4 polymorphism on asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). The number of 2,428 elementary school children in Seoul and Jeongeup cities was recruited. Subjects who used acetaminophen with a family history of asthma had an increased risk of both asthma diagnosis ever and current asthma. Individuals with CT+TT genotypes at the TLR4 polymorphism, in combination with acetaminophen usage, also demonstrated an increased risk of asthma diagnosis ever (aOR, 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-3.92). Family history of asthma and acetaminophen usage were risk factors for BHR. Although TLR4 was not an independent risk factor for BHR, individuals with CT+TT genotypes at the TLR4 polymorphism had an increased risk of BHR when combined with acetaminophen usage (aOR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.03-2.94). In conclusion, acetaminophen usage may be associated with asthma and BHR in genetically susceptible subjects. This effect may be modified by polymorphism at TLR4.
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Impairment of work productivity in panic disorder patients.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Panic disorder (PD) has a critical impact on productivity at the workplace. This study aimed to identify the lost productivity time (LPT) for patients with PD. It also assessed change in LPT for patients with PD after 12 weeks of treatment with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), compared with healthy controls.
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PMA synergistically enhances apicularen A-induced cytotoxicity by disrupting microtubule networks in HeLa cells.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Combination therapy is key to improving cancer treatment efficacy. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a well-known PKC activator, increases the cytotoxicity of several anticancer drugs. Apicularen A induces cytotoxicity in tumor cells through disrupting microtubule networks by tubulin down-regulation. In this study, we examined whether PMA increases apicularen A-induced cytotoxicity in HeLa cells.
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A specific missense mutation in GTF2I occurs at high frequency in thymic epithelial tumors.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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We analyzed 28 thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) using next-generation sequencing and identified a missense mutation (chromosome 7 c.74146970T>A) in GTF2I at high frequency in type A thymomas, a relatively indolent subtype. In a series of 274 TETs, we detected the GTF2I mutation in 82% of type A and 74% of type AB thymomas but rarely in the aggressive subtypes, where recurrent mutations of known cancer genes have been identified. Therefore, GTF2I mutation correlated with better survival. GTF2I ? and ? isoforms were expressed in TETs, and both mutant isoforms were able to stimulate cell proliferation in vitro. Thymic carcinomas carried a higher number of mutations than thymomas (average of 43.5 and 18.4, respectively). Notably, we identified recurrent mutations of known cancer genes, including TP53, CYLD, CDKN2A, BAP1 and PBRM1, in thymic carcinomas. These findings will complement the diagnostic assessment of these tumors and also facilitate development of a molecular classification and assessment of prognosis and treatment strategies.
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Effects of the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa on mitochondria-mediated neuroprotection in an MPTP-induced model of Parkinson's disease.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is generally characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons projecting from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) to the striatum that results in movement dysfunction, but also entails mitochondrial dysfunction. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the protective effects of Moutan Cortex Radicis (MCE, Moutan peony) on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD-like symptoms and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action, with a focus on mitochondrial function. In a rat primary mesencephalic culture system, MCE significantly protected dopaminergic neurons from the neurotoxic effects of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), an active form of MPTP. Additionally, in a subacute mouse model of MPTP-induced PD, MCE resulted in enhanced recovery from PD-like motor symptoms, including increased locomotor activity and reduced bradykinesia. MCE increased dopamine availability and protected against MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal damage. Moreover, MCE inhibited MPTP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and resulted in increased expression of phosphorylated Akt, ND9, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and H2AX in the SNpc. Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis was also inhibited, via the regulation of B-cell lymphoma family proteins and the inhibition of cytochrome C release and caspase-3 activation. These results indicate that MCE has neuroprotective effects in PD models and may be useful for preventing or treating PD.
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Electrochemical characterization of a carbon nanofiber electrode system hybridized with PEDOT-PSS.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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In this work, electrochemical properties of a bilayer electrode system prepared from an electrically conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT-PSS coated carbon nanofibers (CNFs), have been investigated. The CNFs were used as supports for the deposition of PEDOT-PSS by a dip-coating technique to yield a bilayer electrode system. Electrodes prepared by such a method were used in supercapacitors operating in acidic (1 M H2SO4) electrolytes. The capacitance values were estimated by voltammetry and galvanostatic techniques with a three-electrode cell configuration. Due to the CNFs graphitic structure and the presence of exterior walls with numerous edges, a high specific surface area and easily accessible electrode/electrolyte interface were obtained, thus yielding good capacitance in the bilayer active materials. The capacitance for PEDOT-PSS coated CNF bilayer electrodes ranged from 80 to 180 F/g and the fabricated materials showed good cycling performance with high stability in aqueous electrolytes. This was probably due to enhanced access to the CNFs, leading to the generation of a double layer and, ultimately, higher values of the capacitance.
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The Janus Kinases Inhibitor AZD1480 Attenuates Growth of Small Cell Lung Cancers In Vitro and In Vivo.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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The prognosis of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is poor, and there has been very little progress in the medical treatment of SCLC in the past two decades. We investigated the potential of Janus-activated kinases (JAK) inhibitor, AZD1480, for treatment of SCLC in vitro and in vivo.
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Characterization of modular bifunctional processive endoglucanase Cel5 from Hahella chejuensis KCTC 2396.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Cel5 from marine Hahella chejuensis is composed of glycoside hydrolase family-5 (GH5) catalytic domain (CD) and two carbohydrate binding modules (CBM6-2). The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The optimum endoglucanase and xylanase activities of recombinant Cel5 were observed at 65 °C, pH 6.5 and 55 °C, pH 5.5, respectively. It exhibited K m of 1.8 and 7.1 mg/ml for carboxymethyl cellulose and birchwood xylan, respectively. The addition of Ca(2+) greatly improved thermostability and endoglucanase activity of Cel5. The Cel5 retained 90 % of its endoglucanase activity after 24 h incubation in presence of 5 M concentration of NaCl. Recombinant Cel5 showed production of cellobiose after hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates (soluble/insoluble) and methylglucuronic acid substituted xylooligosaccharides after hydrolysis of glucuronoxylans by endo-wise cleavage. These results indicated that Cel5 as bifunctional enzyme having both processive endoglucanase and xylanase activities. The multidomain structure of Cel5 is clearly distinguished from the GH5 bifunctional glycoside hydrolases characterized to date, which are single domain enzymes. Sequence analysis and homology modeling suggested presence of two conserved binding sites with different substrate specificities in CBM6-2 and a single catalytic site in CD. Residues Glu132 and Glu219 were identified as key catalytic amino acids by sequence alignment and further verified by using site directed mutagenesis. CBM6-2 plays vital role in catalytic activity and thermostability of Cel5. The bifunctional activities and multiple substrate specificities of Cel5 can be utilized for efficient hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into soluble sugars.
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Capillary isoelectric-focusing immunoassays to study dynamic oncoprotein phosphorylation and drug response to targeted therapies in non-small cell lung cancer.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Developing proteomic biomarkers is valuable for evaluating therapeutic effects of drugs and generating better treatment strategies. However, conventional protein analysis is often challenging due to inadequate sample size of clinical specimens, lack of assay reproducibility, accuracy, and sensitivity. A novel capillary isoelectricfocusing (IEF) immunoassay system (NanoPro) was used to study the dynamic phosphorylation status of signaling molecules in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase and MEK inhibitors. NanoPro showed the same dynamic ERK phosphorylation as Western blotting with good assay reproducibility using 1,000 times less protein. The IEF separation in NanoPro system enables multiple protein phosphorylation isoforms to be resolved and detected simultaneously. With NanoPro, we identified a specific on-target mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) response pattern to MEK inhibitor PD325901, which was not detectable by Western blot analysis. We also revealed a MEK2 signal that may be associated with NSCLC cell sensitivity to the EGF receptor inhibitor erlotinib, and distinguished erlotinib-sensitive cells from intrinsic as well as acquired resistant cells to erlotinib. Moreover, NanoPro could differentiate human ERK1 isoforms from the mouse isoforms based on their isoelectric point differences and showed that erlotinib effectively inhibited ERK phosphorylation in targeted human xenograft cancer cells but not in surrounding mouse stromal cells. With 8 ?g of tumor aspirates, we precisely quantified the response of 18 signaling molecules to erlotinib and MEK1 inhibitor treatments in an NSCLC patient. NanoPros higher sensitivity, better resolution of protein phosphorylation status, and reduced tissue requirement warrant NanoPros investigation for future drug development and evaluation of drug effects of targeted therapies.
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Genetic variants and signatures of selective sweep of Hanwoo population (Korean native cattle).
BMB Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Although there have been many studies of native Korean cattle, Hanwoo, there have been no selective sweep studies in these animals. This study was performed to characterize genetic variation and identify selective signatures. We sequenced the genomes of 12 cattle, and identified 15125420 SNPs, 1768114 INDELs, and 3445 CNVs. The SNPs, INDELs, and CNVs were similarly distributed throughout the genome, and highly variable regions were shown to contain the BoLA family and GPR180, which are related to adaptive immunity. We also identified the domestication footprints of the Hanwoo population by searching for selective sweep signatures, which revealed the RCN2 gene related to BPV resistance. The results of this study may contribute to genetic improvement of the Hanwoo population in Korea.
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Antioxidant activity of a novel synthetic hexa-peptide derived from an enzymatic hydrolysate of duck skin by-products.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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A peptide was synthesized on the basis of our previous study from solid phase peptide synthesis using ASP48S (Peptron Inc.) and identified by the reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Vydac Everest C18 column. The molecular mass of the peptide found to be 693.90Da, and the amino acid sequences of the peptide was Trp-Tyr-Pro-Ala-Ala-Pro. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antioxidant effects of the peptide by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer, and on t-BHP-induced liver cells damage in Chang cells. The antioxidative activity of the peptide was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, alkyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity using an ESR spectrometer. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of the peptide for hydroxyl, DPPH, alkyl, and superoxide radical scavenging activity were 45.2, 18.5, 31.5, and 33.4?M, respectively. In addition, the peptide inhibited productions of cell death against t-BHP-induced liver cell damage in Chang cells. It was presumed to be peptide involved in regulating the apoptosis-related gene expression in the cell environment. The present results indicate that the peptide substantially contributes to antioxidative properties in liver cells.
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High performance enzyme fuel cells using a genetically expressed FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase ?-subunit of Burkholderia cepacia immobilized in a carbon nanotube electrode for low glucose conditions.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH) of Burkholderia cepacia was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified in order to use it as an anode catalyst for enzyme fuel cells. The purified enzyme has a low Km value (high affinity) towards glucose, which is 463.8 ?M, up to 2-fold exponential range lower compared to glucose oxidase. The heterogeneous electron transfer coefficient (Ks) of FAD-GDH-menadione on a glassy carbon electrode was 10.73 s(-1), which is 3-fold higher than that of GOX-menadione, 3.68 s(-1). FAD-GDH was able to maintain its native glucose affinity during immobilization in the carbon nanotube and operation of enzyme fuel cells. FAD-GDH-menadione showed 3-fold higher power density, 799.4 ± 51.44 ?W cm(-2), than the GOX-menadione system, 308.03 ± 17.93 ?W cm(-2), under low glucose concentration, 5 mM, which is the concentration in normal physiological fluid.
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Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells based on Organic Dual-Channel Anchorable Dyes with Well-Defined Core Bridge Structures.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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In stereo, where available: A new approach towards dye-sensitized solar cells is based on dianchoring structural motifs with two donors, two acceptors, and a core bridge donor as a spacer. Their high molar absorption coefficients result in favorable light-harvesting efficiencies for DSSCs based on these dyes. A high conversion efficiency of 4.90?% is achieved when using dye DC4, containing a core bridge carbazole unit, with a multifunctional coadsorbent.
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Breastfeeding Might Have Protective Effects on Atopy in Children With the CD14C-159T CT/CC Genotype.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Breastfeeding is widely recommended to reduce risk of sensitization, eczema and asthma. However, the role of breastfeeding in prevention of allergic diseases is uncertain. We aimed to investigate whether the relationship between breastfeeding and sensitization to aeroallergens is modified by cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) genotype. This study included 1,828 school children aged 9-12. We administered a detailed questionnaire and genotyped the CD14C-159T polymorphism. Skin prick tests for 12 aeroallergens were performed. School children who had been breastfed were less likely sensitized to aeroallergens (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.712, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.555-0.914). There was no significant association between CD14C-159T genotype and atopy. Breastfeeding was associated with a decreased risk of atopic sensitization in children with CT/CC genotype (aOR 0.667, 95% CI: 0.463-0.960). Our data might identify the gene-environment interaction between the CD14C-159T polymorphism and breastfeeding in relation to aeroallergen sensitization.
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Anti-proliferative effect of honokiol in oral squamous cancer through the regulation of specificity protein 1.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Honokiol (HK), a novel plant-derived natural product, is a physiologically activated compound with polyphenolic structure, and has been identified to function as an anticancer agent. It has been widely used in several diseases as a traditional medicine for a long time. We investigated whether HK could show anticancer effects on two oral squamous cell lines (OSCCs), HN-22 and HSC-4. We demonstrated that HK-treated cells showed dramatic reduction in cell growth and apoptotic cell morphologies. Intriguingly, the transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1) was significantly inhibited by HK in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we checked changes in cell cycle regulatory proteins and anti-apoptotic proteins at the molecular level, which are known as Sp1 target genes. The important key regulators in the cell cycle such as p27 and p21 were up-regulated by HK-mediated down-regulation of Sp1, whereas anti-apoptotic proteins including Mcl-1 and survivin were decreased, resulting in caspase-dependent apoptosis. Taken together, results from this study suggest that HK could modulate Sp1 transactivation and induce apoptotic cell death through the regulation of cell cycle and suppression of anti?apoptotic proteins. In addition, HK may be used in cancer prevention and therapies to improve the clinical outcome as an anticancer drug.
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Allogenic umbilical cord blood therapy combined with erythropoietin for patients with severe traumatic brain injury: three case reports.
Restor. Neurol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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To report the safety and efficacy of a novel therapeutic trial with umbilical cord blood (UCB) and concomitant recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), which was tried for three cases of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rehabilitation.
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Apicularen A acetate induces cell death via AIF translocation and disrupts the microtubule network by down-regulating tubulin in HM7 human colon cancer cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Apicularen A is a novel antitumor agent and strongly induces death in tumor cells. In this study, we synthesized apicularen A acetate, an acetyl derivative of apicularen A, and investigated its antitumor effect and mechanism in HM7 colon cancer cells. Apicularen A acetate induced apoptotic cell death and caspase-3 activation; however, the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk could not prevent this cell death. Apicularen A acetate induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria. In addition, apicularen A acetate significantly decreased tubulin mRNA and protein levels and induced disruption of microtubule networks. Taken together, these results indicate that the mechanism of apicularen A acetate involves caspase-independent apoptotic cell death and disruption of microtubule architecture.
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The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid DHA induces simultaneous apoptosis and autophagy via mitochondrial ROS-mediated Akt-mTOR signaling in prostate cancer cells expressing mutant p53.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) induces autophagy-associated apoptotic cell death in wild-type p53 cancer cells via regulation of p53. The present study investigated the effects of DHA on PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines harboring mutant p53. Results show that, in addition to apoptosis, DHA increased the expression levels of lipidated form LC3B and potently stimulated the autophagic flux, suggesting that DHA induces both autophagy and apoptosis in cancer cells expressing mutant p53. DHA led to the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), as shown by the mitochondrial ROS-specific probe mitoSOX. Similarly, pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) markedly inhibited both the autophagy and the apoptosis triggered by DHA, indicating that mitochondrial ROS mediate the cytotoxicity of DHA in mutant p53 cells. Further, DHA reduced the levels of phospho-Akt and phospho-mTOR in a concentration-dependent manner, while NAC almost completely blocked that effect. Collectively, these findings present a novel mechanism of ROS-regulated apoptosis and autophagy that involves Akt-mTOR signaling in prostate cancer cells with mutant p53 exposed to DHA.
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Current routine practice and clinico-pathological characteristics associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia in Korea.
Blood Res
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) can be life threatening, necessitating emergency therapy with prompt diagnosis by morphologic findings, immunophenotyping, cytogenetic analysis, or molecular studies. This study aimed to assess the current routine practices in APL and the clinico-pathologic features of APL.
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Safety and efficacy of modern insulin analogues.
Diabetes Metab J
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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A1chieve® was a noninterventional study evaluating the clinical safety and efficacy of biphasic insulin aspart 30, insulin detemir, and insulin aspart.
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Thymol from Thymus quinquecostatus Celak. protects against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in Chang cells.
J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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The present work describes the protective effects of thymol isolated from Thymus quinquecostatus Celak. against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative damage through various experiments with Chang liver cells. Thymol significantly protected hepatocytes against t-BHP-induced cell cytotoxicity as demonstrated by increased viability. Furthermore, observation of Hoechst staining, annexin V/PI staining, and expression of Bcl-2 and Bax indicated that thymol inhibited t-BHP-induced Chang cell damage. Further, thymol inhibited the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in t-BHP-treated Chang cells and prevented oxidative stress-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA). Thymol restored the antioxidant capability of hepatocytes including glutathione (GSH) levels which were reduced by t-BHP. These results indicated that thymol prevents oxidative stress-induced damage to liver cells through suppression of ROS and MDA levels and increase of GSH level.
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Purification of a novel nitric oxide inhibitory peptide derived from enzymatic hydrolysates of Mytilus coruscus.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Shellfish contain significant levels of high quality protein and are therefore a potential source for biofunctional high-value peptides. To purify a novel anti-inflammatory peptide from Mytilus coruscus (M. coruscus), we applied enzymatic hydrolysis and tangential flow filtration (TFF) and investigated its nitric oxide inhibitory property. To prepare the peptide, eight proteases were employed for enzymatic hydrolysis. Flavouzyme hydrolysates, which showed clearly superior nitric oxide inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7, were further purified using a TFF system and consecutive chromatographic methods. Finally, a novel anti-inflammatory peptide composed of 10 amino acid residues was obtained, and the sequence was identified as Gly-Val-Ser-Leu-Leu-Gln-Gln-Phe-Phe-Leu at N-terminal position. The peptide from M. coruscus effectively inhibited nitric oxide production on macrophage cells. This is the first report of an anti-inflammatory peptide derived from the hydrolysates of M. coruscus.
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Effects of conditioned media from human amniotic epithelial cells on corneal alkali injuries in rabbits.
J. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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This study was performed to evaluate the effects of conditioned media (CM) from human amniotic epithelial cells (HAECs) on the corneal wound healing process. Eighteen rabbits (36 eyes) were used and randomly assigned to three groups according treatment: CM from HAECs (group 1), vehicle alone (group 2), and saline (group 3). Corneal alkali injuries were induced with 1 N sodium hydroxide. Each reagent used for treatment evaluation was injected into the dorsal bulbar subconjunctiva and the area of the corneal epithelial defect was measured every other day. Two animals from each group were euthanized at a time on days 3, 7, and 15, and the cornea was removed for histological examination. The sum of the epithelial defect areas measured on day 0 to day 6 as well as day 0 to day 14 in group 1 was significantly smaller than those of other groups. Histological examination revealed that the group 1 corneas had less inflammatory cell infiltration and showed more intact epithelial features compared to the other groups. These results suggest that CM from HAECs promote corneal wound healing in rabbits.
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Novel ERBB receptor feedback inhibitor 1 (ERRFI1) + 808 T/G polymorphism confers protective effect on diabetic nephropathy in a Korean population.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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The identification and characterization of the gene, ERRFI1, in diabetes has not been reported. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between ERRFI1 polymorphism and characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Korea.
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Discovery of novel 2-hydroxydiarylamide derivatives as TMPRSS4 inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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TMPRSS4 is a novel type II transmembrane serine protease that has been implicated in the invasion and metastasis of colon cancer cells. In this study, a novel series of 2-hydroxydiarylamide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for inhibiting TMPRSS4 serine protease activity and suppressing cancer cell invasion. These derivatives demonstrated good inhibitory activity against TMPRSS4 serine protease, which correlated with the promising anti-invasive activity of colon cancer cells overexpressing TMPRSS4.
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Umbilical cord blood therapy potentiated with erythropoietin for children with cerebral palsy: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Allogeneic umbilical cord blood (UCB) has therapeutic potential for cerebral palsy (CP). Concomitant administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) may boost the efficacy of UCB, as it has neurotrophic effects. The objectives of this study were to assess the safety and efficacy of allogeneic UCB potentiated with rhEPO in children with CP. Children with CP were randomly assigned to one of three parallel groups: the pUCB group, which received allogeneic UCB potentiated with rhEPO; the EPO group, which received rhEPO and placebo UCB; and the Control group, which received placebo UCB and placebo rhEPO. All participants received rehabilitation therapy. The main outcomes were changes in scores on the following measures during the 6 months treatment period: the gross motor performance measure (GMPM), gross motor function measure, and Bayley scales of infant development-II (BSID-II) Mental and Motor scales (18). F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) and diffusion tensor images (DTI) were acquired at baseline and followed up to detect changes in the brain. In total, 96 subjects completed the study. Compared with the EPO (n = 33) and Control (n = 32) groups, the pUCB (n = 31) group had significantly higher scores on the GMPM and BSID-II Mental and Motor scales at 6 months. DTI revealed significant correlations between the GMPM increment and changes in fractional anisotropy in the pUCB group. 18F-FDG-PET/CT showed differential activation and deactivation patterns between the three groups. The incidence of serious adverse events did not differ between groups. In conclusion, UCB treatment ameliorated motor and cognitive dysfunction in children with CP undergoing active rehabilitation, accompanied by structural and metabolic changes in the brain.
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Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Adipose Tissues Reveals that ECM-Receptor Interaction Is Involved in the Depot-Specific Adipogenesis in Cattle.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Adipocytes mainly function as energy storage and endocrine cells. Adipose tissues showed the biological and genetic difference based on their depots. The difference of adipocytes between depots might be influenced by the inherent genetic programing for adipogenesis. We used RNA-seq technique to investigate the transcriptomes in 3 adipose tissues of omental (O), subcutaneous (S) and intramuscular (I) fats in cattle. Sequence reads were obtained from Illumina HiSeq2000 and mapped to the bovine genome using Tophat2. Differentially expressed genes (DEG) between adipose tissues were detected by EdgeR. We identified 5797, 2156, and 5455 DEGs in the comparison between OI, OS, and IS respectively and also found 5657 DEGs in the comparison between the intramuscular and the combined omental and subcutaneous fats (C) (FDR<0.01). Depot specifically up- and down- regulated DEGs were 853 in S, 48 in I, and 979 in O. The numbers of DEGs and functional annotation studies suggested that I had the different genetic profile compared to other two adipose tissues. In I, DEGs involved in the developmental process (eg. EGR2, FAS, and KLF7) were up-regulated and those in the immune system process were down-regulated. Many DEGs from the adipose tissues were enriched in the various GO terms of developmental process and KEGG pathway analysis showed that the ECM-receptor interaction was one of commonly enriched pathways in all of the 3 adipose tissues and also functioned as a sub-pathway of other enriched pathways. However, genes involved in the ECM-receptor interaction were differentially regulated depending on the depots. Collagens, main ECM constituents, were significantly up-regulated in S and integrins, transmembrane receptors, were up-regulated in I. Different laminins were up-regulated in the different depots. This comparative transcriptome analysis of three adipose tissues suggested that the interactions between ECM components and transmembrane receptors of fat cells depend on the depot specific adipogenesis.
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Docosahexaenoic acid induces autophagy through p53/AMPK/mTOR signaling and promotes apoptosis in human cancer cells harboring wild-type p53.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
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Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been reported to induce tumor cell death by apoptosis. However, little is known about the effects of DHA on autophagy, another complex well-programmed process characterized by the sequestration of cytoplasmic material within autophagosomes. Here, we show that DHA increased both the level of microtubule-associated protein light-chain 3 and the number of autophagic vacuoles without impairing autophagic vesicle turnover, indicating that DHA induces not only apoptosis but also autophagy. We also observed that DHA-induced autophagy was accompanied by p53 loss. Inhibition of p53 increased DHA-induced autophagy and prevention of p53 degradation significantly led to the attenuation of DHA-induced autophagy, suggesting that DHA-induced autophagy is mediated by p53. Further experiments showed that the mechanism of DHA-induced autophagy associated with p53 attenuation involved an increase in the active form of AMP-activated protein kinase and a decrease in the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin. In addition, compelling evidence for the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis induced by DHA is supported by the findings that autophagy inhibition suppressed apoptosis and further autophagy induction enhanced apoptosis in response to DHA treatment. Overall, our results demonstrate that autophagy contributes to the cytotoxicity of DHA in cancer cells harboring wild-type p53.
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Synthesis of mesoporous anatase TiO2 nanotubes by a hydrothermal treatment and their use in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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Mesoporous anatase TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) with the diameter of about 7 12 nm and the length of several hundred nanometers were synthesized by a hydrothermal method on commercial TiO2 particles in NaOH followed by HCI washing. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmitting electron microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) measurements. The hydrothermal treatment temperature at 130 degrees C was shown to affect not only the extent of particle-to-sheet conversion, and thus the resulting structures of the NTs, but also the anatase-to-rutile transformation. The surface area of the NTs was 200 m2g(-1). This value was much higher in comparison to TiO2 nanoparticles of 50 m2g(-1). It was also found that the NT photoelectrodes had a pronounced impact on the performance of solar cells as compared to nanoparticle ones. This was probably due to lead to a significantly higher specific dye loading and, for certain hydrothermal treatments, resulting in a doubling of the solar cell efficiency (in our case from 2.84% to 4.03% of AM 1.5 conditions).
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Small rice bowl-based meal plan for energy and marcronutrient intake in korean men with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study.
Diabetes Metab J
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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Koreans eat rice, which is usually served in a rice bowl. We investigated the effect of a meal plan using small rice bowls on the total energy intake (TEI) and the marcronutrient intake in Korean men with type 2 diabetes.
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The revised edition of korean calendar for allergenic pollens.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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The old calendar of pollens did not reflect current pollen distribution and concentrations that can be influenced by changes of weather and environment of each region in South Korea. A new pollen calendar of allergenic pollens was made based on the data on pollen concentrations obtained in eight regions nationwide between 1997 and 2009. The distribution of pollen was assessed every day at 8 areas (Seoul, Guri, Busan, Daegu, Jeonju, Kwangju, Kangneung, and Jeju) for 12 years between July 1, 1997 and June 30, 2009. Pollens were collected by using Burkard 7-day sampler (Burkard Manufacturing Co Ltd, UK). Pollens which were stained with Calberlas fuchsin staining solution were identified and counted. Pine became the highest pollen in May, and the pollen concentrations of oak and birch also became high. Ragweed appeared in the middle of August and showed the highest pollen concentration in the middles of September. Japanese hop showed a high concentration between the middle of August and the end of September, and mugwort appeared in the middles of August and its concentration increased up until early September. In Kangneung, birch appeared earlier, pine showed a higher pollen concentration than in the other areas. In Daegu, Oriental thuja and alder produced a large concentration of pollens. Pine produced a large concentration of pollens between the middle of April and the end of May. Weeds showed higher concentrations in September and mugwort appeared earlier than ragweed. In Busan the time of flowering is relatively early, and alder and Oriental thuja appeared earliest among all areas. In Kwangju, Oriental thuja and hazelnut appeared in early February. Japanese cedar showed the highest pollen concentration in March in Jeju. In conclusion, update information on pollen calendar in South Korea should be provided for allergic patients through the website to manage and prevent the pollinosis.
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A giant retroperitoneal lymphangioma in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1.
J Korean Surg Soc
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is a genetically inherited disorder that may cause skin abnormalities and tumors that form on nerve tissues. These tumors can be small or large and can occur anywhere in the body, including the brain, spinal cord, or other peripheral nerves. Retroperitoneal lymphangiomas are very rare benign malformations of the lymphatic system. About 95% lymphangiomas occur in the skin and the subcutaneous tissues of the head, neck and axillary region and the remaining 5% appear in other parts of the body such as lungs, pleura, pericardium, liver, gallbladder, kidney, and the mesentery. Herein, we report the case of a giant retroperitoneal lymphangioma in a patient with NF-1 with a review of the literature.
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Identification of maturation and protein synthesis related proteins from porcine oocytes during in vitro maturation.
Proteome Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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In vitro maturation (IVM) of mammalian oocytes is divided into the GV (germinal vesicle stage), MI (metaphase I stage) and MII (metaphase II stage) stages, and only fully mature oocytes have acquired the ability to be fertilized and initiate zygotic development. These observations have been mostly based on morphological evaluations, but the molecular events governing these processes are not fully understood.The aim of the present study was to better understand the processes involved in the molecular regulation of IVM using 2-DE analysis followed by mass spectrometry to identify proteins that are differentially expressed during oocyte IVM.
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Omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo via downregulation of Wnt/Beta-catenin signaling.
Pancreatology
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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?3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3- PUFAs) are known to possess anticancer properties. However, the relationship between ?3-PUFAs and ?-catenin, one of the key components of the Wnt signaling pathway, in human pancreatic cancer remains poorly characterized.
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Organically functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 as sorbents for removal of selected pharmaceuticals from water.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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Mesoporous silica SBA-15 and its postfunctionalized counterparts with hydroxymethyl (HM-SBA-15), aminopropyl (AP-SBA-15), and trimethylsilyl (TMS-SBA-15) were prepared and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, N(2) adsorption-desorption measurement, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The removal of a mixture of 12 selected pharmaceuticals was investigated by batch adsorption experiments onto SBA-15 and the grafted materials. SBA-15 showed to have moderate adsorption affinity with amino-containing (atenolol, trimethoprim) and hydrophobic pharmaceuticals, but it displayed minimal adsorption affinity toward hydrophilic compounds. HM-SBA-15 was analogous with SBA-15 in terms of the adsorption efficiency toward all pharmaceuticals. AP-SBA-15 exhibited an increase in the adsorption of two acidic compounds (clofibric acid, diclofenac) but a decrease in the adsorption of estrone and the two amino-containing compounds. Among the grafted materials, TMS-SBA-15 had the highest adsorption affinity toward most pharmaceuticals. Moreover, the adsorption of nine pharmaceuticals to TMS-SBA-15 was significantly higher than that to SBA-15; seven of which showed the removal percentages from 70.6% to 98.9% onto TMS-SBA-15. The number of pharmaceuticals showing high adsorption efficiency onto TMS-SBA-15 did not alter significantly as the pH changed in the range of 5.5-7.6. The results suggest that TMS-SBA-15 is a promising material for the removal of pharmaceuticals from aqueous phase, especially for the treatment of wastewater from drug manufacturers.
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Transglutaminase 2 as an independent prognostic marker for survival of patients with non-adenocarcinoma subtype of non-small cell lung cancer.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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Expression of transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) is related to invasion and resistance to chemotherapeutic agents in several cancer cells. However, there has been only limited clinical validation of TGase 2 as an independent prognostic marker in cancer.
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Proteomic analysis of phosphotyrosyl proteins in human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cells.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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Phosphorylation can reveal essential cell functions, such as cell differentiation, signal transduction, metabolic maintenance and cell division. The aim of this study was to investigate phosphorylated protein expression changes during neuronal lineage differentiation from hESCs. To measure the phosphorylated protein expression change during neuronal differentiation, we performed a comparative phosphoproteome analysis using 2-DE after MALDI-TOF MS and an MS/MS protein identification method, making a comparison between neural lineage differentiating cells and normal embryoid bodies (EBs) differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and profiling constituent phosphorylated proteins. Of 36 differentially expressed protein spots, 12 spots were shown to be up-regulated in differentiating neural cells. Specifically, the 7 up-regulated proteins of the 12 have potential roles in neuronal differentiation or neuronal damage recovery, including ACTB, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2B1 (hnRNP A2B1), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (hnRNP L), SET, chaperonin-containing TCP-1, vimentin and voltage-dependent anion channel protein 1 (VDAC1). These proteins are discussed further below.
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Characterization of antiphospholipid antibodies in chronic hepatitis B infection.
Korean J Hematol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2011
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Many infections are associated with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, persistence, clinical significance, and characteristics of aPLs in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients.
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Effects of pinitol on glycemic control, insulin resistance and adipocytokine levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Ann. Nutr. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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Pinitol is thought to mediate insulin action and improve insulin resistance. We evaluated the effects of pinitol on glycemic control, insulin resistance and adipocytokine levels in type 2 diabetic patients.
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Structural characterization of Escherichia coli BamE, a lipoprotein component of the ?-barrel assembly machinery complex.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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In Escherichia coli, the BAM complex catalyzes the essential process of assembling outer membrane proteins (OMPs). This complex consists of five proteins: one membrane-bound protein, BamA, and four lipoproteins, BamB, BamC, BamD, and BamE. Despite their importance in OMP biogenesis, there is currently a lack of functional and structural information on the BAM complex lipoproteins. BamE is the smallest but most conserved lipoprotein in the complex. The structural and dynamic properties of monomeric BamE (residues 21-133) were determined by NMR spectroscopy. The protein folds as two ?-helices packed against a three-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet. The N-terminal (Ser21-Thr39) and C-terminal (Pro108-Asn113) residues, as well as a ?-hairpin loop (Val76-Gln89), are highly flexible on the subnanosecond time scale. BamE expressed and purified from E. coli also exists in a kinetically trapped dimeric state that has dramatically different NMR spectra, and hence structural features, relative to its monomeric form. The functional significance of the BamE dimer remains to be established. Structural comparison to proteins with a similar architecture suggests that BamE may play a role in mediating the association of the BAM complex or with the BAM complex substrates.
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Early detection of preeclampsia using inhibin a and other second-trimester serum markers.
Fetal. Diagn. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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The purpose of this study was to determine whether second-trimester maternal serum markers including inhibin A are useful for the detection of preeclampsia.
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DJ-1 mediates paraquat-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell death.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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There are two causes of Parkinsons disease (PD): environmental insults and genetic mutations of PD-associated genes. Environmental insults and genetic mutations lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, and a combination of mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress in dopaminergic neurons is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of PD. Among the PD-associated genes, DJ-1 acts as a redox sensor for oxidative stress and has been also proposed to maintain mitochondrial complex I activity. To understand molecular functions of DJ-1 in the cell, we have generated DJ-1 null cells from the DJ-1(-/-) mouse embryos. Using these null cells, we investigated the susceptibility to an environmental toxin, paraquat, which is known to inhibit mitochondrial complex I. Interestingly, we found that DJ-1 null cells showed a resistance to paraquat-induced apoptosis, including reduced poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and procaspase-3. Also DJ-1 null cells generated less superoxide than SN4741 cells by paraquat treatment. Consistent with the reduced paraquat sensitivity, DJ-1 null cells showed reduced complex I activity, which was partially rescued by ectopic DJ-I expression. In summary, our results suggest that DJ-1 is critical to maintain mitochondrial complex I and complex I could be a key target in interaction of paraquat toxicity and DJ-1 for giving rise to PD.
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Proteomic analysis of pregnancy-related proteins from pig uterus endometrium during pregnancy.
Proteome Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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Many important molecular events associated with implantation and development occur within the female reproductive tract, especially within the uterus endometrium, during pregnancy periods. The endometrium includes the mucosal lining of the uterus, which provides a suitable site for implantation and development of a fertilized egg and fetus. To date, the molecular cascades in the uterus endometrium during pregnancy periods in pigs have not been elucidated fully. In this study, we compared the functional regulated proteins in the endometrium during pregnancy periods with those in non-pregnant conditions and investigated changes in expression patterns during pregnancy (days 40, 70, and 93) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and western blotting. The functional regulated proteins were identified and discovered from differentially expressed proteins in the uterus endometrium during pregnancy. We discovered 820 protein spots in a proteomic analysis of uterus endometrium tissues with 2-DE gels. We identified 63 of the 98 proteins regulated differentially among non-pregnant and pregnant tissues (matched and unmatched spots). Interestingly, 10 of these 63 proteins are development-, cytoskeleton- and chaperon-related proteins such as transferrin, protein DJ-1, transgelin, galectin-1, septin 2, stathmin 1, cofilin 1, fascin 1, heat shock protein (HSP) 90? and HSP 27. The specific expression patterns of these proteins in the endometrium during pregnancy were confirmed by western blotting. Our results suggest that the expressions of these genes involved in endometrium function and endometrium development from early to late gestation are associated with the regulation of endometrium development for maintaining pregnancy.
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Association of ozone exposure with asthma, allergic rhinitis, and allergic sensitization.
Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Children are vulnerable to air pollution, which is known to be related to the recent increasing trend of allergic disease.
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TNF-alpha mediated NF-kappaB activation is constantly extended by transglutaminase 2.
Front Biosci (Elite Ed)
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Increased levels of transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) expression have been reported in many inflammatory diseases, as well as in drug resistant cancer cells. Previous reports have shown that TGase 2 is capable of inducing nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation via depletion of inhibitor of kappaB (I-kappaB)alpha through polymerization in the absence of I-kappaBalpha kinase activation. This raises the question of whether increased expression of TGase 2 can extend NF-kappaB activation mediated by a canonical activation pathway. In the TGase 2-inducible EcR23/TG cell line, TGase 2 over-expression resulted in sustained activation of NF-kappa B in the presence of TNF-alpha, for up to 24 hrs, while in the absence of TGase 2 induction, NF-kappaB activity was restored to basal levels within 6 hrs of TNF-alpha treatment. In mice injected with an adenovirus vector expressing TGase 2, NF-kappaB was constitutively activated for up to 5 days, whereas Adeno/GFP-injected mice exhibited attenuated activation of NF-kappaB in response to TNF-alpha stress. Thus, the presence of increased levels of TGase 2 may exacerbate NF-kappa B activation in inflammatory states.
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The usefulness of an accelerometer for monitoring total energy expenditure and its clinical application for predicting body weight changes in type 2 diabetic korean women.
Korean Diabetes J
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2010
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of an accelerometer in predicting body weight (BW) change during a lifestyle intervention and to find out whether exercise or overall physical activity is associated with change in insulin sensitivity and body composition.
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Helicobacter pylori proinflammatory protein up-regulates NF-kappaB as a cell-translocating Ser/Thr kinase.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2010
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There has been considerable interest in virulence genes in the plasticity region of Helicobacter pylori, but little is known about many of these genes. JHP940, one of the virulence factors encoded by the plasticity region of H. pylori strain J99, is a proinflammatory protein that induces tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-8 secretion as well as enhanced translocation of NF-?B in cultured macrophages. Here we have characterized the structure and function of JHP940 to provide the framework for better understanding its role in inflammation by H. pylori. Our work demonstrates that JHP940 is the first example of a eukaryotic-type Ser/Thr kinase from H. pylori. We show that JHP940 is catalytically active as a protein kinase and translocates into cultured human cells. Furthermore, the kinase activity is indispensable for indirectly up-regulating phosphorylation of NF-?B p65 at Ser276. Our results, taken together, contribute significantly to understanding the molecular basis of the role of JHP940 in inflammation and subsequent pathogenesis caused by H. pylori. We propose to rename the jhp940 gene as ctkA (cell translocating kinase A).
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Comparison of two electroretinography systems used in dogs: the HMsERG and the RETIport.
J. Vet. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2010
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The purpose of the study was to compare two different electroretinography (ERG) instruments used on the same animal in a laboratory setting. Retinal function in both eyes of 12 healthy miniature schnauzers was evaluated under general anesthesia. Scotopic and photopic ERGs were recorded by the HMsERG and the RETIport using the Dog Standard Protocol recommended by the European College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists (ECVO). The waveforms of the ERGs obtained by the two ERG units were similar to those described in previous studies. The 90% reference ranges using the multiple of medians (MoM) showed that the changes in ERG parameters obtained by the HMsERG unit were very similar to those of the RETIport for most ERG responses, except for a few. The results demonstrate that the two ERG systems are comparable for evaluating retinal function in dogs. Further, the results also show that it is necessary to establish ERG system-specific limits of normality in each laboratory or clinic in order to obtain a correct diagnosis, for example by using a graphical representation of the 90% reference range.
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Effects of early measles on later rhinitis and bronchial hyperresponsiveness.
Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
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The hygiene hypothesis suggests that infectious diseases in early life reduce the risk of allergic diseases.
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I-kappaBalpha depletion by transglutaminase 2 and mu-calpain occurs in parallel with the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2010
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Transglutaminase 2 (TGase2) is a calcium-dependent, cross-linking enzyme that catalyzes iso-peptide bond formation between peptide-bound lysine and glutamine residues. TGase 2 can activate NF-kappaB through the polymerization-mediated depletion of I-kappaBalpha without IKK activation. This NF-kappaB activation mechanism is associated with drug resistance in cancer cells. However, the polymers cannot be detected in cells, while TGase 2 over-expression depletes free I-kappaBalpha, which raises the question of how the polymerized I-kappaBalpha can be metabolized in cells. Among proteasome, lysosome and calpain systems, calpain inhibition was found to effectively increase the accumulation of I-kappaBalpha polymers in MCF7 cells transfected with TGase 2, and induced high levels of I-kappaBalpha polymers as well in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that naturally express a high level of TGase 2. Inhibition of calpain also boosted the level of I-kappaBalpha polymers in HEK-293 cells in case of TGase 2 transfection either with I-kappaBalpha or I-kappaBalpha mutant (S32A, S36A). Interestingly, the combined inhibition of calpain and the proteasome resulted in an increased accumulation of both I-kappaBalpha polymers and I-kappaBalpha, concurrent with an inhibition of NF-kappaB activity in MDA-MB-231 cells. This suggests that mu-calpain proteasome-dependent I-kappaBalpha polymer degradation may contribute to cancer progression through constitutive NF-kappaB activation.
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Evaluation of 28 human embryonic stem cell lines for use as unrelated donors in stem cell therapy: implications of HLA and ABO genotypes.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2010
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For human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to be used clinically, it is imperative that immune responses evoked by hESCs and their derivates after transplantation should be prevented. Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and ABO blood group antigens are important histocompatibility factors in graft rejection. HLA matching between recipient and unrelated donors, in particular, is important in improving outcomes in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We have established and successfully maintained 29 hESC lines and analyzed the HLA and ABO genotypes of these lines. HLA-A, -B, -C and -DR (DRB1) genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequence-based typing and ABO genotyping was carried out by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. To determine what proportion of the Korean population would be covered by these cell lines in organ transplantation, 27 cell lines with HLA-A, -B, and -DR data were evaluated for HCT (cord blood) donors and 28 cell lines with HLA-DR and ABO data were evaluated for solid organ (kidney) transplantation donors, and then compared the data with those from 6,740 donated cord bloods. When 2 HLA mismatches are allowed for HCT, as currently accepted for cord blood transplantation, it was estimated that about 16% and 25% of the possible recipients can find one or more donor cell lines with ?2 mismatches at A, B, DRB1 allele level and at A, B antigen/DRB1 allele level, respectively. When HLA-DR antigen level matching and ABO compatibility was considered for solid organ (kidney) transplantation, it was estimated that about 29% and 96% of the possible recipients can find one or more ABO-compatible donor cell lines with 0 and 1 DR mismatches, respectively. We provided the first report on the HLA and ABO genotypes of hESC lines, and estimated the degree of HLA and ABO matching in organ transplantation for the Korean population.
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Ras signaling requires dynamic properties of Ets1 for phosphorylation-enhanced binding to coactivator CBP.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2010
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Ras/MAPK signaling is often aberrantly activated in human cancers. The downstream effectors are transcription factors, including those encoded by the ETS gene family. Using cell-based assays and biophysical measurements, we have determined the mechanism by which Ras/MAPK signaling affects the function of Ets1 via phosphorylation of Thr38 and Ser41. These ERK2 phosphoacceptors lie within the unstructured N-terminal region of Ets1, immediately adjacent to the PNT domain. NMR spectroscopic analyses demonstrated that the PNT domain is a four-helix bundle (H2-H5), resembling the SAM domain, appended with two additional helices (H0-H1). Phosphorylation shifted a conformational equilibrium, displacing the dynamic helix H0 from the core bundle. The affinity of Ets1 for the TAZ1 (or CH1) domain of the coactivator CBP was enhanced 34-fold by phosphorylation, and this binding was sensitive to ionic strength. NMR-monitored titration experiments mapped the interaction surfaces of the TAZ1 domain and Ets1, the latter encompassing both the phosphoacceptors and PNT domain. Charge complementarity of these surfaces indicate that electrostatic forces act in concert with a conformational equilibrium to mediate phosphorylation effects. We conclude that the dynamic helical elements of Ets1, appended to a conserved structural core, constitute a phospho-switch that directs Ras/MAPK signaling to downstream changes in gene expression. This detailed structural and mechanistic information will guide strategies for targeting ETS proteins in human disease.
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Clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia-AF10-positive acute leukemias: a report of 2 cases with a review of the literature.
Korean J Lab Med
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2010
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The translocation t(10;11)(p13;q14q21) has been found to be recurrent in acute lymphoblastic and myeloid leukemias, and results in the fusion of the clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia (CALM) gene with the AF10 gene; these genes are present on chromosomes 11 and 10, respectively. Because the CALM-AF10 rearrangement is a rare chromosomal abnormality, it is not included in routine molecular tests for acute leukemia. Here, we describe the cases of 2 patients with the CALM-AF10 fusion gene. The first patient (case 1) was diagnosed with T-cell ALL, and the second patient (case 2) was diagnosed with AML. Both patient samples showed expression of the homeobox A gene cluster and the histone methyltransferase hDOT1L, which suggests that they mediate leukemic transformation in CALM-AF10-positive and mixed-lineage leukemia-AF10-positive leukemias. Both patients achieved complete remission after induction chemotherapy. The first patient (case 1) relapsed after double-unit cord blood transplantation; there was no evidence of relapse in the second patient (case 2) after allogenic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Since CALM-AF10- positive leukemias have been shown to have poor prognosis with conventional therapy, molecular tests for CALM-AF10 rearrangement would be necessary to detect minimal residual disease during follow-up.
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Differentially expressed proteins during fat accumulation in bovine skeletal muscle.
Meat Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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The objective of this study was to identify the proteins involved in bovine intramuscular fat (IMF) development. Global proteins were monitored in bovine skeletal muscle at muscle-developing versus IMF-increasing stages and with higher versus lower IMF scores, respectively. We identified two differentially expressed (two-fold or more) proteins at the IMF-increasing stage, up-regulated heat shock protein beta 1 (HSPB1) and down-regulated ATP synthase D chain (ATP5H), and two down-regulated proteins with higher IMF scores, carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) and myosin light chain 3 (MYL3). In vitro, after adipogenic differentiation, the mRNA expression of HSPB1 and ATP5H did not be changed, but that of CA2 and MYL3 decreased significantly (P<0.05). After myogenic differentiation, the mRNA expression of HSPB1 increased significantly (P<0.05), but expression of other genes did not vary. We suggested that CA2 and MYL3, which expressed down during adipogenic differentiation, could be indicative markers for negative regulation of IMF development.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.