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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Multidisciplinary rehabilitation can motivate obese breast cancer survivors to lose weight.]
Ugeskr. Laeg.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Accumulating evidence suggests that obesity has a negative impact on breast cancer survivors. In this project we developed and tried out a residential 6 + 3 days rehabilitation programme with focus on weight reduction for breast cancer survivors. The key focus was to work with their motivation to change habits by use of cognitive therapy tools. It seems that this residential rehabilitation stay can motivate obese breast cancer survivors to change habits and lose weight. In all the 42 women with complete data lost 6.1 kg in average.
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Three phase III randomized controlled trials of topical resiquimod 0.01-percent gel to reduce anogenital herpes recurrences.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Resiquimod, a Toll-like receptor 7 and 8 agonist, stimulates production of cytokines that promote an antigen-specific T helper type 1 acquired immune response. Animal and phase II human trials showed posttreatment efficacy in reducing recurrent herpes lesion days and/or time to first recurrence. Three phase III randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trials of topical resiquimod to reduce anogenital herpes recurrences were conducted in healthy adults with ?4 recurrences within the prior year. Participants applied resiquimod 0.01% gel or vehicle gel 2 times per week for 3 weeks to each recurrence for 12 months. Trials 1 and 2 had 2:1 resiquimod-vehicle randomization. Trial 3 had 1:1:1 randomization for resiquimod and 500 mg valacyclovir orally twice daily for 5 days (RESI-VAL), resiquimod and oral placebo (RESI-PLA), and vehicle and oral placebo (VEH-PLA). The median time to first recurrence was similar for resiquimod and vehicle (trial 1, 60 and 56 days, P=0.7; trial 2, 54 and 48 days, P=0.47; trial 3, 51 [RESI-VAL], 55 [RESI-PLA], and 44 [VEH-PLA] days, P=not significant [NS]). The median time to healing of initial treated recurrence was longer for resiquimod (trial 1, 18 compared to 10 days, P<0.001; trial 2, 19 compared to 13 days, P=0.16; trial 3, 14 [RESI-VAL], 16 [RESI-PLA], and 8 [VEH-PLA] days, P<0.001). In trials 1 and 2, moderate to severe erythema and erosion/ulceration at the application site were more common in resiquimod recipients. In conclusion, no posttreatment efficacy of resiquimod 0.01% gel was observed. Increased application site reactions and initial recurrence healing time are consistent with resiquimod-induced cytokine effects.
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Estimated HIV Incidence in California, 2006-2009.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Accurate estimates of HIV incidence are crucial for prioritizing, targeting, and evaluating HIV prevention efforts. Using the methodology the CDC used to estimate national HIV incidence, we estimated HIV incidence in Los Angeles County (LAC), San Francisco (SF), and Californias remaining counties.
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Rapid localized spread and immunologic containment define Herpes simplex virus-2 reactivation in the human genital tract.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is shed episodically, leading to occasional genital ulcers and efficient transmission. The biology explaining highly variable shedding patterns, in an infected person over time, is poorly understood. We sampled the genital tract for HSV DNA at several time intervals and concurrently at multiple sites, and derived a spatial mathematical model to characterize dynamics of HSV-2 reactivation. The model reproduced heterogeneity in shedding episode duration and viral production, and predicted rapid early viral expansion, rapid late decay, and wide spatial dispersion of HSV replication during episodes. In simulations, HSV-2 spread locally within single ulcers to thousands of epithelial cells in <12 hr, but host immune responses eliminated infected cells in <24 hr; secondary ulcers formed following spatial propagation of cell-free HSV-2, allowing for episode prolongation. We conclude that HSV-2 infection is characterized by extremely rapid virological growth and containment at multiple contemporaneous sites within genital epithelium. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00288.001.
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Impact of herpes simplex virus type 2 on HIV-1 acquisition and progression in an HIV vaccine trial (the Step study).
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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Extensive observational data suggest that herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection may facilitate HIV acquisition, increase HIV viral load, and accelerate HIV progression and onward transmission. To explore these relationships, we examined the impact of preexisting HSV-2 infection in an international HIV vaccine trial.
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Mucosal host immune response predicts the severity and duration of herpes simplex virus-2 genital tract shedding episodes.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2010
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Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) shedding episodes in humans vary markedly in duration and virologic titer within an infected person over time, an observation that is unexplained. To evaluate whether host or virological factors more closely accounted for this variability, we combined measures of viral replication and CD8(+) lymphocyte density in genital biopsies, with a stochastic mathematical model of HSV-2 infection. Model simulations reproduced quantities of virus and duration of shedding detected in 1,003 episodes among 386 persons. In the simulations, local CD8(+) lymphocyte density in the mucosa at episode onset predicted peak HSV DNA copy number and whether genital lesions or subclinical shedding occurred. High density of CD8(+) T cells in the mucosa correlated with decreased infected cell lifespan and fewer infected epithelial cells before episode clearance. If infected cell lifespan increased by 15 min because of CD8(+) lymphocyte decay, then there was potential for a thousandfold increase in the number of infected cells. The model suggests that the rate of containment of infected cells by the peripheral mucosal immune system is the major driver of duration and severity of HSV-2 reactivation in the immunocompetent host.
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Rapidly cleared episodes of oral and anogenital herpes simplex virus shedding in HIV-infected adults.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2010
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To determine whether rapidly cleared episodes of herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation occur in HIV-infected adults.
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Frequent release of low amounts of herpes simplex virus from neurons: results of a mathematical model.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2009
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Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a sexually transmitted infection that is the leading cause of genital ulcers worldwide. Infection is life long and is characterized by repeated asymptomatic and symptomatic shedding episodes of virus that are initiated when virus is released from neurons into the genital tract. The pattern of HSV-2 release from neurons into the genital tract is poorly understood. We fit a mathematical model of HSV-2 pathogenesis to curves generated from daily quantification of HSV in mucosal swabs performed from patients with herpetic genital ulcers. We used virologic parameters derived from model fitting for stochastic model simulations. These simulations reproduced previously documented estimates for shedding frequency, and herpetic lesion diameter and frequency. The most realistic model output occurred when we assumed minimal amounts of daily neuronal virus introduction. In our simulations, small changes in average total quantity of HSV-2 released from neurons influenced detectable shedding frequency, while changes in frequency of neuronal HSV-2 release had little effect. Frequent HSV-2 shedding episodes in humans are explained by nearly constant release of small numbers of viruses from neurons that terminate in the genital tract.
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Regional differences among HIV patients in care: California medical monitoring project sites, 2007-2008.
Open AIDS J
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The Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) is a national, multi-site population-based supplemental HIV/AIDS surveillance project of persons receiving HIV/AIDS care. We compared California MMP data by region. Demographic characteristics, medical care experiences, HIV treatment, clinical care outcomes, and need for support services are described.
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Peripheral blood CD4 T-cell and plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) reactivity to herpes simplex virus 2 and pDC number do not correlate with the clinical or virologic severity of recurrent genital herpes.
J. Virol.
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Leukocytes participate in the immune control of herpes simplex virus (HSV). Data from HIV coinfections, germ line mutations, and case reports suggest involvement of CD4 T cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC). We investigated the relationships between these cells and recurrent genital herpes disease severity in the general population. Circulating CD4 T-cell responses to HSV-2 were measured in specimens from 67 immunocompetent individuals with measured genital lesion and HSV shedding rates. Similarly, pDC number and functional responses to HSV-2 were analyzed in 40 persons. CD4 responses and pDC concentrations and responses ranged as much as 100-fold between persons while displaying moderate within-person consistency over time. No correlations were observed between these immune response parameters and genital HSV-2 severity. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection was not correlated with differences in HSV-2-specific CD4 T-cell responses. The CD4 T-cell response to HSV-2 was much more polyfunctional than was the response to CMV. These data suggest that other immune cell subsets with alternate phenotypes or anatomical locations may be responsible for genital herpes control in chronically infected individuals.
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?1-Acid glycoprotein induced effects in rat brain microvessel endothelial cells.
Microvasc. Res.
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?1-Acid glycoprotein (AGP) is a positive acute phase protein which is elevated 1-10 times during inflammation. Whereas AGP has been reported to have immunomodulatory properties, other biological functions of this protein such as its effects on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium are unknown. Tight junction (TJ) proteins (ZO-1 and occludin) are crucial in maintaining BBB integrity and brain homeostasis. As inflammatory cytokines have been shown to alter BBB integrity and TJ protein expression, we hypothesized that AGP changes BBB function by stimulating inflammatory cytokines and/or directly modulating TJ protein expression. We used primary rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (RBMECs) as an in vitro BBB model to study the direct effects of AGP on the brain microvasculature. No change in cytokine levels was detected in supernatant from AGP-treated RBMECs, despite increased mRNA expression by the cells. Paracellular permeability was decreased up to 20%, across RBMEC monolayers following treatment with AGP, suggesting its role in enhancing BBB integrity. RBMECs showed a biphasic response of increased occludin protein expression following AGP treatment while ZO-1 expression changed in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These changes in TJ proteins suggest that AGP induced changes in occludin related to enhanced barrier properties while the change in ZO-1 may play a secondary role in BBB integrity and/or as an intracellular signaling molecule. AGP significantly changed transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) DNA-binding activity which provides evidence of the potential cell signaling pathways that contribute to the effect of AGP in RBMECs. Together, this supports our hypothesis that AGP has a direct effect in brain microvasculature and may play an important role in altering BBB integrity in inflammatory-related diseases.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.