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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Historical and Current Perspectives on Clostridium botulinum Diversity.
Res. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2014
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For nearly one hundred years, researchers have attempted to categorize botulinum neurotoxin-producing clostridia and the toxins that they produce according to biochemical characterizations, serological comparisons, and genetic analyses. Throughout this period the bacteria and their toxins have defied such attempts at categorization. Below is a description of both historic and current C. botulinum strain and neurotoxin information that illustrates how each new finding has significantly added to the knowledge of the botulinum neurotoxin-containing clostridia and their diversity.
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Molecular epidemiology of infant botulism in california and elsewhere, 1976-2010.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Infant botulism (IB), first identified in California in 1976, results from Clostridium botulinum spores that germinate, multiply, and produce botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in the immature intestine. From 1976 to 2010 we created an archive of 1090 BoNT-producing isolates consisting of 1012 IB patient (10 outpatient, 985 hospitalized, 17 sudden death), 25 food, 18 dust/soils, and 35 other strains.
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A national, cross-sectional survey of children's hospital-based safety resource centres.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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To describe the location, staffing, clientele, safety product disbursement patterns, education provided and sustainability of safety resource centres (SRCs) in US children's hospitals.
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Arrangement of the Clostridium baratii F7 toxin gene cluster with identification of a ? factor that recognizes the botulinum toxin gene cluster promoters.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the most poisonous substances known and its eight toxin types (A to H) are distinguished by the inability of polyclonal antibodies that neutralize one toxin type to neutralize any of the other seven toxin types. Infant botulism, an intestinal toxemia orphan disease, is the most common form of human botulism in the United States. It results from swallowed spores of Clostridium botulinum (or rarely, neurotoxigenic Clostridium butyricum or Clostridium baratii) that germinate and temporarily colonize the lumen of the large intestine, where, as vegetative cells, they produce botulinum toxin. Botulinum neurotoxin is encoded by the bont gene that is part of a toxin gene cluster that includes several accessory genes. We sequenced for the first time the complete botulinum neurotoxin gene cluster of nonproteolytic C. baratii type F7. Like the type E and the nonproteolytic type F6 botulinum toxin gene clusters, the C. baratii type F7 had an orfX toxin gene cluster that lacked the regulatory botR gene which is found in proteolytic C. botulinum strains and codes for an alternative ? factor. In the absence of botR, we identified a putative alternative regulatory gene located upstream of the C. baratii type F7 toxin gene cluster. This putative regulatory gene codes for a predicted ? factor that contains DNA-binding-domain homologues to the DNA-binding domains both of BotR and of other members of the TcdR-related group 5 of the ?70 family that are involved in the regulation of toxin gene expression in clostridia. We showed that this TcdR-related protein in association with RNA polymerase core enzyme specifically binds to the C. baratii type F7 botulinum toxin gene cluster promoters. This TcdR-related protein may therefore be involved in regulating the expression of the genes of the botulinum toxin gene cluster in neurotoxigenic C. baratii.
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Molecular characterization of a novel botulinum neurotoxin type h gene.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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We sequenced the 2 botulinum toxin gene clusters of Clostridium botulinum strain IBCA10-7060 type Bh. The sequence of bont/H differed substantially from the sequences of the 7 known bont genes for toxin types A-G. The 5 one-third terminus of bont/H that codes for the botulinum toxin light chain differed markedly from the light chain coding sequences of toxin types A-G. The 3 two-thirds terminus of bont/H that codes for the botulinum toxin heavy chain contained a novel Hn translocation domain coding sequence and a nonneutralizing type A-like Hc binding domain coding sequence. bont/H was part of an orfX toxin gene cluster that was located at a unique chromosomal site distant from those used by other botulinum toxin gene clusters. The bont/B sequence was similar to that of subtype bont/B2 and was located within its ha toxin gene cluster at the oppA/brnQ site. Our findings further establish that C. botulinum IBCA10-7060 produces novel BoNT/H.
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Alcohol dependence and health care utilization in African Americans.
J Natl Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Ethnic and cultural differences in patterns of alcohol use disorders must be understood in order to address improvement in prevention of such disorders and accessibility to health care services. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that influence the utilization of medical and mental health services among alcohol-dependent and non-alcohol-dependent African Americans.
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Genetic diversity within Clostridium botulinum serotypes, botulinum neurotoxin gene clusters and toxin subtypes.
Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Clostridium botulinum is a species of spore-forming anaerobic bacteria defined by the expression of any one or two of seven serologically distinct botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) designated BoNT/A-G. This Gram-positive bacterium was first identified in 1897 and since then the paralyzing and lethal effects of its toxin have resulted in the recognition of different forms of the intoxication known as food-borne, infant, or wound botulism. Early microbiological and biochemical characterization of C. botulinum isolates revealed that the bacteria within the species had different characteristics and expressed different toxin types. To organize the variable bacterial traits within the species, Group I-IV designations were created. Interestingly, it was observed that isolates within different Groups could express the same toxin type and conversely a single Group could express different toxin types. This discordant phylogeny between the toxin and the host bacteria indicated that horizontal gene transfer of the toxin was responsible for the variation observed within the species. The recent availability of multiple C. botulinum genomic sequences has offered the ability to bioinformatically analyze the locations of the bont genes, the composition of their toxin gene clusters, and the genes flanking these regions to understand their variation. Comparison of the genomic sequences representing multiple serotypes indicates that the bont genes are not in random locations. Instead the analyses revealed specific regions where the toxin genes occur within the genomes representing serotype A, B, C, E, and F C. botulinum strains and C. butyricum type E strains. The genomic analyses have provided evidence of horizontal gene transfer, site-specific insertion, and recombination events. These events have contributed to the variation observed among the neurotoxins, the toxin gene clusters and the bacteria that contain them, and has supported the historical microbiological, and biochemical characterization of the Group classification within the species.
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Clostridium botulinum strain Af84 contains three neurotoxin gene clusters: bont/A2, bont/F4 and bont/F5.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Sanger and shotgun sequencing of Clostridium botulinum strain Af84 type Af and its botulinum neurotoxin gene (bont) clusters identified the presence of three bont gene clusters rather than the expected two. The three toxin gene clusters consisted of bont subtypes A2, F4 and F5. The bont/A2 and bont/F4 gene clusters were located within the chromosome (the latter in a novel location), while the bont/F5 toxin gene cluster was located within a large 246 kb plasmid. These findings are the first identification of a C. botulinum strain that contains three botulinum neurotoxin gene clusters.
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Analysis of Clostridium botulinum serotype E strains by using multilocus sequence typing, amplified fragment length polymorphism, variable-number tandem-repeat analysis, and botulinum neurotoxin gene sequencing.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2011
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A total of 41 Clostridium botulinum serotype E strains from different geographic regions, including Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Greenland, Japan, and the United States, were compared by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis, and botulinum neurotoxin (bont) E gene sequencing. The strains, representing environmental, food-borne, and infant botulism samples collected from 1932 to 2007, were analyzed to compare serotype E strains from different geographic regions and types of botulism and to determine whether each of the strains contained the transposon-associated recombinase rarA, involved with bont/E insertion. MLST examination using 15 genes clustered the strains into several clades, with most members within a cluster sharing the same BoNT/E subtype (BoNT/E1, E2, E3, or E6). Sequencing of the bont/E gene identified two new variants (E7, E8) that showed regions of recombination with other E subtypes. The AFLP dendrogram clustered the 41 strains similarly to the MLST dendrogram. Strains that could not be differentiated by AFLP, MLST, or bont gene sequencing were further examined using three VNTR regions. Both intact and split rarA genes were amplified by PCR in each of the strains, and their identities were confirmed in 11 strains by amplicon sequencing. The findings suggest that (i) the C. botulinum serotype E strains result from the targeted insertion of the bont/E gene into genetically conserved bacteria and (ii) recombination events (not random mutations) within bont/E result in toxin variants or subtypes within strains.
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Consumer perceptions of trans fats in 2009 show awareness of negative effects but limited concern regarding use in snack foods.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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The purpose of this study was to determine consumers perceptions of industrially produced trans fats. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Regina at 3 different grocery store chains located in 3 different regions. A 21-item survey was administered in English by 3 research assistants at the grocery stores over a 5-day period. Of 498 potential respondents who were approached, 211 completed the survey, for a 42% response rate. The majority of respondents were female and over 61 years of age. When respondents were asked if they looked for information on food packages while grocery shopping, none of the respondents indicated that they looked for trans fat on the food label. Ninety-six percent of respondents identified that trans fat is found in processed foods, whereas 42% of respondents incorrectly identified trans fat as being found in nonhydrogenated margarines. More female respondents self-reported that they had made dietary changes to decrease trans fat intake as compared with male respondents (p < 0.05). Those participants who made dietary changes to decrease trans fat intake had higher mean knowledge scores than did those who did not make changes (p < 0.043). Sixty-three percent of respondents indicated that they would not make dietary changes to their snack food selections even if their selections contained trans fat. Consumers know a little about trans fats and consider them to be a concern. However, consumers are reluctant to make dietary changes to limit these fats in their snack food selections.
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Caring for nurses: hospital-based study groups for certification.
J Nurses Staff Dev
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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This article describes a hospital-based initiative that provides support for nurses who wish to become certified in a nursing specialty. Because certification becomes increasingly important to individual nurses and acute care organizations, opportunities to support nurses in this endeavor need to be developed. Through the efforts of the director of education and the support of nursing administration, study groups aimed toward assisting nurses to become certified have grown in number throughout this hospital.
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An attenuated strain of Bacillus anthracis (CDC 684) has a large chromosomal inversion and altered growth kinetics.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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An isolate originally labeled Bacillus megaterium CDC 684 was found to contain both pXO1 and pXO2, was non-hemolytic, sensitive to gamma-phage, and produced both the protective antigen and the poly-D-glutamic acid capsule. These phenotypes prompted Ezzell et al., (J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:223) to reclassify this isolate to Bacillus anthracis in 1990.
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Work satisfaction, intent to stay, desires of nurses, and financial knowledge among bedside and advanced practice nurses.
J Nurs Adm
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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To better understand factors that may contribute to retention of experienced nurses, a study examined differences and relationships among work satisfaction, intent to stay in the nursing profession, and financial knowledge of retirement consequences related to income between clinical bedside nurses (CBNs) and advanced practice nurses (APNs) and described the importance of 7 workforce desires of nurses.
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Nursing leadership in professional organizations.
J Nurs Adm
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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This department highlights nursing leaders who have demonstrated the ability to inspire and lead change. This competency is seen in the ability to create, structure, and implement organizational change through strategic vision, risk taking, and effective communication. Each article showcases a project of a nurse leader who demonstrates change in a variety of environments, ranging from acute care hospitals to home care and alternative practice settings. Included are several "lessons learned" applicable to multiple settings that provide insight for other nurses in executive practice.
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Nursing and the aging workforce: myths and reality, what do we really know?
Nurs. Clin. North Am.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2010
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Not unlike the general population, the population of nurses is aging. This trend is problematic for the nursing workforce in the light of a predicted shortage yet the extent of the effect of the aging population is unknown. What should individuals older than 45 years know to mitigate the effects of aging both physically and professionally? This article describes the magnitude of the aging nursing workforce issue, explores the myths and realities related to the aging process, discusses evidence-based strategies supporting healthy aging and retention of experienced nurses in one Magnet hospital, and introduces recommendations for further study.
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Commentary: experienced RN retention strategies: what can be learned from top-performing organizations.
J Nurs Adm
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2010
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The authors provide commentary on the article, "Experienced Nurse Retention Strategies: What Can Be Learned From Top-Performing Organizations," also in this issue by authors Hirschkorn, West, Hill, Cleary, and Hewlett.
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Experienced nurse retention strategies: what can be learned from top-performing organizations.
J Nurs Adm
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2010
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Pursuit of high-quality care depends, in part, on hospital leaders ability to retain an experienced RN workforce. Yet, 55% of nurses plan to retire between 2011 and 2020, heightening the need to identify proven retention strategies. Findings from 7 case studies conducted at hospitals and nonhealthcare organizations publicly recognized for success retaining experienced employees are summarized. The authors conclude that although the mix of retention strategies varies, all top-performing organizations share common success factors.
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Nurses in the Boardroom.
J Nurs Adm
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2010
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This department highlights nursing leaders who have demonstrated the ability to inspire and lead change. This competency is seen in the ability to create, structure, and implement organizational change through strategic vision, risk taking, and effective communication. Each article showcases a project of a nurse leader who demonstrates change in a variety of environments ranging from acute care hospitals to home care and alternative practice settings. Included are several "lessons learned" applicable to multiple settings that provide insight for other nurses in executive practice.
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A business case for phased retirement: will it work for nursing?
J Nurs Adm
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2010
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In the United States, the issue of aging workers in the nursing workforce is one of growing concern with greater than 33% of RNs older than 50 years. The implementation of creative strategies to offset the loss of nurses experiential knowledge has the potential to improve patient care and reduce risk to patients. The author proposes a program of phased retirement as an innovative approach to the anticipated loss of nursing knowledge related to retirement of the nursing workforce. The business case for support for phased retirement is discussed.
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Daily CARE: its award winning.
J Nurs Adm
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
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This department highlights nursing leaders who have demonstrated the ability to inspire and lead change. This competency is seen in the ability to create, structure, and implement organizational change through strategic vision, risk taking, and effective communication. Each article showcases a project of a nurse leader who demonstrates change in a variety of environments, ranging from acute-care hospitals to home care and alternative practice settings. Included are several lessons learned applicable to multiple settings that provide insight for other nurses in executive practice.
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Expanding the chronic care framework to improve diabetes management: the REACH case study.
Prog Community Health Partnersh
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2010
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Reducing the burden of chronic conditions among minorities requires novel approaches to prevent and manage disease.
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The role of PI 3-kinase p110beta in AKT signally, cell survival, and proliferation in human prostate cancer cells.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2010
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Class IA PI 3-kinases produce phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3). PIP3 is bound by AKT which facilities its activation by PDK1. Activated AKT promotes cell survival and stimulates cell proliferation. Class IA PI 3-kinases are heterodimers consisting of a regulatory subunit p85 and a catalytic subunit p110. The p110alpha isoform has been shown to be mutated in a number of tumor types. A number of recent studies suggest that the p110beta isoform may be functionally relevant in prostate cancer. In this study we extend this work to include the examination of the expression and functional properties of p110alpha and p110beta in three different prostate cancer cell lines, DU145, LNCaP, PC3, as well as the non-tumorigenic but immortalized RWPE1 prostate epithelial cell line.
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The gene CBO0515 from Clostridium botulinum strain Hall A encodes the rare enzyme N5-(carboxyethyl) ornithine synthase, EC 1.5.1.24.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2009
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Sequencing of the genome of Clostridium botulinum strain Hall A revealed a gene (CBO0515), whose putative amino acid sequence was suggestive of the rare enzyme N(5)-(1-carboxyethyl) ornithine synthase. To test this hypothesis, CBO0515 has been cloned, and the encoded polypeptide was purified and characterized. This unusual gene appears to be confined to proteolytic strains assigned to group 1 of C. botulinum.
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Recombination and insertion events involving the botulinum neurotoxin complex genes in Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F and Clostridium butyricum type E strains.
BMC Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2009
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Clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation for at least four diverse species that are defined by the expression of one (monovalent) or two (bivalent) of seven different C. botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, A-G). The four species have been classified as C. botulinum Groups I-IV. The presence of bont genes in strains representing the different Groups is probably the result of horizontal transfer of the toxin operons between the species.
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Mitigating knowledge loss: a strategic imperative for nurse leaders.
J Nurs Adm
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2009
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With the aging of the nursing workforce and expected retirement of large numbers of experienced nurses in the next decade, mitigating the impact that lost knowledge will have on organizational performance and patient outcomes is critical. The authors raise awareness of the problem, summarize observations procured from hospital nurse executive regarding approaches for knowledge transfer through workforce development, and pose proactive strategies for nurse leaders who can provide direction to offset the issue before it becomes a crisis.
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Contextual determinants of health behaviours in an aboriginal community in Canada: pilot project.
BMC Public Health
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Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized.
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Genomic comparison of Escherichia coli O104:H4 isolates from 2009 and 2011 reveals plasmid, and prophage heterogeneity, including shiga toxin encoding phage stx2.
PLoS ONE
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In May of 2011, an enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4 strain that had acquired a Shiga toxin 2-converting phage caused a large outbreak of bloody diarrhea in Europe which was notable for its high prevalence of hemolytic uremic syndrome cases. Several studies have described the genomic inventory and phylogenies of strains associated with the outbreak and a collection of historical E. coli O104:H4 isolates using draft genome assemblies. We present the complete, closed genome sequences of an isolate from the 2011 outbreak (2011C-3493) and two isolates from cases of bloody diarrhea that occurred in the Republic of Georgia in 2009 (2009EL-2050 and 2009EL-2071). Comparative genome analysis indicates that, while the Georgian strains are the nearest neighbors to the 2011 outbreak isolates sequenced to date, structural and nucleotide-level differences are evident in the Stx2 phage genomes, the mer/tet antibiotic resistance island, and in the prophage and plasmid profiles of the strains, including a previously undescribed plasmid with homology to the pMT virulence plasmid of Yersinia pestis. In addition, multiphenotype analysis showed that 2009EL-2071 possessed higher resistance to polymyxin and membrane-disrupting agents. Finally, we show evidence by electron microscopy of the presence of a common phage morphotype among the European and Georgian strains and a second phage morphotype among the Georgian strains. The presence of at least two stx2 phage genotypes in host genetic backgrounds that may derive from a recent common ancestor of the 2011 outbreak isolates indicates that the emergence of stx2 phage-containing E. coli O104:H4 strains probably occurred more than once, or that the current outbreak isolates may be the result of a recent transfer of a new stx2 phage element into a pre-existing stx2-positive genetic background.
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De novo subtype and strain identification of botulinum neurotoxin type B through toxin proteomics.
Anal Bioanal Chem
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Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause the disease botulism, which can be lethal if untreated. There are seven known serotypes of BoNT, A-G, defined by their response to antisera. Many serotypes are distinguished into differing subtypes based on amino acid sequence, and many subtypes are further differentiated into toxin variants. Previous work in our laboratory described the use of a proteomics approach to distinguish subtype BoNT/A1 from BoNT/A2 where BoNT identities were confirmed after searching data against a database containing protein sequences of all known BoNT/A subtypes. We now describe here a similar approach to differentiate subtypes BoNT/B1, /B2, /B3, /B4, and /B5. Additionally, to identify new subtypes or hitherto unpublished amino acid substitutions, we created an amino acid substitution database covering every possible amino acid change. We used this database to differentiate multiple toxin variants within subtypes of BoNT/B1 and B2. More importantly, with our amino acid substitution database, we were able to identify a novel BoNT/B subtype, designated here as BoNT/B7. These techniques allow for subtype and strain level identification of both known and unknown BoNT/B rapidly with no DNA required.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.