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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
On the origin of grasshopper oviposition behavior: structural homology in pregenital and genital motor systems.
Brain Behav. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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In female grasshoppers, oviposition is a highly specialized behavior involving a rhythm-generating neural circuit, the oviposition central pattern generator, unusual abdominal appendages, and dedicated muscles. This study of Schistocerca americana (Drury) grasshoppers was undertaken to determine whether the simpler pregenital abdominal segments, which do not contain ovipositor appendages, share common features with the genital segment, suggesting a roadmap for the genesis of oviposition behavior. Our study revealed that although 5 of the standard pregenital body wall muscles were missing in the female genital segment, homologous lateral nerves were, indeed, present and served 4 ovipositor muscles. Retrograde labeling of the corresponding pregenital nerve branches in male and female grasshoppers revealed motor neurons, dorsal unpaired median neurons, and common inhibitor neurons which appear to be structural homologues of those filled from ovipositor muscles. Some pregenital motor neurons displayed pronounced contralateral neurites; in contrast, some ovipositor motor neurons were exclusively ipsilateral. Strong evidence of structural homology was also obtained for pregenital and ovipositor skeletal muscles supplied by the identified neurons and of the pregenital and ovipositor skeletons. For example, transient embryonic segmental appendages were maintained in the female genital segments, giving rise to ovipositor valves, but were lost in pregenital abdominal segments. Significant proportional differences in sternal apodemes and plates were observed, which partially obscure the similarities between the pregenital and genital skeletons. Other changes in reorganization included genital muscles that displayed adult hypertrophy, 1 genital muscle that appeared to represent 2 fused pregenital muscles, and the insertion points of 2 ovipositor muscles that appeared to have been relocated. Together, the comparisons support the idea that the oviposition behavior of genital segments is built upon a homologous, segmentally iterated motor infrastructure located in the pregenital abdomen of male and female grasshoppers.
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Reduced immune cell infiltration and increased pro-inflammatory mediators in the brain of Type 2 diabetic mouse model infected with West Nile virus.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Diabetes is a significant risk factor for developing West Nile virus (WNV)-associated encephalitis (WNVE) in humans, the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in the United States. Using a diabetic mouse model (db/db), we recently demonstrated that diabetes enhanced WNV replication and the susceptibility of mice to WNVE. Herein, we have examined immunological events in the brain of wild type (WT) and db/db mice after WNV infection. We hypothesized that WNV-induced migration of protective leukocytes into the brain is attenuated in the presence of diabetes, leading to a high viral load in the brain and severe disease in diabetic mice.
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No increase in blood transfusions during liver transplantation since the withdrawal of aprotinin.
Liver Transpl.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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The aims of this study were to determine whether the withdrawal of aprotinin (APRO) led to an increased bleeding risk in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). A retrospective analysis compared consecutive patients undergoing OLT and treated with aprotinin (APRO group; n = 100) with a group in which aprotinin was not used (no-APRO group; n = 100). Propensity score matching was then performed for each group to identify 2 matched cohorts. Patients were matched by their primary diagnoses and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores. This resulted in 2 matched cohorts with 55 patients in each group. None of the patients in the APRO group had significant fibrinolysis. In the no-APRO group, 23.6% of the patients developed fibrinolysis (P < 0.003). Tranexamic acid was used in 61.5% of the patients (n = 8) in the no-APRO group in whom lysis was present, and this resolved the fibrinolysis in all but 1 of these patients. There were no differences in red blood cell, fresh frozen plasma, platelet concentrate, or cryoprecipitate transfusions between the 2 groups. In conclusion, we have shown a significant increase in the prevalence of fibrinolysis during OLT since the withdrawal of APRO. However, there has been no increase in transfusion requirements.
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Appendicitis as the presenting manifestation of Kawasaki disease.
Pediatr. Surg. Int.
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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In cases of Kawasakis disease (KD) presenting as acute surgical abdomen, rarely has the presence of acute appendicitis been found. We report two cases of histologically confirmed acute appendicitis in the presence of KD and a review of the literature as it pertains to acute abdomen and atypical presentations of KD.
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Inside the root microbiome: bacterial root endophytes and plant growth promotion.
Am. J. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Bacterial root endophytes reside in a vast number of plant species as part of their root microbiome, with some being shown to positively influence plant growth. Endophyte community structure (species diversity: richness and relative abundances) within the plant is dynamic and is influenced by abiotic and biotic factors such as soil conditions, biogeography, plant species, microbe-microbe interactions and plant-microbe interactions, both at local and larger scales. Plant-growth-promoting bacterial endophytes (PGPBEs) have been identified, but the predictive success at positively influencing plant growth in field conditions has been limited. Concurrent to the development of modern molecular techniques, the goal of predicting an organisms ability to promote plant growth can perhaps be realized by more thorough examination of endophyte community dynamics. This paper reviews the drivers of endophyte community structure relating to plant growth promotion, the mechanisms of plant growth promotion, and the current and future use of molecular techniques to study these communities.
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Acute Toxicity of Copper, Zinc, and Ammonia to Larvae (Glochidia) of a Native Freshwater Mussel Echyridella menziesii in New Zealand.
Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Adult New Zealand freshwater mussel Echyridella menziesii were collected from three locations in the North Island of New Zealand. In a series of tests that followed standard test guidance, glochidia were exposed to either dissolved copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), or total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) for 6, 24, or 48 h (20 °C, pH 7.8, water hardness 30 mg L(-1) as CaCO3, dissolved organic carbon [DOC] 2.0-2.9 mg L(-1)). Of the three contaminants and tests that met control survival criteria, mussel larvae (glochidia) were most sensitive to Cu exposure (48-h EC50 = 1.7-3.4 ?g L(-1), 48-h no observed effect concentrations (NOEC) of 1.3-2.6 ?g L(-1)). The Zn 48-h EC50 concentrations were 229-337 ?g L(-1) and the 48-h NOEC values were 128-240 ?g L(-1). Compared with other native New Zealand species, glochidia were also relatively sensitive to TAN exposure (48-h EC50 12-15 mg TAN L(-1) [pH 7.8], 48-h NOEC 8-10 mg TAN L(-1)). Comparison of our data with those of previous studies on North American freshwater mussels indicates that (1) E. menziesii are among those aquatic species most sensitive to acute Cu or TAN exposure; and (2) E. menziesii juveniles would not be adequately protected by current ANZECC water quality guidelines for TAN or Cu. Inclusion of North American juvenile mussel data in a revision of the current ANZECC water-quality guideline (95th percentile) for chronic ammonia exposure results in a decrease from 0.9 mg to 0.2 mg TAN L(-1) (pH 8).
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Pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade in neonates: sudden unexpected death associated with total parenteral nutrition via central venous catheterization.
Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) via central venous catheter (CVC) is used routinely to provide adequate nutrition for neonates, especially those with very low birth weights (VLBWN). Pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade (PCE/CT) is a potentially life-threatening CVC complication.
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Relaxin, its receptor (RXFP1), and insulin-like peptide 4 expression through gestation and in placenta accreta.
Reprod Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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This study was designed to show whether placental relaxin (RLN), its receptor (RXFP1), or insulin-like peptide 4 (INSL4) might have altered expression in patients with placenta accreta. The baseline expression of their genes through gestation (n = 34) was quantitated in the placental basal plate (BP) and villous trophoblast (TR), and compared to their expression in placenta accreta (n = 6). The proteins were also immunolocalized and quantitated in the accreta tissues. The messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of matrix metalloproteinase 9, -2, and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 were also measured. Results demonstrated that the BP and TR expressed low levels of RLN/RXFP1 and INSL4 through gestation. In accreta, increased RLN gene and protein in BP were associated with antepartum bleeding whereas INSL4 expression decreased throughout the TR. There were no changes in mRNAs for MMPs, but TIMP-1 was increased only in the invasive TR.
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Placental mesenchymal dysplasia.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is a benign condition that can be confused with a molar pregnancy by ultrasound scanning and gross examination. Conservative management should be considered with a normal-appearing singleton fetus and a cystic-appearing placenta. We present a case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia with a favorable outcome.
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Treatment of Gorham-Stout disease with zoledronic acid and interferon-?: a case report and literature review.
J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2010
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Gorham-Stout disease is a rare disease characterized by osteolysis, angiomatosis, and soft-tissue swelling. It is a diagnosis of exclusion and has an unknown etiology. Chylothorax is a common complication of the disease that is associated with a high mortality rate. There is no standard of treatment. We report a case of a 16-year-old female with Gorham-Stout disease and recurrent pleural effusions who was successfully treated with concurrent zoledronic acid and peg-interferon ?-2b.
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Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver is associated with mesenchymal hamartoma and multiple chromosomal abnormalities: a review of eleven cases.
Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2010
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Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma (UES) of the liver is a primitive mesenchymal, malignant neoplasm occurring in children. The link between UES and mesenchymal hamartoma (MH) is controversial. Whether they share the same histiogenesis, representing 2 ends of a spectrum, or are distinct entities is unclear. The genetic aberrations of these neoplasms are not well understood, although a common breakpoint (19q13.4) was recently identified. The purpose of this study was to elucidate immunohistochemical markers that may establish a link between the 2 tumors by reviewing cases of UES and MH. Cases of UES from 1990 to 2008 were identified. Clinical demographics were reviewed. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining for vimentin, alpha-1 antitrypsin, and alpha-fetoprotein were performed. Eleven children were diagnosed with UES. Five cases were seen arising in association with MH, and transitional zones were evident. The mean age at presentation was 10 years. To our knowledge, the 11-month-old patient is the youngest reported case of UES in concurrence with MH. All UES tumor cells were positive for vimentin, diastase-resistant periodic acid-Schiff stain, and alpha-1 antitrypsin. Chromosomal analysis of 3 UES cases, 2 arising with MH, showed complex karyotypes with no involvement of 19q13.4. We suggest a continuum between UES and MH. Although a chromosomal anomaly of 19q13.4 was not identified, a submicroscopic involvement of this locus cannot be excluded. Additionally, our analyses suggest that multiple chromosomal aberrations may be associated with the MH/UES spectrum.
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Motile ciliary microorganisms in peritoneal fluid.
Diagn. Cytopathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2010
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We report a patient with chronic renal failure and ciliocytophthoria or "detached ciliary tufts" identified from her peritoneal fluid. The recognition of these rare structures is critical to avoid misdiagnosing a presumed protozoan infection and embarking on further costly investigations and unnecessary treatments.
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Antifouling sesterterpenes from the New Zealand marine sponge Semitaspongia bactriana.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2009
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Three antifouling (AF) sesterterpenes have been isolated from the New Zealand marine sponge Semitaspongia bactriana with toxicity against the diatom Nitzschia closterium and bryozoan Bugula neritina. The three metabolites have been characterised by spectroscopic techniques as 7E,12E,20Z-variabilin (1), cavernosolide (2) and lintenolide A (3) (also called spongianolide C) and have low micromolar activity against our two test species. The gamma-hydroxybutenolide containing sesterterpenes (2 and 3) show the most promise, with relative stability and suitable lipophilicity for incorporation of either these metabolites, or synthetic analogues, as biocides to produce paints or plastics with AF properties.
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Impact of emergency department intimate partner violence intervention.
J Interpers Violence
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
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The objective of the study is to assess the impact of emergency department (ED) intimate partner violence (IPV) counseling and resource referrals on patient-perceived safety and safety planning. ED patients with risk factors were offered consultation with trained IPV advocacy counselors who completed safety assessments, provided resource referrals, and helped patients develop safety plans. Patients were contacted after ED intervention to assess progress and further assist in IPV counseling. Over 96% of patients perceived an increase in their safety after the intervention, and approximately 50% had completed a portion of their safety plan. Legal assistance and/or law enforcement were considered the most beneficial resource referrals. Although follow-up was limited, this study appears to demonstrate that an ED IPV intervention program may be useful in helping IPV victims achieve safer living environments and access local resources.
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Two cases of primary yolk sac tumor of the liver in childhood: case reports and literature review.
Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2009
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Primary yolk sac tumor of the liver is an extremely rare neoplasm, with fewer than 20 cases reported. We evaluated 2 pediatric cases (21-month-old and 23-month-old female patients), who presented with liver masses and markedly raised serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). One patient received a partial hepatectomy and another patient underwent a liver biopsy, both of which showed characteristic features of yolk sac tumor, with tumor cells staining strongly positive for AFP. There was no evidence of an extrahepatic primary source. Both of our patients have been healthy, without evidence of recurrent tumor, and their AFP level remains in the normal range after their chemotherapeutic treatments.
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Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma: redefinition of diagnostic criteria in the recent World Health Organization-European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer classification for cutaneous lymphomas.
Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2009
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Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma is a primary T-cell lymphoma that preferentially involves the subcutaneous tissue. Although subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma has been recognized as a distinctive entity in the category of peripheral T-cell lymphoma in the World Health Organization classification, its diagnostic criteria has been redefined by the recent World Health Organization-European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer classification for primary cutaneous lymphomas. Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma is now restricted to primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma expressing alphabeta T-cell receptor phenotype. These lymphomas are usually CD3(+), CD4(-), CD8(+), and CD56(-), and usually have an indolent clinical course. The clinicopathologic features, differential diagnosis, immunophenotypic characteristics, and molecular features of subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma are presented in light of the recent World Health Organization-European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer classification.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.