The viral accessory protein Vpx, expressed by certain simian and human immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs and HIVs), is thought to improve viral infectivity of myeloid cells. We infected 35 Asian macaques and African green monkeys with viruses that do or do not express Vpx and examined viral targeting of cells in vivo. While lack of Vpx expression affected viral dynamics in vivo, with decreased viral loads and infection of CD4? T cells, Vpx expression had no detectable effect on infectivity of myeloid cells. Moreover, viral DNA was observed only within myeloid cells in tissues not massively depleted of CD4? T cells. Myeloid cells containing viral DNA also showed evidence of T cell phagocytosis in vivo, suggesting that their viral DNA may be attributed to phagocytosis of SIV-infected T cells. These data suggest that myeloid cells are not a major source of SIV in vivo, irrespective of Vpx expression.
Analysis of hematopoietic stem cell function in nonhuman primates provides insights that are relevant for human biology and therapeutic strategies. In this study, we applied quantitative genetic barcoding to track the clonal output of transplanted autologous rhesus macaque hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells over a time period of up to 9.5 months. We found that unilineage short-term progenitors reconstituted myeloid and lymphoid lineages at 1 month but were supplanted over time by multilineage clones, initially myeloid restricted, then myeloid-B clones, and then stable myeloid-B-T multilineage, long-term repopulating clones. Surprisingly, reconstitution of the natural killer (NK) cell lineage, and particularly the major CD16(+)/CD56(-) peripheral blood NK compartment, showed limited clonal overlap with T, B, or myeloid lineages, and therefore appears to be ontologically distinct. Thus, in addition to providing insights into clonal behavior over time, our analysis suggests an unexpected paradigm for the relationship between NK cells and other hematopoietic lineages in primates.
Currently approved adjuvants induce protective Ab responses but are more limited for generating cellular immunity. In this study, we assessed the effect of combining two adjuvants with distinct mechanisms of action on their ability to prime T cells: the TLR3 ligand, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), and immunostimulatory complexes (ISCOMs). Each adjuvant was administered alone or together with HIV Gag protein (Gag), and the magnitude, quality, and phenotype of Gag-specific T cell responses were assessed. For CD8 T cells, all adjuvants induced a comparable response magnitude, but combining poly I:C with ISCOMs induced a high frequency of CD127(+), IL-2-producing cells with decreased expression of Tbet compared with either adjuvant alone. For CD4 T cells, combining poly I:C and ISCOMs increased the frequency of multifunctional cells, producing IFN-?, IL-2, and TNF, and the total magnitude of the response compared with either adjuvant alone. CD8 or CD4 T cell responses induced by both adjuvants mediated protection against Gag-expressing Listeria monocytogenes or vaccinia viral infections. Poly I:C and ISCOMs can alter Ag uptake and/or processing, and we therefore used fluorescently labeled HIV Gag and DQ-OVA to assess these mechanisms, respectively, in multiple dendritic cell subsets. Poly I:C promoted uptake and retention of Ag, whereas ISCOMs enhanced Ag degradation. Combining poly I:C and ISCOMs caused substantial death of dendritic cells but persistence of degraded Ag. These data illustrate how combining adjuvants, such as poly I:C and ISCOMs, that modulate Ag processing and have potent innate activity, can enhance the magnitude, quality, and phenotype of T cell immunity.
Vaccines constructed from rare-serotype recombinant adenovirus vectors (rAd) such as rAd serotype 28 (rAd28) and rAd35 are currently being explored as alternatives to rAd5-based vaccines because they circumvent the problems with pre-existing immunity that complicate the effectiveness of rAd5 vaccines. However, previous work has demonstrated that the immunogenicity of rAd28 and rAd35 is substantially lower than rAd5. Here we show that rAd28 and rAd35 increase apoptosis of antigen presenting cells (APCs), such as monocytes, relative to rAd5 and mock infected controls. APCs undergoing apoptosis showed an increased loss of vector-insert expression. Loss of vector-insert expression correlated with activation of NK cells, which resulted in apoptosis of co-cultured monocytes. Finally, we show that activation of NK cells is dependent on IFN? which is produced by exposure to rAd28 or rAd35, but not to rAd5. Taken together, these data demonstrate that IFN?-induced activation of NK cells leads to increased monocyte apoptosis and subsequent vector-insert loss. This may be a possible mechanism that results in reduced immunogenicity of rAd28 and rAd35-based vectors.
Advances in HIV-1 vaccine clinical trials and preclinical research indicate that the virus envelope glycoproteins (Env) are likely to be an essential component of a prophylactic vaccine. Efficient Ag uptake and presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) is important for strong CD4(+) Th cell responses and the development of effective humoral immune responses. In this study, we examined the capacity of distinct primary human DC subsets to internalize and present recombinant Env to CD4(+) T cells. Consistent with their specific receptor expression, skin DCs bound and internalized Env via C-type lectin receptors, whereas blood DC subsets, including CD1c(+) myeloid DCs, CD123(+) plasmacytoid DCs (PDCs), and CD141(+) DCs exhibited a restricted repertoire of C-type lectin receptors and relied on CD4 for uptake of Env. Despite a generally poor capacity for Ag uptake compared with myeloid DCs, the high expression of CD4 on PDCs allowed them to bind and internalize Env very efficiently. CD4-mediated uptake delivered Env to EEA1(+) endosomes that progressed to Lamp1(+) and MHC class II(+) lysosomes where internalized Env was degraded rapidly. Finally, all three blood DC subsets were able to internalize an Env-CMV pp65 fusion protein via CD4 and stimulate pp65-specific CD4(+) T cells. Thus, in the in vitro systems described in this paper, CD4-mediated uptake of Env is a functional pathway leading to Ag presentation, and this may therefore be a mechanism used by blood DCs, including PDCs, for generating immune responses to Env-based vaccines.
Covalent conjugation of immune-stimulatory compounds to protein antigens is a potential means to self-adjuvant non-replicating subunit vaccines. Previously, it was demonstrated that covalent coupling of a Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand to the exterior HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, enhanced its immunogenicity. However, the consequences of chemical conjugation to gp120 on broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) epitopes were so far not examined. Here, we conjugated a TLR7/8 ligand to lysine residues on gp120 using NHS-PEO8-maleimide linkers and investigated if this affected Ab recognition of the CD4 binding site (CD4bs), a highly conserved target for bNAbs. We demonstrate that the recognition of the CD4bs was reduced following coupling, especially at a higher coupling ratio. These results have implications for the coupling of ligands to vaccine antigens where elicitation of humoral immune responses to specific neutralizing determinants is desired.
As dendritic cells (DCs) have the unique capacity to activate antigen-naive T cells they likely play a critical role in eliciting immune responses to vaccines. DCs are therefore being explored as attractive targets for vaccines, but understanding the interaction of DCs and clinically relevant vaccine antigens and adjuvants is a prerequisite. The HIV-1/AIDS epidemic continues to be a significant health problem, and despite intense research efforts over the past 30 years a protective vaccine has not yet been developed. A common challenge in vaccine design is to find a vaccine formulation that best shapes the immune response to protect against and/or control the given pathogen. Here, we discuss the importance of understanding the diversity, anatomical location and function of different human DC subsets in order to identify the optimal target cells for an HIV-1 vaccine. We review human DC interactions with some of the HIV-1 vaccine antigen delivery vehicles and adjuvants currently utilized in preclinical and clinical studies. Specifically, the effects of distinctly different vaccine adjuvants in terms of activation of DCs and improving DC function and vaccine efficacy are discussed. The susceptibility and responses of DCs to recombinant adenovirus vectors are reviewed, as well as the strategy of directly targeting DCs by using DC marker-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to an antigen.
Interferon-? (IFN-?) produced at high levels by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) can specifically regulate B-cell activation to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 stimulation. To explore the influence of IFN-? and pDCs on B-cell functions in vivo, studies in non-human primates that closely resemble humans in terms of TLR expression on different subsets of immune cells are valuable. Here, we performed a side-by side comparison of the response pattern between human and rhesus macaque B cells and pDCs in vitro to well-defined TLR ligands and tested whether IFN-? enhanced B-cell function comparably. We found that both human and rhesus B cells proliferated while pDCs from both species produced high levels of IFN-? in response to ligands targeting TLR7/8 and TLR9. Both human and rhesus B-cell proliferation to TLR7/8 ligand and CpG class C was significantly increased in the presence of IFN-?. Although both human and rhesus B cells produced IgM upon stimulation, only human B cells acquired high expression of CD27 associated with plasmablast formation. Instead, rhesus B-cell differentiation and IgM levels correlated to down-regulation of CD20. These data suggest that the response pattern of human and rhesus B cells and pDCs to TLR7/8 and TLR9 is similar, although some differences in the cell surface phenotype of the differentiating cells exist. A more thorough understanding of potential similarities and differences between human and rhesus cells and their response to potential vaccine components will provide important information for translating non-human primate studies into human trials.
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are rarely present in normal skin but have been shown to infiltrate lesions of infections or autoimmune disorders. Here, we report that several DC subsets including CD123(+) BDCA-2/CD303(+) pDCs accumulate in the dermis in indurations induced by the tuberculin skin test (TST), used to screen immune sensitization by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although the purified protein derivate (PPD) used in the TST did not itself induce pDC recruitment or IFN-? production, the positive skin reactions showed high expression of the IFN-?-inducible protein MxA. In contrast, the local immune response to PPD was associated with substantial cell death and high expression of the cationic antimicrobial peptide LL37, which together can provide a means for pDC activation and IFN-? production. In vitro, pDCs showed low uptake of PPD compared with CD11c(+) and BDCA-3/CD141(+) myeloid DC subsets. Furthermore, supernatants from pDCs activated with LL37-DNA complexes reduced the high PPD uptake in myeloid DCs, as well as decreased their capacity to activate T-cell proliferation. Infiltrating pDCs in the TST reaction site may thus have a regulatory effect upon the antigen processing and presentation functions of surrounding potent myeloid DC subsets to limit potentially detrimental and excessive immune stimulation.
Recombinant adenoviruses (rAds) based on types 5 (rAd5) and 35 (rAd35) have emerged as important vaccine delivery vectors in clinical testing for a variety of pathogens. A major difference between these vectors is their binding to cellular receptors used for infection. Whereas rAd5 binds coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR), rAd35 binds the complement regulatory protein CD46. Although rAd35 infected and phenotypically matured human blood dendritic cells (DCs) more efficiently than rAd5, we show here that rAd35 markedly suppressed DC-induced activation of naive CD4(+) T cells. rAd35 specifically blocked both DCs and anti-CD3/CD28 mAb-induced naive T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production. This effect was also observed in CD4(+) memory T cells but to a lesser extent. The suppression occurred by rAd35 binding to CD46 on T cells and was independent of infection. CD46 engagement with mAb mimicked the effects of rAd35 and also led to deficient NF-?B nuclear translocation. In contrast, rAd5 and rAd35 vectors with ablated CD46 binding did not inhibit T-cell activation. Our findings provide insights into the basic biology of adenoviruses and indicate that CD46 binding may have an impact on the generation of primary CD4(+) T-cell responses by Ad35.
The development and quality of a humoral immune response are largely influenced by the environment that supports the activation of naïve B cells. Human PDCs, through their unique capacity to produce high levels of IFN-?, have been shown earlier to enhance B cell responses stimulated by selected TLR ligands. In this study, we investigated whether PDCs also promote B cell activation induced by Th cell interactions and BCR ligation. Sorted human naive CD19(+) CD27(-) B cells were activated in vitro with anti-Ig and irradiated CD4(+) T cells. Under these conditions, the presence of supernatants from TLR-stimulated PDCs increased B cell proliferation, the frequency of B cells that differentiated to CD27(high) CD38(high) cells, and secretion of IgM. Similar results were observed when the B cells were activated in the presence of purified IFN-?. In contrast, supernatants from stimulated MDCs did not augment these functions. Also, IFN-? treatment of B cells up-regulated the expression of costimulatory molecule CD86 but not CD40, CD80, MHC class II, or CD25. Although direct IFN-? exposure of T cells suppressed their proliferative capacity, IFN-? treatment of B cells led to a small increase in their capacity to induce superantigen-driven activation of autologous CD4(+) T cells. In summary, PDCs, via their production of IFN-?, may render B cells more responsive to T cell contact, which in turn, facilitates B cell proliferation and differentiation to antibody-producing cells.
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs) have proven difficult to elicit by immunization. Therefore, to identify effective Env neutralization targets, efforts are underway to define the specificities of bNAbs in chronically infected individuals. For a prophylactic vaccine, it is equally important to define the immunogenic properties of the heavily glycosylated Env in healthy primates devoid of confounding HIV-induced pathogenic factors. We used rhesus macaques to investigate the magnitude and kinetics of B cell responses stimulated by Env trimers in adjuvant. Robust Env-specific memory B cell responses and high titers of circulating antibodies developed after trimer inoculation. Subsequent immunizations resulted in significant expansion of Env-specific IgG-producing plasma cell populations and circulating Abs that displayed increasing avidity and neutralization capacity. The neutralizing activity elicited with the regimen used was, in most aspects, superior to that elicited by a regimen based on monomeric Env immunization in humans. Despite the potency and breadth of the trimer-elicited response, protection against heterologous rectal simian-HIV (SHIV) challenge was modest, illustrating the challenge of eliciting sufficient titers of cross-reactive protective NAbs in mucosal sites. These data provide important information for the design and evaluation of vaccines aimed at stimulating protective HIV-1 immune responses in humans.
We recently reported that rhesus macaques inoculated with CD4-binding-competent and CD4-binding-defective soluble YU2-derived HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimers in adjuvant generate comparable levels of Env-specific binding antibodies (Abs) and T cell responses. We also showed that Abs directed against the Env coreceptor binding site (CoRbs) were elicited only in animals immunized with CD4-binding-competent trimers and not in animals immunized with CD4-binding-defective trimers, indicating that a direct interaction between Env and CD4 occurs in vivo. To investigate both the overall consequences of in vivo Env-CD4 interactions and the elicitation of CoRbs-directed Abs for protection against heterologous simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge, we exposed rhesus macaques immunized with CD4-binding-competent and CD4-binding-defective trimers to the CCR5-tropic SHIV-SF162P4 challenge virus. Compared to unvaccinated controls, all vaccinated animals displayed improved control of plasma viremia, independent of the presence or absence of CoRbs-directed Abs prior to challenge. Immunization resulted in plasma responses that neutralized the heterologous SHIV challenge stock in vitro, with similar neutralizing Ab titers elicited by the CD4-binding-competent and CD4-binding-defective trimers. The neutralizing responses against both the SHIV-SF162P4 stock and a recombinant virus pseudotyped with a cloned SHIV-SF162P4-derived Env were significantly boosted by the SHIV challenge. Collectively, these results suggest that the capacity of soluble Env trimers to interact with primate CD4 in vivo and to stimulate the production of moderate titers of CoRbs-directed Abs did not influence the magnitude of the neutralizing Ab recall response after viral challenge or the subsequent control of viremia in this heterologous SHIV challenge model.
The high-affinity in vivo interaction between soluble HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) immunogens and primate CD4 results in conformational changes that alter the immunogenicity of the gp120 subunit. Because the conserved binding site on gp120 that directly interacts with CD4 is a major vaccine target, we sought to better understand the impact of in vivo Env-CD4 interactions during vaccination. Rhesus macaques were immunized with soluble wild-type (WT) Env trimers, and two trimer immunogens rendered CD4 binding defective through distinct mechanisms. In one variant, we introduced a mutation that directly disrupts CD4 binding (368D/R). In the second variant, we introduced three mutations (423I/M, 425N/K, and 431G/E) that disrupt CD4 binding indirectly by altering a gp120 subdomain known as the bridging sheet, which is required for locking Env into a stable interaction with CD4. Following immunization, Env-specific binding antibody titers and frequencies of Env-specific memory B cells were comparable between the groups. However, the quality of neutralizing antibody responses induced by the variants was distinctly different. Antibodies against the coreceptor binding site were elicited by WT trimers but not the CD4 binding-defective trimers, while antibodies against the CD4 binding site were elicited by the WT and the 423I/M, 425N/K, and 431G/E trimers but not the 368D/R trimers. Furthermore, the CD4 binding-defective trimer variants stimulated less potent neutralizing antibody activity against neutralization-sensitive viruses than WT trimers. Overall, our studies do not reveal any potential negative effects imparted by the in vivo interaction between WT Env and primate CD4 on the generation of functional T cells and antibodies in response to soluble Env vaccination.
The concept of neutrophil activation and degranulation as important contributors to disease pathology in invasive group A streptococcal infections has recently been emphasized. This study focuses on two of the most severe streptococcal manifestations, toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis, and the newly described proinflammatory molecule resistin, known to derive from adipocytes and monocytes. We demonstrate for the first time that these conditions are characterized by hyperresistinemia in circulation as well as at the local site of infection. Importantly, analyses of patient tissue biopsies and whole blood revealed that neutrophils represent a novel and dominant source of resistin in bacterial septic shock. This was confirmed by the identification of resistin within neutrophil azurophilic granules. In vitro assays using primary neutrophils showed that resistin release was readily triggered by streptococcal cell wall components and by the streptococcal M1 protein, but not by the potent streptococcal superantigens. This is the first report demonstrating that resistin is released from neutrophils in response to microbial stimuli, which adds resistin to the neutrophil granule proteins that are likely to contribute to the pathologic inflammatory responses associated with severe streptococcal infections.
Dendritic cells (DCs) residing in skin are important sentinels for foreign antigens. Methods to facilitate studies of subsets of skin DCs are important to increase the understanding of various pathogens, allergens, topical treatments or vaccine components targeting the skin. In this study, we developed a new DC purification method using a skin graft mesher, clinically used for expansion of skin grafts, to accelerate processing of skin into nets that allowed efficient enzymatic disruption and single cell isolation. The reduction in processing time using the skin graft mesher enabled processing of larger skin samples and also limited the ex vivo handling of the specimens which is associated with maturation of DCs. In addition, a skin explant model to functionally monitor early events of antigen uptake by DC subsets in situ was developed. DCs isolated from epidermis represented a uniform CD1a(+) HLA-DR(+) CD11c(+) Langerin(+) DC-SIGN(-) DC-LAMP(int) DEC-205(int) Langerhans cell (LC) population whereas three subtypes of HLA-DR(+) CD11c(+) DCs were isolated from dermis based on their varying expression of CD1a. Epidermal LCs showed a significantly higher antigen uptake capacity of fluorescently-labelled ovalbumin (OVA) and dextran as compared to any of the dermal DC (dDC) subsets. In contrast, injection of antigen directly into skin explants followed by in situ imaging revealed that the majority of DCs with internalized antigen were localized in the dermis, likely as a consequence of the anatomical site for antigen delivery. These methods offer potency for various applications addressing antigen uptake, microbial DC interactions or other antigenic stimulation targeting the skin and can enhance our knowledge of basic DC biology in human skin.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are among the first cells to encounter HIV after mucosal exposure and can bind virus via C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). Here, we characterized the distribution of various DC subtypes and the density of the CLRs, DC-SIGN, langerin, and mannose receptor in the ectocervix of HIV-seronegative women with low- and high-risk behavior for acquiring HIV.
The coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) is the described primary receptor for adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5), a common human pathogen that has been exploited as a viral vector for gene therapy and vaccination. This study showed that monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs), such as freshly isolated human blood myeloid DCs, plasmacytoid DCs and monocyte-derived DCs, are susceptible to recombinant Ad5 (rAd5) infection despite their lack of CAR expression. Langerhans cells and dermal DCs from skin expressed CAR, but blocking CAR only partly decreased rAd5 infection, together suggesting that other receptor pathways mediate viral entry of these cells. Lactoferrin (Lf), an abundant protein in many bodily fluids known for its antiviral and antibacterial properties, promoted rAd5 infection in all cell populations except plasmacytoid DCs using a CAR-independent process. Lf caused phenotypic differentiation of the DCs, but cell activation played only a minor role in the increase in infection frequencies. The C-type lectin receptor DC-SIGN facilitated viral entry of rAd5-Lf complexes and this was dependent on high-mannose-type N-linked glycans on Lf. These results suggest that Lf present at high levels at mucosal sites can facilitate rAd5 attachment and enhance infection of DCs. A better understanding of the tropism and receptor mechanisms of Ad5 may help explain Ad5 pathogenesis and guide the engineering of improved rAd vectors.
Selected TLR ligands are under evaluation as vaccine adjuvants and are known to activate dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells to affect vaccine-induced Ab responses. However, the relative contribution of the two main human DC subsets, myeloid (MDCs) and plasmacytoid (PDCs), in supporting B cell responses to TLR ligands remains poorly understood. We found that PDCs but not MDCs markedly enhanced B cell proliferation in response to TLR7/8-L, an imidazoquinoline derivative, and to a lesser extent to TLR9 ligands (CpG ODN classes A, B, and C). PDCs strongly enhanced TLR7/8-L-induced proliferation of both memory and naive B cells but were only able to support memory cells to differentiate to CD27(high) plasmablasts. In response to TLR7/8 stimulation, PDCs mediated the up-regulation of transcription factors B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 and X-box binding protein 1 and enhanced differentiation of B cells into IgM-, IgG-, and IgA-producing cells. Type I IFN produced to high levels by PDCs was the principal mediator of the effects on TLR7/8 stimulation. Although MDCs expressed higher levels of the known B cell growth factors IL-6, IL-10, and B cell-activating factor in response to TLR7/8 stimulation, they were unable to enhance B cell responses in this system. These data help decipher the different roles of PDCs and MDCs for modulating human B cell responses and can contribute to selection of specific TLR ligands as vaccine adjuvants.
Following intestinal invasion, the processes leading to systemic dissemination of the obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii remain poorly understood. Recently, tachyzoites representative of type I, II and III T. gondii populations were shown to differ with respect to their ability to transmigrate across cellular barriers. In this process of active parasite motility, type I strains exhibit a migratory capacity superior to those of the type II and type III strains. Data also suggest that tachyzoites rely on migrating dendritic cells (DC) as shuttling leukocytes to disseminate in tissue, e.g., the brain, where cysts develop. In this study, T. gondii tachyzoites sampled from the three populations were allowed to infect primary human blood DC, murine intestinal DC, or in vitro-derived DC and were compared for different phenotypic traits. All three archetypical lineages of T. gondii induced a hypermigratory phenotype in DC shortly after infection in vitro. Type II (and III) strains induced higher migratory frequency and intensity in DC than type I strains did. Additionally, adoptive transfer of infected DC favored the dissemination of type II and type III parasites over that of type I parasites in syngeneic mice. Type II parasites exhibited stronger intracellular association with both CD11c(+) DC and other leukocytes in vivo than did type I parasites. Altogether, these findings suggest that infected DC contribute to parasite propagation in a strain type-specific manner and that the parasite genotype (type II) most frequently associated with toxoplasmosis in humans efficiently exploits DC migration for parasite dissemination.
To summarize recent progress in the development of adjuvants with a special focus on adjuvants that enhance B-cell responses to protein-based vaccines. Both established and new experimental approaches are described and also briefly we discuss how adjuvants and virus-based vaccines interact with the immune system.
Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome Type I (APS I) results in multiple endocrine organ destruction and is caused by mutations in the Autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE). In the thymic stroma, cells expressing the AIRE gene dictate T cell education and central tolerance. Although this function is the most studied, AIRE is also expressed in the periphery in DCs and stromal cells. Still, how AIRE regulated transcription modifies cell behaviour in the periphery is largely unknown. Here we show that AIRE is specifically expressed by 33D1(+) DCs and dictates the fate of antibody secreting cell movement within the spleen. We also found that AIRE expressing 33D1(+) DCs expresses self-antigens as exemplified by the hallmark gene insulin. Also, as evidence for a regulatory function, absence of Aire in 33D1(+) DCs led to reduced levels of the chemokine CXCL12 and increased co-stimulatory properties. This resulted in altered activation and recruitment of T-follicular helper cells and germinal centre B cells. The altered balance leads to a change of the early response to a T cell-dependent antigen in Aire(-/-) mice. These findings add to the understanding of how specific DC subtypes regulate the early responses during T cell-dependent antibody responses within the spleen and further define the role of AIRE in the periphery as regulator of self-antigen expression and lymphocyte migration.
Recombinant adenovirus (rAd) vectors are being investigated as vaccine delivery vehicles in preclinical and clinical studies. rAds constructed from different serotypes differ in receptor usage, tropism, and ability to activate cells, aspects of which likely contribute to their different immunogenicity profiles. In this study, we compared the infectivity and cell stimulatory capacity of recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5), recombinant adenovirus serotype 28 (rAd28), and recombinant adenovirus serotype 35 (rAd35) in association with their respective immunogenicity profiles. We found that rAd28 and rAd35 infected and led to the in vitro maturation and activation of both human and mouse dendritic cells more efficiently compared with rAd5. In stark contrast to rAd5, rAd28 and rAd35 induced production of IFN-? and stimulated IFN-related intracellular pathways. However, the in vivo immunogenicity of rAd28 and rAd35 was significantly lower than that of rAd5. Deletion of IFN-? signaling during vaccination with rAd28 and rAd35 vectors increased the magnitude of the insert-specific T cell response to levels induced by vaccination with rAd5 vector. The negative impact of IFN-? signaling on the magnitude of the T cell response could be overcome by increasing the vaccine dose, which was also associated with greater polyfunctionality and a more favorable long-term memory phenotype of the CD8 T cell response in the presence of IFN-? signaling. Taken together, our results demonstrate that rAd-induced IFN-? production has multiple effects on T cell immunogenicity, the understanding of which should be considered in the design of rAd vaccine vectors.
The complement-regulatory protein CD46 is the primary receptor for human adenovirus type 35 (HAdV-35) and can regulate human immune-cell activation. CD4(+) T-cells are critical for initiating and maintaining adaptive immunity elicited by infection or vaccination. It was reported previously that HAdV-35 can bind these cells and suppress their activation. The data reported here demonstrate that recombinant trimeric HAdV-35 knob proteins alone can induce CD46 receptor downregulation and inhibit interleukin-2 production and proliferation of human CD4(+) T-cells in vitro similarly to mAbs specific to the CD46 region bound by HAdV-35 knobs. A mutant knob protein with increased affinity for CD46 compared with the wild-type knob caused equivalent effects. In contrast, a CD46-binding-deficient mutant knob protein did not inhibit T-cell activation. Thus, the capacity of HAdV-35 to attenuate human CD4(+) T-cell activation depends predominantly on knob interactions with CD46 and can occur independently of infection.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.