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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Gene therapy prolongs survival and restores function in murine and canine models of myotubular myopathy.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Loss-of-function mutations in the myotubularin gene (MTM1) cause X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM), a fatal, congenital pediatric disease that affects the entire skeletal musculature. Systemic administration of a single dose of a recombinant serotype 8 adeno-associated virus (AAV8) vector expressing murine myotubularin to Mtm1-deficient knockout mice at the onset or at late stages of the disease resulted in robust improvement in motor activity and contractile force, corrected muscle pathology, and prolonged survival throughout a 6-month study. Similarly, single-dose intravascular delivery of a canine AAV8-MTM1 vector in XLMTM dogs markedly improved severe muscle weakness and respiratory impairment, and prolonged life span to more than 1 year in the absence of toxicity or a humoral or cell-mediated immune response. These results demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of AAV-mediated gene therapy for myotubular myopathy in small- and large-animal models, and provide proof of concept for future clinical trials in XLMTM patients.
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Characterization of a recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 Reference Standard Material.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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A recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 Reference Standard Material (rAAV2 RSM) has been produced and characterized with the purpose of providing a reference standard for particle titer, vector genome titer, and infectious titer for AAV2 gene transfer vectors. Production and purification of the reference material were carried out by helper virus-free transient transfection and chromatographic purification. The purified bulk material was vialed, confirmed negative for microbial contamination, and then distributed for characterization along with standard assay protocols and assay reagents to 16 laboratories worldwide. Using statistical transformation and modeling of the raw data, mean titers and confidence intervals were determined for capsid particles ({X}, 9.18?x?10¹¹ particles/ml; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.89?x?10¹¹ to 1.05?x?10¹² particles/ml), vector genomes ({X}, 3.28?x?10¹? vector genomes/ml; 95% CI, 2.70?x?10¹? to 4.75?x?10¹? vector genomes/ml), transducing units ({X}, 5.09?x?10? transducing units/ml; 95% CI, 2.00?x?10? to 9.60?x?10? transducing units/ml), and infectious units ({X}, 4.37?x?10? TCID?? IU/ml; 95% CI, 2.06?x?10? to 9.26?x?10? TCID?? IU/ml). Further analysis confirmed the identity of the reference material as AAV2 and the purity relative to nonvector proteins as greater than 94%. One obvious trend in the quantitative data was the degree of variation between institutions for each assay despite the relatively tight correlation of assay results within an institution. This relatively poor degree of interlaboratory precision and accuracy was apparent even though attempts were made to standardize the assays by providing detailed protocols and common reagents. This is the first time that such variation between laboratories has been thoroughly documented and the findings emphasize the need in the field for universal reference standards. The rAAV2 RSM has been deposited with the American Type Culture Collection and is available to the scientific community to calibrate laboratory-specific internal titer standards. Anticipated uses of the rAAV2 RSM are discussed.
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Phosphoinositide substrates of myotubularin affect voltage-activated Ca(2+) release in skeletal muscle.
Pflugers Arch.
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Skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling is altered in several models of phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PtdInsP) phosphatase deficiency and ryanodine receptor activity measured in vitro was reported to be affected by certain PtdInsPs, thus prompting investigation of the physiological role of PtdInsPs in E-C coupling. We measured intracellular Ca(2+) transients in voltage-clamped mouse muscle fibres microinjected with a solution containing a PtdInsP substrate (PtdIns(3,5)P 2 or PtdIns(3)P) or product (PtdIns(5)P or PtdIns) of the myotubularin phosphatase MTM1. No significant change was observed in the presence of either PtdIns(5)P or PtdIns but peak SR Ca(2+) release was depressed by ~30% and 50% in fibres injected with PtdIns(3,5)P 2 and PtdIns(3)P, respectively, with no concurrent alteration in the membrane current signals associated with the DHPR function as well as in the voltage dependence of Ca(2+) release inactivation. In permeabilized muscle fibres, the frequency of spontaneous Ca(2+) release events was depressed in the presence of the three tested phosphorylated forms of PtdInsP with PtdIns(3,5)P 2 being the most effective, leading to an almost complete disappearance of Ca(2+) release events. Results support the possibility that pathological accumulation of MTM1 substrates may acutely depress ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release. Overexpression of a mCherry-tagged form of MTM1 in muscle fibres revealed a striated pattern consistent with the triadic area. Ca(2+) release remained although unaffected by MTM1 overexpression and was also unaffected by the PtdIns-3-kinase inhibitor LY2940002, suggesting that the 3-phosphorylated PtdIns lipids active on voltage-activated Ca(2+) release are inherently maintained at a low level, inefficient on Ca(2+) release in normal conditions.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.