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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Postoperative MRI localisation of electrodes and clinical efficacy of pallidal deep brain stimulation in cervical dystonia.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to be effective in cervical dystonia (CD) with an improvement of about 50-60% in the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating (TWSTR) Scale. However, predictive factors for the efficacy of DBS in CD are missing with the anatomical location of the electrodes being one of the most important potential predictive factors.
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Two cases of atypical meningioma with pulmonary metastases: A comparative cytogenetic analysis of chromosomes 1p and 22 and a review of the literature.
Neuropathology
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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We present two cases of atypical meningioma WHO grade II with a history of multiple local recurrences and late pulmonary metastases. Comparative cytogenetic analyses on 1p and 22q confirmed clonal origin of the primary intracranial meningiomas and the pulmonary metastases in both cases. These cases illustrate the importance of close neuroradiological follow-up to detect tumor recurrence in patients with atypical meningiomas WHO grade II even with clinically stable disease and should sensitize clinicians to late extracranial metastases of these tumors, especially to the lung. In an effort to elucidate common clinical features of metastatic meningiomas, especially to the lung, the literature was reviewed from 1995 to 2014, identifying a total of 45 published cases.
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Mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute vertebrobasilar occlusion using the Trevo device: a single-centre experience.
Neuroradiology
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute vertebrobasilar artery occlusion (VBAO) using the Trevo Stentriever™ device.
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Crystal structure of Schistosoma mansoni arginase, a potential drug target for the treatment of schistosomiasis.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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The X-ray crystal structure of arginase from Schistosoma mansoni (SmARG) and the structures of its complexes with several amino acid inhibitors have been determined at atomic resolution. SmARG is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of l-arginine to form l-ornithine and urea, and this enzyme is upregulated in all forms of the parasite that interact with the human host. Current hypotheses suggest that parasitic arginases could play a role in host immune evasion by depleting pools of substrate l-arginine that would otherwise be utilized for NO biosynthesis and NO-dependent processes in the immune response. Although the amino acid sequence of SmARG is only 42% identical with that of human arginase I, residues important for substrate binding and catalysis are strictly conserved. In general, classical amino acid inhibitors such as 2(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH) tend to bind more weakly to SmARG than to human arginase I despite identical inhibitor binding modes in each enzyme active site. The identification of a patch on the enzyme surface capable of accommodating the additional C? substitutent of an ?,?-disubstituted amino acid inhibitor suggests that such inhibitors could exhibit higher affinity and biological activity. The structures of SmARG complexed with two different ?,?-disubstituted derivatives of ABH are presented and provide a proof of concept for this approach in the enhancement of enzyme-inhibitor affinity.
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Excreted/secreted Schistosoma mansoni venom allergen-like 9 (SmVAL9) modulates host extracellular matrix remodelling gene expression.
Int. J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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The Schistosoma mansoni venom allergen-like (SmVAL) protein family consists of 29 members, each possessing a conserved ?-?-? sandwich tertiary feature called the Sperm-coating protein/Tpx-1/Ag5/PR-1/Sc7 (SCP/TAPS) domain. While the SmVALs have been found in both excretory/secretory (E/S) products and in intra/sub-tegumental (non-E/S) fractions, the role(s) of this family in host/parasite relationships or schistosome developmental processes remains poorly resolved. In order to begin quantifying SmVAL functional diversity or redundancy, dissecting the specific activity (ies) of individual family members is necessary. Towards this end, we present the characterisation of SmVAL9; a protein previously found enriched in both miracidia/sporocyst larval transformation proteins and in egg secretions. While our study confirms that SmVAL9 is indeed found in soluble egg products and miracidia/sporocyst larval transformation proteins, we find it to be maximally transcribed/translated in miracidia and subsequently down-regulated during in vitro sporocyst development. SmVAL9 localisation within sporocysts appears concentrated in parenchymal cells/vesicles as well as associated with larval germinal cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that egg-derived SmVAL9 carries an N-linked glycan containing a schistosome-specific difucosyl element and is an immunogenic target during chronic murine schistosomiasis. Finally, we demonstrate that recombinant SmVAL9 affects the expression of extracellular matrix, remodelling matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP) gene products in both Biomphalaria glabrata embryonic cell (BgMMP1) and Mus musculus bone marrow-derived macrophage (MmMMP2, MmMMP9, MmMMP12, MmMMP13, MmMMP14, MmMMP28, TIMP1 and TIMP2) in vitro cultures. These findings importantly suggest that excreted/secreted SmVAL9 participates in tissue reorganisation/extracellular matrix remodelling during intra-mammalian egg translocation, miracidia infection and intra-molluscan sporocyst development/migration.
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Integrated PET/MRI for planning navigated biopsies in pediatric brain tumors.
Childs Nerv Syst
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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An integrated PET/MRI scanner has been used in selected cases of pediatric brain tumor patients to obtain additional metabolic information about lesions for preoperative biopsy planning and navigation.
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Genotypes of Klebsiella oxytoca isolates from patients with nosocomial pneumonia are distinct from those of isolates from patients with antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Klebsiella oxytoca acts as a pathobiont in the dysbiotic human intestinal microbiota, causing antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis (AAHC), but it also infects other organs, resulting in pneumonia and urinary tract and skin infections. The virulence of K. oxytoca is still poorly understood. The production of a specific cytotoxin has been linked to AAHC pathogenesis. To investigate the clonal relationships of K. oxytoca with regard to clinical origin and virulence attributes, we established a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method and analyzed 74 clinical K. oxytoca isolates from asymptomatic carriers and patients with AAHC, respiratory infections, and other infections. The isolates were phenotypically characterized, typed, and compared phylogenetically based on the sequences of seven housekeeping genes. MLST analysis yielded 60 sequence types, 12 of which were represented by more than one isolate. The phylogenetic tree distinguished clusters of K. oxytoca isolates between patients with AAHC and those with respiratory infections. Toxin-positive and -negative strains were observed within one sequence type. Our findings indicate that AAHC isolates share a genetic background. Interestingly, K. oxytoca isolates from nosocomial pneumonia showed a different genetic clustering, suggesting that these strains do not originate from the intestines or that they are specialized for respiratory tract colonization. Our results further indicate a polyphyletic origin and possible horizontal transfer of the genes involved in K. oxytoca cytotoxin production. This work provides evidence that K. oxytoca isolates colonizing the two main clinically relevant habitats (lower gastrointestinal [GI] tract and respiratory tract) of the human host are genetically distinct. Applications of this MLST analysis should help clarify the sources of nosocomial infections.
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A mathematical model for predicting lane changes using the steering wheel angle.
J Safety Res
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Positive safety effects of advanced driver assistance systems can only become effective if drivers accept and use these systems. Early detection of driver's intention would allow for selective system activation and therefore reduce false alarms.
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Multisite longitudinal reliability of tract-based spatial statistics in diffusion tensor imaging of healthy elderly subjects.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Large-scale longitudinal neuroimaging studies with diffusion imaging techniques are necessary to test and validate models of white matter neurophysiological processes that change in time, both in healthy and diseased brains. The predictive power of such longitudinal models will always be limited by the reproducibility of repeated measures acquired during different sessions. At present, there is limited quantitative knowledge about the across-session reproducibility of standard diffusion metrics in 3T multi-centric studies on subjects in stable conditions, in particular when using tract based spatial statistics and with elderly people. In this study we implemented a multi-site brain diffusion protocol in 10 clinical 3T MRI sites distributed across 4 countries in Europe (Italy, Germany, France and Greece) using vendor provided sequences from Siemens (Allegra, Trio Tim, Verio, Skyra, Biograph mMR), Philips (Achieva) and GE (HDxt) scanners. We acquired DTI data (2 × 2 × 2 mm(3), b = 700 s/mm(2), 5 b0 and 30 diffusion weighted volumes) of a group of healthy stable elderly subjects (5 subjects per site) in two separate sessions at least a week apart. For each subject and session four scalar diffusion metrics were considered: fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial (AD) diffusivity. The diffusion metrics from multiple subjects and sessions at each site were aligned to their common white matter skeleton using tract-based spatial statistics. The reproducibility at each MRI site was examined by looking at group averages of absolute changes relative to the mean (%) on various parameters: i) reproducibility of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the b0 images in centrum semiovale, ii) full brain test-retest differences of the diffusion metric maps on the white matter skeleton, iii) reproducibility of the diffusion metrics on atlas-based white matter ROIs on the white matter skeleton. Despite the differences of MRI scanner configurations across sites (vendors, models, RF coils and acquisition sequences) we found good and consistent test-retest reproducibility. White matter b0 SNR reproducibility was on average 7 ± 1% with no significant MRI site effects. Whole brain analysis resulted in no significant test-retest differences at any of the sites with any of the DTI metrics. The atlas-based ROI analysis showed that the mean reproducibility errors largely remained in the 2-4% range for FA and AD and 2-6% for MD and RD, averaged across ROIs. Our results show reproducibility values comparable to those reported in studies using a smaller number of MRI scanners, slightly different DTI protocols and mostly younger populations. We therefore show that the acquisition and analysis protocols used are appropriate for multi-site experimental scenarios.
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FLAIR-hyperintense vessel sign, diffusion-perfusion mismatch and infarct growth in acute ischemic stroke without vascular recanalisation therapy.
J Neuroradiol
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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To investigate the relation between DWI-PWI mismatch and FLAIR-hyperintense vessel (FHV) sign and their influence on the prediction of the infarct growth in stroke patients without vessel recanalising therapy.
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High-resolution mechanical imaging of glioblastoma by multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To generate high-resolution maps of the viscoelastic properties of human brain parenchyma for presurgical quantitative assessment in glioblastoma (GB).
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Increased procoagulant function of microparticles in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: role in increased thrombin generation.
J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a higher risk for venous thromboembolism compared with non-IBD subjects. The pathogenic mechanisms of the thrombotic events are not fully understood. We investigated levels of circulating microparticles and their influence on thrombin generation in pediatric patients with IBD during active and quiescent disease compared with healthy controls.
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The influence of lumbar spinal drainage on diffusion parameters in patients with suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus using 3T MRI.
Acta Radiol
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) has been an ongoing and challenging field of research for the past decades because two main issues are still not fully understood: the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying ventricular enlargement and prediction of outcome after surgery.
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Cytosine methylation is a conserved epigenetic feature found throughout the phylum Platyhelminthes.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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The phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) contains an important group of bilaterian organisms responsible for many debilitating and chronic infectious diseases of human and animal populations inhabiting the planet today. In addition to their biomedical and veterinary relevance, some platyhelminths are also frequently used models for understanding tissue regeneration and stem cell biology. Therefore, the molecular (genetic and epigenetic) characteristics that underlie trophic specialism, pathogenicity or developmental maturation are likely to be pivotal in our continued studies of this important metazoan group. Indeed, in contrast to earlier studies that failed to detect evidence of cytosine or adenine methylation in parasitic flatworm taxa, our laboratory has recently defined a critical role for cytosine methylation in Schistosoma mansoni oviposition, egg maturation and ovarian development. Thus, in order to identify whether this epigenetic modification features in other platyhelminth species or is a novelty of S. mansoni, we conducted a study simultaneously surveying for DNA methylation machinery components and DNA methylation marks throughout the phylum using both parasitic and non-parasitic representatives.
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Improvement of SNR and acquisition acceleration using a 32-channel head coil compared to a 12-channel head coil at 3T.
Acta Radiol
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques continue to improve in manifold ways. Besides field strength and sequence optimization, technical advances in coil design and sensitivity yield to increase the signal detection and therefore improve image quality.
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Reirradiation in progressive high-grade gliomas: outcome, role of concurrent chemotherapy, prognostic factors and validation of a new prognostic score with an independent patient cohort.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Purposes: First, to evaluate outcome, the benefit of concurrent chemotherapy and prognostic factors in a cohort of sixty-four high-grade glioma patients who underwent a second course of radiation therapy at progression. Second, to validate a new prognostic score for overall survival after reirradiation of progressive gliomas with an independent patient cohort.Patients and methods: All patients underwent fractionated reirradiation with a median physical dose of 36 Gy. Median planned target volume was 110.4 ml. Thirty-six patients received concurrent chemotherapy consisting in 24/36 cases (67%) of carboplatin and etoposide and in 12/36 cases (33%) of temozolomide. We used the Kaplan Meier method, log rank test and proportional hazards regression analysis for statistical assessment.
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Bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration in Wilson disease.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Hypertrophic olivary degeneration resulting from lesions of the dento-rubro-olivary pathway, also called Guillain-Mollaret-triangle, has been described previously in a number of cases. Reports about bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration of the inferior olivary nuclei are very limited, and the magnetic resonance imaging findings of hypertrophic olivary degeneration in Wilson disease have not yet been described to the best of our knowledge. Herein, we present the first report of bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging in a patient suffering from Wilson disease.
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Diffusion tensor imaging in idiopathic Parkinsons disease and multisystem atrophy (parkinsonian type).
Neurodegener Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Background: Differentiation between Parkinsons disease (PD) and atypical Parkinson syndromes (AP) is usually based on clinical examination, but can be challenging especially at early stages of the diseases. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows for differentiation between PD and AP with good specificity. It is a promising tool for clinical application, but has not been elaborated completely with respect to methodology and validity. Objective: In this study we evaluated differences of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) within white brain matter between patients with PD and multisystem atrophy of the parkinsonian type (MSAp). Materials and Methods: DTI data of 9 PD and 9 MSAp patients were compared by means of a hypothesis-free whole-brain analysis algorithm (TBSS) focusing on changes within white matter. Results: We found significantly higher values of the ADC in the MSAp group in the anterior limb of the inner capsule, superior parts of the corona radiata, and lateral periputaminal white matter. Group differences in FA values were not significant. Conclusion: Changes of the ADC close to the putamen proved most consistent and seem to be promising for the ongoing clinical implementation of DTI for the differentiation of hypokinetic-rigid movement disorders.
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Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix Saguenay (ARSACS): expanding the genetic, clinical and imaging spectrum.
Orphanet J Rare Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Mutations in SACS, leading to autosomal-recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS), have been identified as a frequent cause of recessive early-onset ataxia around the world. Here we aimed to enlarge the spectrum of SACS mutations outside Quebec, to establish the pathogenicity of novel variants, and to expand the clinical and imaging phenotype.
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Imaging of VSOP labeled stem cells in agarose phantoms with susceptibility weighted and T2* weighted MR Imaging at 3T: determination of the detection limit.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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This study aimed to evaluate the detectability of stem cells labeled with very small iron oxide particles (VSOP) at 3T with susceptibility weighted (SWI) and T2* weighted imaging as a methodological basis for subsequent examinations in a large animal stroke model (sheep).
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Positive effect of abdominal breathing exercise on gastroesophageal reflux disease: a randomized, controlled study.
Am. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2011
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The lower esophageal sphincter (LES), surrounded by diaphragmatic muscle, prevents gastroesophageal reflux. When these structures become incompetent, gastric contents may cause gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). For treatment, lifestyle interventions are always recommended. We hypothesized that by actively training the crura of the diaphragm as part of the LES using breathing training exercises, GERD can be positively influenced.
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Cytosine methylation regulates oviposition in the pathogenic blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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Similar to other metazoan pathogens, Schistosoma mansoni undergoes transcriptional and developmental regulation during its complex lifecycle and host interactions. DNA methylation as a mechanism to control these processes has, to date, been discounted in this parasite. Here we show the first evidence for cytosine methylation in the S. mansoni genome. Transcriptional coregulation of novel DNA methyltransferase (SmDnmt2) and methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins mirrors the detection of cytosine methylation abundance and implicates the presence of a functional DNA methylation machinery. Genome losses in cytosine methylation upon SmDnmt2 silencing and the identification of a hypermethylated, repetitive intron within a predicted forkhead gene confirm this assertion. Importantly, disruption of egg production and egg maturation by 5-azacytidine establishes an essential role for 5-methylcytosine in this parasite. These findings provide the first functional confirmation for this epigenetic modification in any worm species and link the cytosine methylation machinery to platyhelminth oviposition processes.
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Schistosoma comparative genomics: integrating genome structure, parasite biology and anthelmintic discovery.
Trends Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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Schistosoma genomes provide a comprehensive resource for identifying the molecular processes that shape parasite evolution and for discovering novel chemotherapeutic or immunoprophylactic targets. Here, we demonstrate how intragenus and intergenus comparative genomics can be used to drive these investigations forward, illustrate the advantages and limitations of these approaches and review how post-genomic technologies offer complementary strategies for genome characterisation. Although sequencing and functional characterisation of other schistosome/platyhelminth genomes continues to expedite anthelmintic discovery, we contend that future priorities should equally focus on improving assembly quality, and chromosomal assignment, of existing schistosome/platyhelminth genomes.
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The use of nicardipine prolonged release implants (NPRI) in microsurgical clipping after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: comparison with endovascular treatment.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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Nicardipine prolonged release implants (NPRI) have been shown to decrease the incidence of cerebral vasospasm and infarcts significantly in patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) following microsurgical clipping. Yet, the comparison with results after endovascular coiling is lacking. This study was conducted to determine the differences in the incidence of cerebral vasospasm and infarctions between those two treatment modalities
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Cross-disciplinary approaches for measuring parasitic helminth viability and phenotype.
An. Acad. Bras. Cienc.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Parasitic worms (helminths) within the Phyla Nematoda and Platyhelminthes are responsible for some of the most debilitating and chronic infectious diseases of human and animal populations across the globe. As no subunit vaccine for any parasitic helminth is close to being developed, the frontline strategy for intervention is administration of therapeutic, anthelmintic drugs. Worryingly, and unsurprising due to co-evolutionary mechanisms, many of these worms are developing resistance to the limited compound classes currently being used. This unfortunate reality has led to a renaissance in next generation anthelmintic discovery within both academic and industrial sectors. However, a major bottleneck in this process is the lack of quantitative methods for screening large numbers of small molecules for their effects on the whole organism. Development of methodologies that can objectively and rapidly distinguish helminth viability or phenotype would be an invaluable tool in the anthelmintic discovery pipeline. Towards this end, we describe how several basic techniques currently used to assess single cell eukaryote viability have been successfully applied to parasitic helminths. We additionally demonstrate how some of these methodologies have been adopted for high-throughput use and further modified for assessing worm phenotype. Continued development in this area is aimed at increasing the rate by which novel anthelmintics are identified and subsequently translated into everyday, practical applications.
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Extracranial posterior communicating artery bypass for revascularization of patients with common carotid artery occlusion.
Neurosurgery
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2010
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Extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery provides blood flow augmentation in patients suffering from intracranial or long-distance conductance artery stenosis or occlusion that otherwise cannot be treated. The standard procedure for these cases is an anastomosis between the superficial temporal and middle cerebral arteries. However, in patients presenting with common carotid artery occlusion, the superficial temporal artery is no longer sufficiently perfused. For these patients, alternative revascularization strategies have to be applied.
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Pallidal and thalamic deep brain stimulation in myoclonus-dystonia.
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal globus pallidus (GPi) and ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus (VIM) are established treatment options in primary dystonia and tremor syndromes and have been reported anecdotally to be efficacious in myoclonus-dystonia (MD). We investigated short- and long-term effects on motor function, cognition, affective state, and quality of life (QoL) of GPi- and VIM-DBS in MD. Ten MD-patients (nine epsilon-sarcoglycan-mutation-positive) were evaluated pre- and post-surgically following continuous bilateral GPi- and VIM-DBS at four time points: presurgical, 6, 12, and as a last follow-up at a mean of 62.3 months postsurgically, and in OFF-, GPi-, VIM-, and GPi-VIM-DBS conditions by validated motor [unified myoclonus rating scale (UMRS), TSUI Score, Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia rating scale (BFMDRS)], cognitive, affective, and QoL-scores. MD-symptoms significantly improved at 6 months post-surgery (UMRS: 61.5%, TSUI Score: 36.5%, BFMDRS: 47.3%). Beneficial effects were sustained at long-term evaluation post-surgery (UMRS: 65.5%, TSUI Score: 35.1%, BFMDRS: 48.2%). QoL was significantly ameliorated; affective status and cognition remained unchanged postsurgically irrespective of the stimulation conditions. No serious long-lasting stimulation-related adverse events (AEs) were observed. Both GPi- and VIM-DBS offer equally effective and safe treatment options for MD. With respect to fewer adverse, stimulation-induced events of GPi-DBS in comparison with VIM-DBS, GPi-DBS seems to be preferable. Combined GPi-VIM-DBS can be useful in cases of incapaciting myoclonus, refractory to GPi-DBS alone.
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Computational manufacturing of optical interference coatings: method, simulation results, and comparison with experiment.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2010
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Virtual deposition runs have been performed to estimate the production yield of selected oxide optical interference coatings when plasma ion-assisted deposition with an advanced plasma source is applied. Thereby, deposition of each layer can be terminated either by broadband optical monitoring or quartz crystal monitoring. Numerous deposition runs of single-layer coatings have been performed to investigate the reproducibility of coating properties and to quantify deposition errors for the simulation. Variations of the following parameters are considered in the simulation: refractive index, extinction coefficient, and film thickness. The refractive index and the extinction coefficient are simulated in terms of the oscillator model. The parameters are varied using an apodized normal distribution with known mean value and standard deviation. Simulation of variations in the film thickness is performed specific to the selected monitoring strategy. Several deposition runs of the selected oxide interference coatings have been performed to verify the simulation results by experimental data.
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Precision of navigated stereotactic probe implantation into the brainstem.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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The indications for stereotactic biopsies or implantation of probes for local chemotherapy in diffuse brainstem tumors have recently come under debate. The quality of performing these procedures significantly depends on the precision of the probes placement in the brainstem. The authors evaluated the precision of brainstem probe positioning using a navigated frameless stereotactic system in an experimental setting.
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Postoperative MRI examinations in patients treated by deep brain stimulation using a non-standard protocol.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2010
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MRI in patients bearing deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes may induce cerebral lesions due to electrode heating. To avoid neurological deficits related to MRI, post-operative MRI protocol was installed in our institution. However, our protocol comprised a higher specific absorption rate (SAR) and different positioning of lead excess than the later released electrode manufacturers guidelines. The objective was to evaluate the safety using this protocol.
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Development and validation of a quantitative, high-throughput, fluorescent-based bioassay to detect schistosoma viability.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2010
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Schistosomiasis, caused by infection with the blood fluke Schistosoma, is responsible for greater than 200,000 human deaths per annum. Objective high-throughput screens for detecting novel anti-schistosomal targets will drive genome to drug lead translational science at an unprecedented rate. Current methods for detecting schistosome viability rely on qualitative microscopic criteria, which require an understanding of parasite morphology, and most importantly, must be subjectively interpreted. These limitations, in the current state of the art, have significantly impeded progress into whole schistosome screening for next generation chemotherapies.
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Post-mortem studies in glioblastoma patients treated with thermotherapy using magnetic nanoparticles.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2009
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Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor in adults, have still a poor prognosis though new strategies of radio- and chemotherapy have been developed. Recently, our group demonstrated the feasibility, tolerability and anti-tumoral effects of a newly developed therapeutic approach, termed thermotherapy using magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH), in a murine model of malignant glioma. Currently, the efficacy of MFH is being evaluated in a phase II study. Here, we report on post-mortem neuropathological findings of patients with GBM receiving MFH. In brain autopsies the installed magnetic nanoparticles were dispersed or distributed as aggregates within geographic tumor necroses, restricted in distribution to the sites of instillation. Therefore, our results underscore the need for multiple trajectories of instillation. The typical GBM necrosis with pseudopalisading was free of particles. Dispersed particles and particle aggregates were phagocytosed mainly by macrophages whereas glioblastoma cells showed an uptake to a minor extent. MFH therapy further promotes uptake of nanoparticles in macrophages, likely as a consequence of tumor inherent and therapy induced formation of necrosis with subsequent infiltration and activation of phagocytes. We did not observe bystander effects of MFH such as sarcomatous tumour formation, formation of a sterile abscess or foreign body giant cell reaction. Furthermore, all patients did not present any clinical symptoms related to possible adverse effects of MFH.
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Anti-schistosomal intervention targets identified by lifecycle transcriptomic analyses.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2009
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Novel methods to identify anthelmintic drug and vaccine targets are urgently needed, especially for those parasite species currently being controlled by singular, often limited strategies. A clearer understanding of the transcriptional components underpinning helminth development will enable identification of exploitable molecules essential for successful parasite/host interactions. Towards this end, we present a combinatorial, bioinformatics-led approach, employing both statistical and network analyses of transcriptomic data, for identifying new immunoprophylactic and therapeutic lead targets to combat schistosomiasis.
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Schistosoma mansoni arginase shares functional similarities with human orthologs but depends upon disulphide bridges for enzymatic activity.
Int. J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2009
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Schistosome helminths constitute a major health risk for the human population in many tropical areas. We demonstrate for the first time that several developmental stages of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni express arginase, which is responsible for the hydrolysis of l-arginine to l-ornithine and urea. Arginase activity by alternatively activated macrophages is an essential component of the mammalian host response in schistosomiasis. However, it has not been previously shown that the parasite also expresses arginase when it is in contact with the mammalian host. After cloning and sequencing the cDNA encoding the parasite enzyme, we found that many structural features of human arginase are well conserved in the parasite ortholog. Subsequently, we discovered that S. mansoni arginase shares many similar molecular, biochemical and functional properties with both human arginase isoforms. Nevertheless, our data also reveal striking differences between human and schistosome arginase. Particularly, we found evidence that schistosome arginase activity depends upon disulphide bonds by cysteines, in contrast to human arginase. In conclusion, we report that S. mansoni arginase is well adapted to the physiological conditions that exist in the human host.
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Gamma activity and reactivity in human thalamic local field potentials.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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Depth recordings in patients with Parkinsons disease on dopaminergic therapy have revealed a tendency for oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia that is sharply tuned to frequencies of approximately 70 Hz and increases with voluntary movement. It is unclear whether this activity is essentially physiological and whether it might be involved in arousal processes. Here we demonstrate an oscillatory activity with similar spectral characteristics and motor reactivity in the human thalamus. Depth signals were recorded in 29 patients in whom the ventral intermediate or centromedian nucleus were surgically targeted for deep brain stimulation. Thirteen patients with four different pathologies showed sharply tuned activity centred at approximately 70 Hz in spectra of thalamic local field potential (LFP) recordings. This activity was modulated by movement and, critically, varied over the sleep-wake cycle, being suppressed during slow wave sleep and re-emergent during rapid eye movement sleep, which physiologically bears strong similarities with the waking state. It was enhanced by startle-eliciting stimuli, also consistent with modulation by arousal state. The link between this pattern of thalamic activity and that of similar frequency in the basal ganglia was strengthened by the finding that fast thalamic oscillations were lost in untreated parkinsonian patients, paralleling the behaviour of this activity in the basal ganglia. Furthermore, there was sharply tuned coherence between thalamic and pallidal LFP activity at approximately 70 Hz in eight out of the 11 patients in whom globus pallidus and thalamus were simultaneously implanted. Subcortical oscillatory activity at approximately 70 Hz may be involved in movement and arousal.
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Decreased bilateral cortical representation patterns in writers cramp: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study at 3.0 T.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2009
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Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to characterize patterns of cortical activation in response to sensory and motor tasks in patients with writers cramp. 17 patients and 17 healthy subjects were examined during finger-tapping, index finger flexion, and electrical median nerve stimulation of both hands during electromyographic monitoring. SPM2 was used to evaluate Brodmann area (BA) 4, 1, 2, 3, 6, 40. Patients showed decreased activation in the left BA 4 with motor tasks of both hands and the left BA 1-3 with right finger-tapping. With left finger-tapping there was bilateral underactivation of single areas of the somatosensory cortex. Patients exhibited decreased activation in the bilateral BA 6 with left motor tasks and in the right BA 6 with right finger-tapping. Patients had decreased activation in bilateral BA 40 with finger-tapping of both hands. The findings suggest decreased baseline activity or an impaired activation in response to motor tasks in BA 1-4, 6, 40 in patients with writers cramp for the dystonic and the clinically unaffected hand.
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Maximum work in minimum time from a conservative quantum system.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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This paper considers the problem of obtaining maximum work from a conservative quantum system corresponding to a given change in an external parameter in the Hamiltonian. The example we present is a non-interacting collection of harmonic oscillators with a shared frequency omega which changes from a given initial to a given final value. The example is interesting for its role in experiments at ultra-low temperatures and for probing finite-time versions of the third law of thermodynamics. It is also the simplest system displaying quantum friction, which represents loss mechanisms in any reversible prelude to a thermal process. The example leads to a new type of availability. It is also the first example of a minimum time for transitions between thermal states of a thermodynamic system.
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Threshold-selecting strategy for best possible ground state detection with genetic algorithms.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2009
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Genetic algorithms are a standard heuristic to find states of low energy in complex state spaces as given by physical systems such as spin glasses but also in combinatorial optimization. The paper considers the problem of selecting individuals in the current population in genetic algorithms for crossover. Many schemes have been considered in literature as possible crossover selection strategies. We show for a large class of quality measures that the best possible probability distribution for selecting individuals in each generation of the algorithm execution is a rectangular distribution over the individuals sorted by their energy values. This means uniform probabilities have to be assigned to a group of the individuals with lowest energy in the population but probabilities equal to zero to individuals which are corresponding to energy values higher than a fixed cutoff, which is equal to a certain rank in the vector sorted by the energy of the states in the current population. The considered strategy is dubbed threshold selecting. The proof applies basic arguments of Markov chains and linear optimization and makes only a few assumptions on the underlying principles and hence applies to a large class of algorithms.
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Schistosoma mansoni hemozoin modulates alternative activation of macrophages via specific suppression of Retnla expression and secretion.
Infect. Immun.
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The trematode Schistosoma mansoni is one of the etiological agents of schistosomiasis, a key neglected tropical disease responsible for an estimated annual loss of 70 million disability-adjusted life years. Hematophagy represents the primary nutrient acquisition pathway of this parasite, but digestion of hemoglobin also liberates toxic heme. Schistosomes detoxify heme via crystallization into hemozoin, which is subsequently regurgitated into the hosts circulation. Here we demonstrate that during experimental schistosomiasis, hemozoin accumulating in the mouse liver is taken up by phagocytes at a time coincident with the development of the egg-induced T-helper 2 (Th2) granulomatous immune response. Furthermore, the uptake of hemozoin also coincides with the hepatic expression of markers of alternative macrophage activation. Alternatively activated macrophages are a key effector cell population associated with protection against schistosomiasis, making hemozoin well placed to play an important immunomodulatory role in this disease. To systematically explore this hypothesis, S. mansoni hemozoin was purified and added to in vitro bone marrow-derived macrophage cultures concurrently exposed to cytokines chosen to reflect the shifting state of macrophage activation in vivo. Macrophages undergoing interleukin-4 (IL-4)-induced alternative activation in the presence of hemozoin developed a phenotype specifically lacking in Retnla, a characteristic alternatively activated macrophage product associated with regulation of Th2 inflammatory responses. As such, in addition to its important detoxification role during hematophagy, we propose that schistosome hemozoin also provides a potent immunomodulatory function in the coevolved network of host-parasite relationships during schistosomiasis.
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Novel technique for MR elastography of the prostate using a modified standard endorectal coil as actuator.
J Magn Reson Imaging
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To present a novel method for MR elastography (MRE) of the prostate at 3 Tesla using a modified endorectal imaging coil.
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Physical and organizational provision for installation, regulatory requirements and implementation of a simultaneous hybrid PET/MR-imaging system in an integrated research and clinical setting.
MAGMA
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The implementation of hybrid imaging systems requires thorough and anticipatory planning at local and regional levels. For installation of combined positron emission and magnetic resonance imaging systems (PET/MRI), a number of physical and constructional provisions concerning shielding of electromagnetic fields (RF- and high-field) as well as handling of radionuclides have to be met, the latter of which includes shielding for the emitted 511 keV gamma rays. Based on our experiences with a SIEMENS Biograph mMR system, a step-by-step approach is required to allow a trouble-free installation. In this article, we present a proposal for a standardized step-by-step plan to accomplish the installation of a combined PET/MRI system. Moreover, guidelines for the smooth operation of combined PET/MRI in an integrated research and clinical setting will be proposed. Overall, the most important preconditions for the successful implementation of PET/MRI in an integrated research and clinical setting is the interdisciplinary target-oriented cooperation between nuclear medicine, radiology, and all referring and collaborating institutions at all levels of interaction (personnel, imaging protocols, reporting, selection of the data transfer and communication methods).
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Platyhelminth Venom Allergen-Like (VAL) proteins: revealing structural diversity, class-specific features and biological associations across the phylum.
Parasitology
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During platyhelminth infection, a cocktail of proteins is released by the parasite to aid invasion, initiate feeding, facilitate adaptation and mediate modulation of the host immune response. Included amongst these proteins is the Venom Allergen-Like (VAL) family, part of the larger sperm coating protein/Tpx-1/Ag5/PR-1/Sc7 (SCP/TAPS) superfamily. To explore the significance of this protein family during Platyhelminthes development and host interactions, we systematically summarize all published proteomic, genomic and immunological investigations of the VAL protein family to date. By conducting new genomic and transcriptomic interrogations to identify over 200 VAL proteins (228) from species in all 4 traditional taxonomic classes (Trematoda, Cestoda, Monogenea and Turbellaria), we further expand our knowledge related to platyhelminth VAL diversity across the phylum. Subsequent phylogenetic and tertiary structural analyses reveal several class-specific VAL features, which likely indicate a range of roles mediated by this protein family. Our comprehensive analysis of platyhelminth VALs represents a unifying synopsis for understanding diversity within this protein family and a firm context in which to initiate future functional characterization of these enigmatic members.
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Diffusion tensor imaging in hydrocephalus--findings before and after shunt surgery.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
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To evaluate changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-derived parameters in patients with hydrocephalus (HC) before and several weeks after shunt surgery.
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The Schistosoma mansoni tegumental-allergen-like (TAL) protein family: influence of developmental expression on human IgE responses.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
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A human IgE response to Sm22.6 (a dominant IgE target in Schistosoma mansoni) is associated with the development of partial immunity. Located inside the tegument, the molecule belongs to a family of proteins from parasitic platyhelminths, the Tegument-Allergen-Like proteins (TALs). In addition to containing dynein-light-chain domains, these TALs also contain EF-hand domains similar to those found in numerous EF-hand allergens.
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Epigenetics: a key regulator of platyhelminth developmental biology?
Int. J. Parasitol.
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The Platyhelminthes (flukes/flatworms) are a large group of derived metazoans beautifully adapted for existence in diversely challenging ecosystems. As tractable examples of development and self-regeneration or as causative agents of aquacultural, veterinary and biomedically-relevant parasitic diseases, the platyhelminths are subject to intensive inter-disciplinary research. Given the complex lifestyles exhibited by individuals within this phylum, we postulate that epigenetic processes feature in many aspects of platyhelminth lifecycle diversity, development and environmentally-driven adaptations.
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Seven-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Wilson Disease Using Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping for Measurement of Copper Accumulation.
Invest Radiol
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In Wilson disease (WD), the copper content of cerebral tissue is increased, particularly in the basal ganglia. This study investigated whether a change in magnetic susceptibility can be detected using quantitative susceptibility mapping of the brain in patients with WD compared with healthy controls.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.