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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Multilocus sequence typing scheme versus pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for typing Mycobacterium abscessus isolates.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Outbreaks of infections by rapidly growing mycobacteria following invasive procedures, such as ophthalmological, laparoscopic, arthroscopic, plastic, and cardiac surgeries, mesotherapy, and vaccination, have been detected in Brazil since 1998. Members of the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group have caused most of these outbreaks. As part of an epidemiological investigation, the isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In this project, we performed a large-scale comparison of PFGE profiles with the results of a recently developed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for M. abscessus. Ninety-three isolates were analyzed, with 40 M. abscessus subsp. abscessus isolates, 47 M. abscessus subsp. bolletii isolates, and six isolates with no assigned subspecies. Forty-five isolates were obtained during five outbreaks, and 48 were sporadic isolates that were not associated with outbreaks. For MLST, seven housekeeping genes (argH, cya, glpK, gnd, murC, pta, and purH) were sequenced, and each isolate was assigned a sequence type (ST) from the combination of obtained alleles. The PFGE patterns of DraI-digested DNA were compared with the MLST results. All isolates were analyzable by both methods. Isolates from monoclonal outbreaks showed unique STs and indistinguishable or very similar PFGE patterns. Thirty-three STs and 49 unique PFGE patterns were identified among the 93 isolates. The Simpson's index of diversity values for MLST and PFGE were 0.69 and 0.93, respectively, for M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and 0.96 and 0.97, respectively, for M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. In conclusion, the MLST scheme showed 100% typeability and grouped monoclonal outbreak isolates in agreement with PFGE, but it was less discriminative than PFGE for M. abscessus.
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Strain Classification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in Brazil Based on Genotypes Obtained by Spoligotyping, Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit Typing and the Presence of Large Sequence and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Rio de Janeiro is endemic for tuberculosis (TB) and presents the second largest prevalence of the disease in Brazil. Here, we present the bacterial population structure of 218 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, derived from 186 patients that were diagnosed between January 2008 and December 2009. Genotypes were generated by means of spoligotyping, 24 MIRU-VNTR typing and presence of fbpC103, RDRio and RD174. The results confirmed earlier data that predominant genotypes in Rio de Janeiro are those of the Euro American Lineages (99%). However, we observed differences between the classification by spoligotyping when comparing to that of 24 MIRU-VNTR typing, being respectively 43.6% vs. 62.4% of LAM, 34.9% vs. 9.6% of T and 18.3% vs. 21.5% of Haarlem. Among isolates classified as LAM by MIRU typing, 28.0% did not present the characteristic spoligotype profile with absence of spacers 21 to 24 and 32 to 36 and we designated these conveniently as "LAM-like", 79.3% of these presenting the LAM-specific SNP fbpC103. The frequency of RDRio and RD174 in the LAM strains, as defined both by spoligotyping and 24 MIRU-VNTR loci, were respectively 11% and 15.4%, demonstrating that RD174 is not always a marker for LAM/RDRio strains. We conclude that, although spoligotyping alone is a tool for classification of strains of the Euro-American lineage, when combined with MIRU-VNTRs, SNPs and RD typing, it leads to a much better understanding of the bacterial population structure and phylogenetic relationships among strains of M. tuberculosis in regions with high incidence of TB.
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Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii INCQS 00594.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
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An epidemic of surgical-site infections by a single strain of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii affected >1,700 patients in Brazil from 2004 to 2008. The genome of the epidemic prototype strain M. abscessus subsp. bolletii INCQS 00594, deposited in the collection of the National Institute for Health Quality Control (INCQS), was sequenced.
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Occurrence of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary infection in an endemic area of tuberculosis.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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The majority of investigations of the epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have focused on highly developed nations with a low prevalence of tuberculosis. In contrast, the Para state of north Brazil represents an area of high tuberculosis prevalence and increasing NTM incidence. Toward the goal of understanding the dynamics of infection by all Mycobacterium species, we report patient characteristics and the identification of NTM strains isolated from sputum samples from patients that were residents of Para, a state in the Amazon region, Northern of Brazil, over the period January 2010 through December 2011 (2 years). The 29 NTM patients comprised 13.5% of positive mycobacterial cultures over the 2-year period. A major risk factor for NTM pulmonary disease was previous tuberculosis (76%). Further, the average age of NTM patients (52 years) was significantly higher than that of tuberculosis patients (39 years) and more were female (72.4% vs. 37.4%). Unlike other Brazilian states, NTM pulmonary patients in Para were infected with a different spectrum of mycobacteria; primarily the rapidly growing Mycobacterium massiliense and Mycobacterium simiae complex.
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The detection and sequencing of a broad-host-range conjugative IncP-1? plasmid in an epidemic strain of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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An extended outbreak of mycobacterial surgical infections occurred in Brazil during 2004-2008. Most infections were caused by a single strain of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii, which was characterized by a specific rpoB sequevar and two highly similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns differentiated by the presence of a ?50 kb band. The nature of this band was investigated.
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The forest behind the tree: phylogenetic exploration of a dominant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain lineage from a high tuberculosis burden country.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is a powerful tool for epidemiological control of tuberculosis (TB) and phylogenetic exploration of the pathogen. Standardized PCR-based typing, based on 15 to 24 mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) loci combined with spoligotyping, has been shown to have adequate resolution power for tracing TB transmission and to be useful for predicting diverse strain lineages in European settings. Its informative value needs to be tested in high TB-burden countries, where the use of genotyping is often complicated by dominance of geographically specific, genetically homogeneous strain lineages.
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Outbreak of neonatal infection by an endemic clone of Serratia marcescens.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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The outbreak occurred between February and June 2006 and included identification of the cases, analysis of medical records, cultures from environmental sources, resistance analyses and genotyping profile of Serratia marcescens.
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Molecular identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolates in a Brazilian mycobacteria reference laboratory.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
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This study utilized the hsp65 polymerase chain reaction restriction analysis (PRA) method in the identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTMs) isolated in a Brazilian mycobacteria laboratory. NTM isolates from clinical specimens collected from 192 patients were characterized using the hsp65 PRA method and analyzed using both 16S rRNA and hsp65 gene sequencing. Only 30% of the NTM strains were correctly identified through PRA, though the suggested inclusion of an additional restriction enzyme could increase the resolution to roughly 90%. A total of 17 NTM strains were not identified to species level and may represent a new taxonomic entity classified as belonging to the Mycobacterium simiae complex. This study demonstrates the applicability of hsp65 PRA in the identification of several NTM strains in a reference laboratory, though the results suggest that some modifications to the original PRA method could increase its resolution substantially.
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Characterization of mycobacteria from a major Brazilian outbreak suggests that revision of the taxonomic status of members of the Mycobacterium chelonae-M. abscessus group is needed.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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An outbreak of postsurgical infections caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria has been ongoing in Brazil since 2004. The degrees of similarity of the rpoB and hsp65 sequences from the clinical isolates and the corresponding sequences from both the Mycobacterium massiliense and the M. bolletii type strains were above the accepted limit for interspecies variability, leading to conflicting identification results. Therefore, an extensive characterization of members of the M. chelonae-M. abscessus group was carried out. The M. abscessus, M. chelonae, M. immunogenum, M. massiliense, and M. bolletii type strains and a subset of clinical isolates were analyzed by biochemical tests, high-performance liquid chromatography, drug susceptibility testing, PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of hsp65 (PRA-hsp65), rpoB, and hsp65 gene sequencing and analysis of phylogenetic trees, DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH), and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene (RFLP-16S rRNA). The clinical isolates and the M. abscessus, M. massiliense, and M. bolletii type strains could not be separated by phenotypic tests and were grouped in the phylogenetic trees obtained. The results of DDH also confirmed the >70% relatedness of the clinical isolates and the M. abscessus, M. massiliense, and M. bolletii type strains; and indistinguishable RFLP-16S rRNA patterns were obtained. On the contrary, the separation of clinical isolates and the M. abscessus, M. massiliense, and M. bolletii type strains from M. chelonae and M. immunogenum was supported by the results of PRA-hsp65, DDH, and RFLP-16S rRNA and by the rpoB and hsp65 phylogenetic trees. Taken together, these results led to the proposition that M. abscessus, M. massiliense, and M. bolletii represent a single species, that of M. abscessus. Two subspecies are also proposed, M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and M. abscessus subsp. massiliense, and these two subspecies can be distinguished by two different PRA-hsp65 patterns, which differ by a single HaeIII band, and by differences in their rpoB (3.4%) and hsp65 (1.3%) sequences.
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Molecular identification of rapidly growing mycobacteria isolates from pulmonary specimens of patients in the State of Pará, Amazon region, Brazil.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
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We isolated 44 strains of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) from 19 patients with pulmonary infections assisted at the Instituto Evandro Chagas (Pará, Brazil) from 2004 to 2007. Identification at the species level was performed by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PRA) of a 441 bp hsp65 fragment and partial 16S rRNA, hsp65, and rpoB gene sequencing. Genotyping by PRA yielded 3 digestion patterns: one identical to Mycobacterium abscessus type I (group I); another to M. abscessus type II, Mycobacterium bolletii, and Mycobacterium massiliense (group II); and a third typical for Mycobacterium fortuitum type I (group III). When comparing analysis of the 3 genes, more discrimination was obtained by rpoB gene sequence, which allowed good distinction between group I, II, and III strains and subclassification of group II strains in SG IIa (M. bolletii) and SG IIb (M. massiliense). In this study, we show that the description of new RGM species requires the establishment of standardized procedures for RGM identification and the alert of the clinician about their involvement in pulmonary disease and the necessity of treatment for control and cure.
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Rapid tests for the detection of the Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii strain responsible for an epidemic of surgical-site infections in Brazil.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
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A single strain of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii, characterised by a particular rpoB sequevar and two highly related pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns has been responsible for a nationwide outbreak of surgical infections in Brazil since 2004. In this study, we developed molecular tests based on polymerase chain reaction restriction-enzyme analysis (PRA) and sequencing for the rapid identification of this strain. Sequences of 15 DNA regions conserved in mycobacteria were retrieved from GenBank or sequenced and analysed in silico. Single nucleotide polymorphisms specific to the epidemic strain and located in enzyme recognition sites were detected in rpoB, the 3 region of the 16S rDNA and gyrB. The three tests that were developed, i.e., PRA-rpoB, PRA-16S and gyrB sequence analysis, showed 100%, 100% and 92.31% sensitivity and 93.06%, 90.28% and 100% specificity, respectively, for the discrimination of the surgical strain from other M. abscessus subsp. bolletii isolates, including 116 isolates from 95 patients, one environmental isolate and two type strains. The results of the three tests were stable, as shown by results obtained for different isolates from the same patient. In conclusion, due to the clinical and epidemiological importance of this strain, these tests could be implemented in reference laboratories for the rapid preliminary diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance of this epidemic strain.
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