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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Does vitamin D mediate the protective effects of time outdoors on myopia? Findings from a prospective birth cohort.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Purpose: More time outdoors is associated with a lesser risk of myopia but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (vitamin D) mediates the protective effects of time outdoors against myopia. Methods: We analyzed data for children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) population-based birth cohort: Non-cycloplegic autorefraction at age 7 to 15 years; maternal report of time outdoors at age 8 years and serum vitamin D2 and D3 at age 10 years. A survival analysis hazard ratio (HR) for incident myopia was calculated for children spending a high vs. low time outdoors, before and after controlling for vitamin D level (N=3,677). Results: Total vitamin D and D3, but not D2, levels were higher in children who spent more time outdoors [mean (95% CI) vitamin D in nmol/l: Total, 60.0 (59.4 to 60.6) vs. 56.9 (55.0 to 58.8), P=0.001; D3, 55.4 (54.9 to 56.0) vs. 53.0 (51.3 to 54.9), P=0.014; D2, 5.7 (5.5 to 5.8) vs. 5.4 (5.1 to 5.8), P=0.23]. In models including both time outdoors and sunlight-exposure-related vitamin D, there was no independent association between vitamin D and incident myopia [Total, HR=0.83 (0.66 to 1.04), P=0.11; D3, HR=0.89 (0.72 to 1.10), P=0.30], whilst time outdoors retained the same strong negative association with incident myopia as in unadjusted models [HR=0.69 (0.55 to 0.86), P=0.001]. Conclusions: Total vitamin D and vitamin D3 were biomarkers for time spent outdoors, however there was no evidence they were independently associated with future myopia.
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Rurality and dietary patterns: associations in a UK cohort study of 10-year-old children.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Objective Despite differences in obesity and ill health between urban and rural areas in the UK being well documented, very little is known about differences in dietary patterns across these areas. The present study aimed to examine whether urban/rural status is associated with dietary patterns in a population-based UK cohort study of children.
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The anthropometry of children and adolescents may be influenced by the prenatal smoking habits of their grandmothers: A longitudinal cohort study.
Am. J. Hum. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Previously, in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we have shown different sex-specific birth anthropometric measurements contingent upon whether or not prenatal smoking was undertaken by paternal grandmother (PGM±), maternal grandmother (MGM±), and the study mother (M±). The findings raised the question as to whether there were long-term associations on the growth of the study children over time.
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Is the growth of the child of a smoking mother influenced by the father's prenatal exposure to tobacco? A hypothesis generating longitudinal study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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Transgenerational effects of different environmental exposures are of major interest, with rodent experiments focusing on epigenetic mechanisms. Previously, we have shown that if the study mother is a non-smoker, there is increased mean birth weight, length and body mass index (BMI) in her sons if she herself had been exposed prenatally to her mother's smoking. The aim of this study was to determine whether the prenatal smoke exposure of either parent influenced the growth of the fetus of a smoking woman, and whether any effects were dependent on the fetal sex.
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Dairy intakes at age 10 years do not adversely affect risk of excess adiposity at 13 years.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Evidence of an association between milk intake and childhood adiposity remains inconsistent, with few data available regarding the effects of the amount of dairy fat consumed. This study examined the relation between dairy consumption (total, full, and reduced fat) at age 10 y on risk of excess adiposity at age 13 y in participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 2455). Intakes were assessed by 3-d dietary records. Total body fat mass (TBFM) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was examined at 13 y. Outcomes included excess TBFM (top quintile of TBFM), overweight, and change in body mass index (BMI). The highest vs. lowest quartile of total dairy consumers (g/d) at age 10 y did not have an increased risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.46, 1.16; P-trend = 0.28) or overweight (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.15; P = 0.24) at age 13 y. Children in the highest quartile of full-fat dairy intakes vs. those in the lowest quartile had a reduced risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.00; P = 0.04) and a suggestion of a reduction in overweight (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.40, 1.06; P = 0.19) at age 13 y. Furthermore, the highest vs. lowest consumers of full-fat products had smaller gains in BMI during follow-up [2.5 kg/m² (95% CI: 2.2, 2.7) vs. 2.8 kg/m² (95% CI: 2.5, 3.0); P < 0.01]. Associations with reduced-fat dairy consumption did not attain statistical significance. In this study, dairy consumption was not related to excess fat accumulation during late childhood. Estimates had wide confidence limits but generally showed inverse relations between dairy intakes and risk of excess adiposity. Additional prospective research is warranted to confirm the effects of dairy intake on obesity in children.
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Genome-wide association study for refractive astigmatism reveals genetic co-determination with spherical equivalent refractive error: the CREAM consortium.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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To identify genetic variants associated with refractive astigmatism in the general population, meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies were performed for: White Europeans aged at least 25 years (20 cohorts, N = 31,968); Asian subjects aged at least 25 years (7 cohorts, N = 9,295); White Europeans aged <25 years (4 cohorts, N = 5,640); and all independent individuals from the above three samples combined with a sample of Chinese subjects aged <25 years (N = 45,931). Participants were classified as cases with refractive astigmatism if the average cylinder power in their two eyes was at least 1.00 diopter and as controls otherwise. Genome-wide association analysis was carried out for each cohort separately using logistic regression. Meta-analysis was conducted using a fixed effects model. In the older European group the most strongly associated marker was downstream of the neurexin-1 (NRXN1) gene (rs1401327, P = 3.92E-8). No other region reached genome-wide significance, and association signals were lower for the younger European group and Asian group. In the meta-analysis of all cohorts, no marker reached genome-wide significance: The most strongly associated regions were, NRXN1 (rs1401327, P = 2.93E-07), TOX (rs7823467, P = 3.47E-07) and LINC00340 (rs12212674, P = 1.49E-06). For 34 markers identified in prior GWAS for spherical equivalent refractive error, the beta coefficients for genotype versus spherical equivalent, and genotype versus refractive astigmatism, were highly correlated (r = -0.59, P = 2.10E-04). This work revealed no consistent or strong genetic signals for refractive astigmatism; however, the TOX gene region previously identified in GWAS for spherical equivalent refractive error was the second most strongly associated region. Analysis of additional markers provided evidence supporting widespread genetic co-susceptibility for spherical and astigmatic refractive errors.
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Harmonization of Neuroticism and Extraversion phenotypes across inventories and cohorts in the Genetics of Personality Consortium: an application of Item Response Theory.
Behav. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Mega- or meta-analytic studies (e.g. genome-wide association studies) are increasingly used in behavior genetics. An issue in such studies is that phenotypes are often measured by different instruments across study cohorts, requiring harmonization of measures so that more powerful fixed effect meta-analyses can be employed. Within the Genetics of Personality Consortium, we demonstrate for two clinically relevant personality traits, Neuroticism and Extraversion, how Item-Response Theory (IRT) can be applied to map item data from different inventories to the same underlying constructs. Personality item data were analyzed in >160,000 individuals from 23 cohorts across Europe, USA and Australia in which Neuroticism and Extraversion were assessed by nine different personality inventories. Results showed that harmonization was very successful for most personality inventories and moderately successful for some. Neuroticism and Extraversion inventories were largely measurement invariant across cohorts, in particular when comparing cohorts from countries where the same language is spoken. The IRT-based scores for Neuroticism and Extraversion were heritable (48 and 49 %, respectively, based on a meta-analysis of six twin cohorts, total N = 29,496 and 29,501 twin pairs, respectively) with a significant part of the heritability due to non-additive genetic factors. For Extraversion, these genetic factors qualitatively differ across sexes. We showed that our IRT method can lead to a large increase in sample size and therefore statistical power. The IRT approach may be applied to any mega- or meta-analytic study in which item-based behavioral measures need to be harmonized.
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Prepubertal start of father's smoking and increased body fat in his sons: further characterisation of paternal transgenerational responses.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Despite interest in the idea that transgenerational effects of adverse exposures might contribute to population health trends, there are few human data. This non-genetic inheritance is all the more remarkable when transmission is down the male-line as reported in a historical Swedish study, where the paternal grandfather's food supply in mid childhood was associated with the mortality rate in his grandsons. Using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children's questionnaire data on smoking and smoking onset from 9886 fathers, we examined the growth of their children from 7-17 years. Adjusting for potential confounders, we assessed associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, total fat mass and lean mass with the age at which the father had started smoking regularly. Of 5376 fathers who reported having ever smoked, 166 reported regular smoking <11 years of age. Before adjustment, those offspring whose fathers started smoking <11 years had the highest mean BMIs at each age tested. The adjusted mean differences in BMI, waist circumference and total fat mass in those sons whose fathers started smoking <11 years, compared with all other sons, increased with age, being significantly greater from 13 years onwards. There were no significant BMI associations in daughters, but they showed a reduction in total lean mass. Our results highlight the importance of the developmental timing of the paternal exposure as well as gender differences in offspring outcomes. Smoking by boys in mid childhood may contribute to obesity in adolescent boys of the next generation.
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Dietary patterns and changes in body composition in children between 9 and 11 years.
Food Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Childhood obesity is rising and dietary intake is a potentially modifiable factor that plays an important role in its development. We aim to investigate the association between dietary patterns, obtained through principal components analysis and gains in fat and lean mass in childhood.
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Is the growth of the fetus of a non-smoking mother influenced by the smoking of either grandmother while pregnant?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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There are animal data that indicate that prenatal environmental exposures have sex-specific effects on subsequent generations. In humans, an increase in birthweight has been reported if the maternal grandmother had smoked in the pregnancy giving rise to the mother. Here we assess whether prenatal exposure of either parent to cigarette smoke has a sex-specific effect on the grandchild's birth measurements.
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Birth order and myopia.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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An association between birth order and reduced unaided vision (a surrogate for myopia) has been observed previously. We examined the association between birth order and myopia directly in four subject groups.
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Diet quality of U.K. infants is associated with dietary, adiposity, cardiovascular, and cognitive outcomes measured at 7-8 years of age.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Whereas the influence of pregnancy diet and milk feeding on childrens health and development is well characterized, the role of early food intake and eating behaviors is largely unexplored. This study aimed to determine whether the degree of adherence to complementary feeding guidelines was associated with dietary, obesity, cardiovascular, and cognitive outcomes at 7-8 y of age. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children using parent-completed dietary questionnaires at 6 mo of age to calculate a Complementary Feeding Utility Index score. Regression analysis was used to explore associations between the index score and dietary patterns derived via principal component analysis (n = 4326), body-mass index (BMI) (n = 4801), waist circumference (n = 4798), blood pressure (n = 4685), and lipids (n = 3232) measured at age 7 y; and intelligence quotient (IQ) measured at age 8 y (n = 4429) after adjustment for covariates. The index score was negatively associated with a "processed" dietary pattern (? = -0.16; 95% CI: -0.20, -0.13; P < 0.001) but positively associated with a "health conscious" dietary pattern [? = 0.18 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.21); P < 0.001]. A higher index score was also positively associated with total, verbal, and performance IQ scores at 8 y of age [? = 1.92 (95%CI: 1.38, 2.47); P < 0.001 for total IQ). The index score was weakly associated with waist circumference [? = -0.15 (95%CI: -0.31, -0.002); P = 0.046] and diastolic blood pressure [? = -0.24 (95%CI: -0.47, -0.01); P = 0.043] at 7 y of age but was not associated with BMI or other cardiovascular risk factors. These findings suggest that adherence to current complementary feeding guidelines may have implications for some, but not all, health and development outcomes in childhood.
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Ophthalmic abnormalities in children with developmental coordination disorder.
Dev Med Child Neurol
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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To explore associations between developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and ophthalmic abnormalities in children aged 7 to 8 years.
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Differences between blood donors and a population sample: implications for case-control studies.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Selecting appropriate controls for studies of genetic variation in case series is important. The two major candidates involve the use of blood donors or a random sample of the population.
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Dietary patterns in UK adolescents obtained from a dual-source FFQ and their associations with socio-economic position, nutrient intake and modes of eating.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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OBJECTIVE: To derive dietary patterns using principal components analysis from separate FFQ completed by mothers and their teenagers and to assess associations with nutrient intakes and sociodemographic variables. DESIGN: Two distinct FFQ were completed by 13-year-olds and their mothers, with some overlap in the foods covered. A combined data set was obtained. SETTING: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), Bristol, UK. SUBJECTS: Teenagers (n 5334) with adequate dietary data. RESULTS: Four patterns were obtained using principal components analysis: a Traditional/health-conscious pattern, a Processed pattern, a Snacks/sugared drinks pattern and a Vegetarian pattern. The Traditional/health-conscious pattern was the most nutrient-rich, having high positive correlations with many nutrients. The Processed and Snacks/sugared drinks patterns showed little association with important nutrients but were positively associated with energy, fats and sugars. There were clear gender and sociodemographic differences across the patterns. Lower scores were seen on the Traditional/health conscious and Vegetarian patterns in males and in those with younger and less educated mothers. Higher scores were seen on the Traditional/health-conscious and Vegetarian patterns in girls and in those whose mothers had higher levels of education. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to establish healthy eating patterns by the teenage years. However, this is a time when it is difficult to accurately establish dietary intake from a single source, since teenagers consume increasing amounts of foods outside the home. Further dietary pattern studies should focus on teenagers and the source of dietary data collection merits consideration.
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Tracking a dietary pattern associated with increased adiposity in childhood and adolescence.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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Understanding dietary tracking may help to inform interventions to improve dietary intakes and health outcomes. This study investigated how a dietary pattern (DP) associated with increased adiposity in childhood tracked from 7 to 13 years of age, in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).
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Estimating trajectories of energy intake through childhood and adolescence using linear-spline multilevel models.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Methods for the assessment of changes in dietary intake across the life course are underdeveloped.
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Diet spanning infancy and toddlerhood is associated with child blood pressure at age 7.5 y.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Diet in the first 2 y of life may be a pivotal period regarding effects on future blood pressure (BP). However, data on early-life diet and BP in childhood are sparse.
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Sources of vitamin A in the diets of pre-school children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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Vitamin A is essential for growth and development. We investigated whether high consumption of energy-dense nutrient-poor foods in the diets of pre-school children is detrimental to diet quality with respect to vitamin A. Data were collected from 755 children at 18-months and 3½-years, from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, using 3-day unweighed dietary records completed by parents in 1994 and 1996, respectively. Energy, carotene and retinol intakes were calculated. The quality of the diet declined from 18-months to 3½-years with respect to vitamin A. Preformed retinol intakes decreased by -54 ?g/day on average (p = 0.003). Carotene intakes were similar at each age although there was a 23% increase in energy intake by 3½-years. Longitudinally those in the highest quartile of intake at 18-months were twice as likely to remain in the highest quartile at 3½-years for retinol (OR 2.21 (95% CI 1.48-3.28)) and carotene (OR 1.66 (95% CI 1.11-2.50)) than to change quartiles. Nutrient-rich core foods provided decreasing amounts of carotene and preformed retinol over time (both p < 0.001). Vegetables and milk contributed the highest proportion of carotene at both ages, but milks contribution decreased over time. Milk and liver were the largest sources of retinol. Nutrient-poor foods provided an increased proportion of energy (p < 0.001) with low proportions of both nutrients; however fat spreads made an important contribution. It is recommended that pre-school children should take vitamin supplements; only 19% at 18-months did this, falling to 11% at 3½-years. Care should be taken to choose nutrient-rich foods and avoid energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods when feeding pre-school children.
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Body stature growth trajectories during childhood and the development of myopia.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Stature at a particular age can be considered the cumulative result of growth during a number of preceding growth trajectory periods. We investigated whether height and weight growth trajectories from birth to age 10 years were related to refractive error at ages 11 and 15 years, and eye size at age 15 years.
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Do dietary trajectories between infancy and toddlerhood influence IQ in childhood and adolescence? Results from a prospective birth cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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We examined whether trajectories of dietary patterns from 6 to 24 months of age are associated with intelligence quotient (IQ) in childhood and adolescence.
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Coordinated genetic scaling of the human eye: shared determination of axial eye length and corneal curvature.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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To examine the extent to which the two major determinants of refractive error, corneal curvature and axial length, are scaled relative to one another by shared genetic variants, along with their relationship to the genetic scaling of height.
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A genome-wide association study for corneal curvature identifies the platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? gene as a quantitative trait locus for eye size in white Europeans.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Corneal curvature is a key determinant of the refractive power of the eye. Variants in two genes, FKBP12-rapamycin complex-associated protein 1 (FRAP1) on chromosome 1p36.2 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) on chromosome 4q12, have shown genome-wide significant association with normal variation in corneal curvature in a study of subjects of Asian origin. Variants at the PDGFRA locus have also shown genome-wide significant association with corneal astigmatism. Whether these variants influence other ocular parameters such as axial length has yet to be reported. We performed a genome-wide association study for corneal curvature in white European subjects from a population-based birth cohort, with the aim of replicating and extending the above findings.
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A longitudinal investigation of nutrition and dietary patterns in children of mothers with eating disorders.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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To investigate dietary patterns and nutritional intake in children of mothers with eating disorders.
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Milk intakes are not associated with percent body fat in children from ages 10 to 13 years.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
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Epidemiologic studies report conflicting results for the relationship between milk intake and adiposity in children. We examined prospective and cross-sectional associations between milk intake and percent body fat among 2245 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Cross-sectional analyses were performed at age 13 y between total, full-fat, and reduced-fat milk intake assessed using 3-d dietary records and body fat from DXA. Prospective analyses were conducted between milk intakes at age 10 y and body fat at 11 and 13 y. Models were adjusted for age, sex, height, physical activity, pubertal status, maternal BMI, maternal education, and intakes of total fat, sugar-sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juice, and ready-to-eat cereals; baseline BMI was added to prospective models. Subset analyses were performed for those with plausible dietary intakes. Mean milk consumption at 10 and 13 y was (mean ± SD) 0.90 ± 0.73 and 0.85 ± 0.78 servings/d [1 serving = 8 oz of milk (244 g of plain and 250 g flavored milk)], respectively. Cross-sectional results indicated an inverse association between full-fat milk intake and body fat [? = -0.47 (95% CI = -0.76, -0.19); P = 0.001]. Milk intake at age 10 y was inversely associated with body fat at 11 y [? = -0.16 g/d (95%CI = -0.28, -0.04); P = 0.01], but not among those with plausible dietary intakes, suggesting that this association was influenced by dietary measurement errors. Milk intake was not associated with body fat at age 13 y after adjustment. Although our prospective results corroborate other findings of a null associations between milk intake and adiposity, our inconsistent findings across analyses suggest further investigation is needed to clarify the relation, and accounting for dietary reporting errors is an important consideration.
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Levels of insulin-like growth factor during pregnancy and maternal cancer risk: a nested case-control study.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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Previous studies have suggested that pregnancy measures of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) may be related to breast cancer risk in mothers. IGFs may also be important in cervical cancer etiology. We conducted a nested case-control study (69 breast cancer cases, 151 cervical cancer cases, 443 controls) among mothers of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. Over 70% of blood samples was taken prior to 15 weeks gestation; the remainder before 30 weeks. Logistic regression, controlling for maternal age, gestational age, and sample type (plasma/serum) was used to model the association between IGFs and maternal cancer risk. Neither IGF-I nor IGF-II were associated with breast or cervical cancer. IGF-binding protein (BP)-3 was not related to breast cancer, but there was a suggestion that women in the highest compared to lowest quartile of IGFBP-3 had reduced risk of cervical cancer, OR 0.43 (95% CI 0.21-0.86). In conclusion, the importance of IGFs measured in pregnancy and later breast and cervical cancer remains unclear, though IGFBP-3 may be a marker of lowered risk.
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Visual perceptual difficulties and under-achievement at school in a large community-based sample of children.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Difficulties with visual perception (VP) are often described in children with neurological or developmental problems. However, there are few data regarding the range of visual perceptual abilities in populations of normal children, or on the impact of these abilities on childrens day-to-day functioning.
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Are dietary patterns in childhood associated with IQ at 8 years of age? A population-based cohort study.
J Epidemiol Community Health
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
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Little is known about the effects of overall diet in childhood and intelligence later in life.
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Loss-of-function variants in the filaggrin gene are a significant risk factor for peanut allergy.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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IgE-mediated peanut allergy is a complex trait with strong heritability, but its genetic basis is currently unknown. Loss-of-function mutations within the filaggrin gene are associated with atopic dermatitis and other atopic diseases; therefore, filaggrin is a candidate gene in the etiology of peanut allergy.
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Parental accounts of the prevalence, causes and treatments of limb pain in children aged 5 to 13 years: a longitudinal cohort study.
Arch. Dis. Child.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
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The frequency, cause and treatment of limb pain were ascertained in a cohort of children at six time points between the ages of 5 and 13 years. Data were collected using self-completion questionnaires sent to the chief carers of children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Reports of limb pain over the study period doubled from 15.1% of children aged 5 to 32.5% aged 13; 3.4% of children had limb pain at all time points, 43.4% never reported limb pain and 56.6% reported limb pain on at least one occasion. Growing pains were the most common cause given for limb pains. Limb pain and growing pains were each associated with a family history of arthritis and rheumatism. Limb pain prevalence may have been under-reported in this study due to gradual attrition, particularly in the less educated mothers among whom the highest prevalence of limb pain was reported.
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Is there a relationship between birthweight and subsequent growth on the development of dental caries at 5 years of age? A cohort study.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
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To examine the associations between childhood growth and the presence of dental caries at age 5.
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Diet throughout childhood and age at menarche in a contemporary cohort of British girls.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
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To investigate associations between dietary intakes throughout childhood and age at menarche, a possible indicator of future risk of disease, in a contemporary cohort of British girls.
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Thirty new loci for age at menarche identified by a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies.
Cathy E Elks, John R B Perry, Patrick Sulem, Daniel I Chasman, Nora Franceschini, Chunyan He, Kathryn L Lunetta, Jenny A Visser, Enda M Byrne, Diana L Cousminer, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Tonu Esko, Bjarke Feenstra, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Daniel L Koller, Zoltan Kutalik, Peng Lin, Massimo Mangino, Mara Marongiu, Patrick F McArdle, Albert V Smith, Lisette Stolk, Sophie H van Wingerden, Jing Hua Zhao, Eva Albrecht, Tanguy Corre, Erik Ingelsson, Caroline Hayward, Patrik K E Magnusson, Erin N Smith, Shelia Ulivi, Nicole M Warrington, Lina Zgaga, Helen Alavere, Najaf Amin, Thor Aspelund, Stefania Bandinelli, Inês Barroso, Gerald S Berenson, Sven Bergmann, Hannah Blackburn, Eric Boerwinkle, Julie E Buring, Fabio Busonero, Harry Campbell, Stephen J Chanock, Wei Chen, Marilyn C Cornelis, David Couper, Andrea D Coviello, Pio D'Adamo, Ulf de Faire, Eco J C de Geus, Panos Deloukas, Angela Döring, George Davey Smith, Douglas F Easton, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Valur Emilsson, Johan Eriksson, Luigi Ferrucci, Aaron R Folsom, Tatiana Foroud, Melissa Garcia, Paolo Gasparini, Frank Geller, Christian Gieger, , Vilmundur Gudnason, Per Hall, Susan E Hankinson, Liana Ferreli, Andrew C Heath, Dena G Hernandez, Albert Hofman, Frank B Hu, Thomas Illig, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Andrew D Johnson, David Karasik, Kay-Tee Khaw, Douglas P Kiel, Tuomas O Kilpeläinen, Ivana Kolčić, Peter Kraft, Lenore J Launer, Joop S E Laven, Shengxu Li, Jianjun Liu, Daniel Levy, Nicholas G Martin, Wendy L McArdle, Mads Melbye, Vincent Mooser, Jeffrey C Murray, Sarah S Murray, Michael A Nalls, Pau Navarro, Mari Nelis, Andrew R Ness, Kate Northstone, Ben A Oostra, Munro Peacock, Lyle J Palmer, Aarno Palotie, Guillaume Paré, Alex N Parker, Nancy L Pedersen, Leena Peltonen, Craig E Pennell, Paul Pharoah, Ozren Polašek, Andrew S Plump, Anneli Pouta, Eleonora Porcu, Thorunn Rafnar, John P Rice, Susan M Ring, Fernando Rivadeneira, Igor Rudan, Cinzia Sala, Veikko Salomaa, Serena Sanna, David Schlessinger, Nicholas J Schork, Angelo Scuteri, Ayellet V Segrè, Alan R Shuldiner, Nicole Soranzo, Ulla Sovio, Sathanur R Srinivasan, David P Strachan, Mar-Liis Tammesoo, Emmi Tikkanen, Daniela Toniolo, Kim Tsui, Laufey Tryggvadóttir, Jonathon Tyrer, Manuela Uda, Rob M Van Dam, Joyce B J van Meurs, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber, Nicholas J Wareham, Dawn M Waterworth, Michael N Weedon, H Erich Wichmann, Gonneke Willemsen, James F Wilson, Alan F Wright, Lauren Young, Guangju Zhai, Wei Vivian Zhuang, Laura J Bierut, Dorret I Boomsma, Heather A Boyd, Laura Crisponi, Ellen W Demerath, Cornelia M van Duijn, Michael J Econs, Tamara B Harris, David J Hunter, Ruth J F Loos, Andres Metspalu, Grant W Montgomery, Paul M Ridker, Tim D Spector, Elizabeth A Streeten, Kari Stefansson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, André G Uitterlinden, Elisabeth Widén, Joanne M Murabito, Ken K Ong, Anna Murray.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2010
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To identify loci for age at menarche, we performed a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies in 87,802 women of European descent, with replication in up to 14,731 women. In addition to the known loci at LIN28B (P = 5.4 × 10???) and 9q31.2 (P = 2.2 × 10?³³), we identified 30 new menarche loci (all P < 5 × 10??) and found suggestive evidence for a further 10 loci (P < 1.9 × 10??). The new loci included four previously associated with body mass index (in or near FTO, SEC16B, TRA2B and TMEM18), three in or near other genes implicated in energy homeostasis (BSX, CRTC1 and MCHR2) and three in or near genes implicated in hormonal regulation (INHBA, PCSK2 and RXRG). Ingenuity and gene-set enrichment pathway analyses identified coenzyme A and fatty acid biosynthesis as biological processes related to menarche timing.
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The use of homeopathic products in childhood: data generated over 8.5 years from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).
J Altern Complement Med
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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Very little is known about the use of homeopathic products (HP) in children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a population-based cohort in the South-West of England, has collected homeopathic data through self-completion questionnaires posted to the mother at regular time points throughout childhood. The aim of this article is to describe the use of these products in a large cohort of children from birth to 8.5 years of age.
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Genetic variation in LIN28B is associated with the timing of puberty.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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The timing of puberty is highly variable. We carried out a genome-wide association study for age at menarche in 4,714 women and report an association in LIN28B on chromosome 6 (rs314276, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.33, P = 1.5 × 10(-8)). In independent replication studies in 16,373 women, each major allele was associated with 0.12 years earlier menarche (95% CI = 0.08-0.16; P = 2.8 × 10(-10); combined P = 3.6 × 10(-16)). This allele was also associated with earlier breast development in girls (P = 0.001; N = 4,271); earlier voice breaking (P = 0.006, N = 1,026) and more advanced pubic hair development in boys (P = 0.01; N = 4,588); a faster tempo of height growth in girls (P = 0.00008; N = 4,271) and boys (P = 0.03; N = 4,588); and shorter adult height in women (P = 3.6 × 10(-7); N = 17,274) and men (P = 0.006; N = 9,840) in keeping with earlier growth cessation. These studies identify variation in LIN28B, a potent and specific regulator of microRNA processing, as the first genetic determinant regulating the timing of human pubertal growth and development.
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Infancy weight gain predicts childhood body fat and age at menarche in girls.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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Rapid postnatal weight gain has been associated with subsequent increased childhood adiposity. However, the contribution of rapid weight gain during specific infancy periods is not clear. Objective: We aimed to determine which periods of infancy weight gain are related to childhood adiposity and also to age at menarche in UK girls.
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Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation.
Cristen J Willer, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Ruth J F Loos, Shengxu Li, Cecilia M Lindgren, Iris M Heid, Sonja I Berndt, Amanda L Elliott, Anne U Jackson, Claudia Lamina, Guillaume Lettre, Noha Lim, Helen N Lyon, Steven A McCarroll, Konstantinos Papadakis, Lu Qi, Joshua C Randall, Rosa Maria Roccasecca, Serena Sanna, Paul Scheet, Michael N Weedon, Eleanor Wheeler, Jing Hua Zhao, Leonie C Jacobs, Inga Prokopenko, Nicole Soranzo, Toshiko Tanaka, Nicholas J Timpson, Peter Almgren, Amanda Bennett, Richard N Bergman, Sheila A Bingham, Lori L Bonnycastle, Morris Brown, Noel P Burtt, Peter Chines, Lachlan Coin, Francis S Collins, John M Connell, Cyrus Cooper, George Davey Smith, Elaine M Dennison, Parimal Deodhar, Paul Elliott, Michael R Erdos, Karol Estrada, David M Evans, Lauren Gianniny, Christian Gieger, Christopher J Gillson, Candace Guiducci, Rachel Hackett, David Hadley, Alistair S Hall, Aki S Havulinna, Johannes Hebebrand, Albert Hofman, Bo Isomaa, Kevin B Jacobs, Toby Johnson, Pekka Jousilahti, Zorica Jovanović, Kay-Tee Khaw, Peter Kraft, Mikko Kuokkanen, Johanna Kuusisto, Jaana Laitinen, Edward G Lakatta, Jian'an Luan, Robert N Luben, Massimo Mangino, Wendy L McArdle, Thomas Meitinger, Antonella Mulas, Patricia B Munroe, Narisu Narisu, Andrew R Ness, Kate Northstone, Stephen O'Rahilly, Carolin Purmann, Matthew G Rees, Martin Ridderstråle, Susan M Ring, Fernando Rivadeneira, Aimo Ruokonen, Manjinder S Sandhu, Jouko Saramies, Laura J Scott, Angelo Scuteri, Kaisa Silander, Matthew A Sims, Kijoung Song, Jonathan Stephens, Suzanne Stevens, Heather M Stringham, Y C Loraine Tung, Timo T Valle, Cornelia M van Duijn, Karani S Vimaleswaran, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber, Chris Wallace, Richard M Watanabe, Dawn M Waterworth, Nicholas Watkins, , Jacqueline C M Witteman, Eleftheria Zeggini, Guangju Zhai, M Carola Zillikens, David Altshuler, Mark J Caulfield, Stephen J Chanock, I Sadaf Farooqi, Luigi Ferrucci, Jack M Guralnik, Andrew T Hattersley, Frank B Hu, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Markku Laakso, Vincent Mooser, Ken K Ong, Willem H Ouwehand, Veikko Salomaa, Nilesh J Samani, Timothy D Spector, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Manuela Uda, André G Uitterlinden, Nicholas J Wareham, Panagiotis Deloukas, Timothy M Frayling, Leif C Groop, Richard B Hayes, David J Hunter, Karen L Mohlke, Leena Peltonen, David Schlessinger, David P Strachan, H-Erich Wichmann, Mark I McCarthy, Michael Boehnke, Inês Barroso, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Joel N Hirschhorn.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2009
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Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts (n > 59,000). We strongly confirm FTO and MC4R and identify six additional loci (P < 5 x 10(-8)): TMEM18, KCTD15, GNPDA2, SH2B1, MTCH2 and NEGR1 (where a 45-kb deletion polymorphism is a candidate causal variant). Several of the likely causal genes are highly expressed or known to act in the central nervous system (CNS), emphasizing, as in rare monogenic forms of obesity, the role of the CNS in predisposition to obesity.
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Longitudinal comparisons of dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis in 7- to 13-year-old children.
Br. J. Nutr.
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Little is known about changes in dietary patterns over time. The present study aims to derive dietary patterns using cluster analysis at three ages in children and track these patterns over time. In all, 3 d diet diaries were completed for children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children at 7, 10 and 13 years. Children were grouped based on the similarities between average weight consumed (g/d) of sixty-two food groups using k-means cluster analysis. A total of four clusters were obtained at each age, with very similar patterns being described at each time point: Processed (high consumption of processed foods, chips and soft drinks), Healthy (high consumption of high-fibre bread, fruit, vegetables and water), Traditional (high consumption of meat, potatoes and vegetables) and Packed Lunch (high consumption of white bread, sandwich fillings and snacks). The number of children remaining in the same cluster at different ages was reasonably high: 50 and 43% of children in the Healthy and Processed clusters, respectively, at age 7 years were in the same clusters at age 13 years. Maternal education was the strongest predictor of remaining in the Healthy cluster at each time point – children whose mothers had the highest level of education were nine times more likely to remain in that cluster compared to those with the lowest. Cluster analysis provides a simple way of examining changes in dietary patterns over time, and similar underlying patterns of diet at two ages during late childhood, that persisted through to early adolescence.
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Dietary patterns of infants and toddlers are associated with nutrient intakes.
Nutrients
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Dietary patterns are a useful summary measure of diet. Few studies have examined the nutrient profiles underpinning the dietary patterns of young children. The study aim is to determine whether dietary patterns at 6 and 15 months of age are associated with nutrient intakes at 8 and 18 months, respectively. Participants were children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children who had complete dietary pattern and nutrient intake data (n = 725 at 6-8 months, n = 535 at 15-18 months). The association between tertiles of dietary pattern scores and nutrient intake was examined using a non-parametric test for trend. Scores on the home-made traditional pattern (6-8 months) were positively associated with median energy intake. Each dietary pattern had different associations with energy-adjusted intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients. At both times, the discretionary pattern was positively and the ready-prepared baby foods pattern was negatively associated with sodium intake. At 6-8 months, calcium and iron intakes decreased across scores on the home-made traditional and breastfeeding patterns, but increased across the ready-prepared baby food patterns. These findings highlight that dietary patterns in infants and toddlers vary in their underlying energy and nutrient composition.
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Dietary patterns throughout childhood and associations with nutrient intakes.
Public Health Nutr
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To examine how the dietary patterns of children at various time points throughout childhood relate to estimated nutrient intakes.
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Dietary patterns obtained through principal components analysis: the effect of input variable quantification.
Br. J. Nutr.
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Principal components analysis (PCA) is a popular method for deriving dietary patterns. A number of decisions must be made throughout the analytic process, including how to quantify the input variables of the PCA. The present study aims to compare the effect of using different input variables on the patterns extracted using PCA on 3-d diet diary data collected from 7473 children, aged 10 years, in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Four options were examined: weight consumed of each food group (g/d), energy-adjusted weight, percentage contribution to energy of each food group and binary intake (consumed/not consumed). Four separate PCA were performed, one for each intake measurement. Three or four dietary patterns were obtained from each analysis, with at least one component that described more healthy and less healthy diets and one component that described a diet with high consumption of meat, potatoes and vegetables. There were no obvious differences between the patterns derived using percentage energy as a measurement and adjusting weight for total energy intake, compared to those derived using gram weights. Using binary input variables yielded a component that loaded positively on reduced fat and reduced sugar foods. The present results suggest that food intakes quantified by gram weights or as binary variables both resulted in meaningful dietary patterns and each method has distinct advantages: weight takes into account the amount of each food consumed and binary intake appears to describe general food preferences, which are potentially easier to modify and useful in public health settings.
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Do ?-3 or other fatty acids influence the development of growing pains? A prebirth cohort study.
BMJ Open
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To assess whether the prevalence of growing pains varies with indicators of fatty acid exposure. Growing pains (limb pains of no obvious explanation) have been shown to be strongly linked to a family history of arthritis, and are thought to predict an increased risk of the development of arthritis in adulthood. Much has been made of the possibility of fatty acids, particularly the ?-3 fatty acids, playing a preventive role in the development of arthritis, but little research has been undertaken to determine whether such fatty acids might reduce the risk of growing pains. We aimed to assess whether the prevalence of growing pains varies with indicators of fatty acid exposures.
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Dietary patterns at 6, 15 and 24 months of age are associated with IQ at 8 years of age.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
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Diet supplies the nutrients needed for the development of neural tissues that occurs over the first 2 years of life. Our aim was to examine associations between dietary patterns at 6, 15 and 24 months and intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 8 years. Participants were enrolled in an observational birth cohort (ALSPAC study, n = 7,097). Dietary data was collected by questionnaire and patterns were extracted at each time using principal component analysis. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at 8 years. Associations between dietary patterns and IQ were examined in regression analyses adjusted for potential confounding and by propensity score matching, with data imputation for missing values. At all ages, higher scores on a Discretionary pattern (characterized by biscuits, chocolate, sweets, soda, crisps) were associated with 1-2 point lower IQ. A Breastfeeding pattern at 6 months and Home-made contemporary patterns at 15 and 24 months (herbs, legumes, cheese, raw fruit and vegetables) were associated with 1-to-2 point higher IQ. A Home-made traditional pattern (meat, cooked vegetables, desserts) at 6 months was positively associated with higher IQ scores, but there was no association with similar patterns at 15 or 24 months. Negative associations were found with patterns characterized by Ready-prepared baby foods at 6 and 15 months and positive associations with a Ready-to-eat foods pattern at 24 months. Propensity score analyses were consistent with regression analyses. This study suggests that dietary patterns from 6 to 24 months may have a small but persistent effect on IQ at 8 years.
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Nutritional intake and dietary patterns in pregnancy: a longitudinal study of women with lifetime eating disorders.
Br. J. Nutr.
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There is limited knowledge about dietary patterns and nutrient/food intake during pregnancy in women with lifetime eating disorders (ED). The objective of the present study was to determine patterns of food and nutrient intake in women with lifetime ED as part of an existing longitudinal population-based cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Women with singleton pregnancies and no lifetime psychiatric disorders other than ED (n 9723) were compared with women who reported lifetime (ever) ED: (anorexia nervosa (AN, n 151), bulimia nervosa (BN, n 186) or both (AN+BN, n 77)). Women reported usual food consumption using a FFQ at 32 weeks of gestation. Nutrient intakes, frequency of consumption of food groups and overall dietary patterns were examined. Women with lifetime ED were compared with control women using linear regression and logistic regression (as appropriate) after adjustment for relevant covariates, and for multiple comparisons. Women with lifetime ED scored higher on the vegetarian dietary pattern; they had a lower intake of meat, which was compensated by a higher consumption of soya products and pulses compared with the controls. Lifetime AN increased the risk for a high ( ? 2500 g/week) caffeine consumption in pregnancy. No deficiencies in mineral and vitamin intake were evident across the groups, although small differences were observed in macronutrient intakes. In conclusion, despite some differences in food group consumption, women with lifetime ED had similar patterns of nutrient intake to healthy controls. Important differences in relation to meat eating and vegetarianism were highlighted, as well as high caffeine consumption. These differences might have an important impact on fetal development.
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Chronic disabling fatigue at age 13 and association with family adversity.
Pediatrics
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1) Estimate the prevalence of chronic disabling fatigue at age 13, and 2) investigate associations with early family adversity, using a population-based birth cohort study.
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Germline melanocortin-1-receptor genotype is associated with severity of cutaneous phenotype in congenital melanocytic nevi: a role for MC1R in human fetal development.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
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Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are pigmented birthmarks that affect up to 80% of the skin surface area. The increased frequency of CMN in families of severely affected individuals is suggestive of a predisposing germline genotype. We noted a high prevalence of red hair in affected families, and considered a role for MC1R in this condition. A cohort of 166 CMN subjects underwent pigmentary phenotyping, with MC1R genotyping in 113. Results were compared with a local control group of 60 unrelated children and with 300 UK children without CMN. CMN subjects had higher prevalences of red hair and a red-haired parent than local controls and had a higher rate of compound heterozygosity and homozygosity for MC1R variants. The presence of a V92M or R allele (D84E, R151C, R160W, D294H) was associated with increasing size of the CMN, implying a growth-promoting effect of these alleles. Unexpectedly, the V92M and R151C alleles were also strongly associated with birth weight in the CMN cohort, a finding confirmed in the control group. The effect of germline MC1R genotype on development and severity of CMN led us to investigate potential broader effects on growth, revealing a role for MC1R in normal fetal development.
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Time outdoors and physical activity as predictors of incident myopia in childhood: a prospective cohort study.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
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Time spent in "sports/outdoor activity" has shown a negative association with incident myopia during childhood. We investigated the association of incident myopia with time spent outdoors and physical activity separately.
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The associations between feeding difficulties and behaviours and dietary patterns at 2 years of age: the ALSPAC cohort.
Matern Child Nutr
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Little is known about the dietary patterns of toddlers. This period of life is important for forming good dietary habits later in life. Using dietary data collected via food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at 2 years of age, we examined the dietary patterns of children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Principal component analysis was performed for 9599 children and three patterns were extracted: family foods associated with traditional British family foods such as meat, fish, puddings, potatoes and vegetables; sweet and easy associated with foods high in sugar (sweets, chocolate, fizzy drinks, flavoured milks) and foods requiring little preparation (crisps, potatoes, baked beans, peas, soup); health conscious associated with fruit, vegetables, eggs, nuts and juices. We found clear associations between dietary pattern scores and socio-demographic variables, with maternal education being the most important. Higher levels of education were associated with higher scores on both the family foods and the health conscious patterns, and decreased scores on the sweet and easy pattern. Relationships were evident between dietary pattern scores and various feeding difficulties and behaviours. Notably, children who were introduced late to lumpy (chewy) solids (after 9 months) scored lower on both the family foods and the health conscious patterns. Further analyses are required to determine the temporal relationship between perceived feeding difficulties and behaviours, and it will be important to assess the contribution of the age of introduction to lumpy solids to these relationships.
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An index measuring adherence to complementary feeding guidelines has convergent validity as a measure of infant diet quality.
J. Nutr.
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The complementary feeding period is an important stage of child development. The study aim was to develop an index reflecting the degree of adherence to complementary feeding guidelines, evaluate its convergent validity, and explore associations with socio-demographic factors and dietary pattern scores in childhood. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 6065) using parent-completed dietary questionnaires at 6 mo of age, socio-demographic information, and dietary patterns derived by principal component analysis at age 3 y. The Complementary Feeding Utility Index (CFUI) consists of 14 components: breastfeeding duration, feeding to appetite, timing of introduction to solids, exposure to iron-rich cereals, fruit and vegetable intake, exposure to high-fat/-salt/-sugar foods including sugary drinks, food texture, and meal/snack frequency. Regression analyses were undertaken to investigate associations between index scores, socio-demographic factors, food and nutrient intakes, and dietary pattern scores at age 3 y. Milk and food intake at 6 mo and nutrient intake at 8 mo of age varied across quintiles of index score in largely the expected directions. Associations were found among index score, maternal age, education, social class, maternal smoking history, and prepregnancy BMI. After adjustment for socio-demographic factors, the index score was associated with "processed" [? = -0.234 (95% CI = -0.260, -0.209)] and "healthy" [? = 0.185 (95% CI = 0.155, 0.215)] dietary pattern scores at age 3 y. The CFUI is able to discriminate across food intake, nutrient intake, and socio-demographic factors and is associated with later dietary patterns.
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Characterization of transition diets spanning infancy and toddlerhood: a novel, multiple-time-point application of principal components analysis.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
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The portrayal of diet over time is a natural progression from the characterization of diet at single time points. The transition dietary period, a dynamic period of rapid dietary change spanning infancy and toddlerhood when children shift from a milk-based to a food-based diet, has not been characterized.
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DNA methylation patterns in cord blood DNA and body size in childhood.
PLoS ONE
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Epigenetic markings acquired in early life may have phenotypic consequences later in development through their role in transcriptional regulation with relevance to the developmental origins of diseases including obesity. The goal of this study was to investigate whether DNA methylation levels at birth are associated with body size later in childhood.
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Do grandmaternal smoking patterns influence the aetiology of childhood asthma?
Chest
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ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Animal data suggest that tobacco smoke exposure of a mother when she is in utero influences DNA methylation patterns in her offspring and that there is an effect on the respiratory system, particularly airway responsiveness. The only study in humans suggests that there is a similar effect on asthma. The present study tests whether an association with respiratory problems can be confirmed in a large population study, and to determine whether in utero exposure of the father has similar effects on his offspring. METHODS Information from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children was used to compare the offspring of women and of men who had themselves been exposed to cigarette smoke in utero; separate analyses were performed for children of smoking and of non-smoking women. The outcome measures were: trajectories of history of early wheezing, doctor diagnosed asthma by seven years and results of lung function and methacholine challenge tests at eight years. A variety of social and environmental factors were taken into account; offspring sexes were examined separately. RESULTS There was no association with any outcome in relation to maternal prenatal exposure. There was some evidence of an increase in asthma risk with paternal prenatal exposure when the study mother was a non-smoker: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.17[95% CI 0.97,1.41]. This was particularly strong for girls (AOR=1.39[95% CI 1.04, 1.86]). CONCLUSIONS We did not find that maternal prenatal exposure to her mothers smoking had any effect on her childrens outcomes tested. There was suggestive evidence of paternal prenatal exposure being associated with asthma and persistent wheezing in the grand-daughters.
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