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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Omentin changes following bariatric surgery and predictive links with biomarkers for risk of cardiovascular disease.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Although no receptor has yet been identified, changes in circulating levels of the adipokine designated as Omentin have been demonstrated in obesity and related comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and chronic inflammation.
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Complement receptors C5aR and C5L2 are associated with metabolic profile, sex hormones, and liver enzymes in obese women pre- and postbariatric surgery.
J Obes
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Obesity is associated with metabolic dysfunction with sex differences and chronic, low-grade inflammation.We proposed that hepatic expression of immune complement C3 related receptors (C3aR, C5aR, and C5L2) would be associated with preor postmenopausal status and metabolic profile in severely obese women. We hypothesized that C5L2/C5aR ratio, potentially influencing the ASP/C5L2 metabolic versus C5a/C5aR immune response, would predictmetabolic profiles after weight loss surgery.
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Complement receptors C5aR and C5L2 are associated with metabolic profile, sex hormones, and liver enzymes in obese women pre- and postbariatric surgery.
J Obes
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Obesity is associated with metabolic dysfunction with sex differences and chronic, low-grade inflammation. We proposed that hepatic expression of immune complement C3 related receptors (C3aR, C5aR, and C5L2) would be associated with pre- or postmenopausal status and metabolic profile in severely obese women. We hypothesized that C5L2/C5aR ratio, potentially influencing the ASP/C5L2 metabolic versus C5a/C5aR immune response, would predict metabolic profiles after weight loss surgery.
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Cross-sectional associations of acylation stimulating protein (ASP) and adipose tissue gene expression with estradiol and progesterone in pre- and postmenopausal women.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Sex steroid hormones play an important regulatory role in fat metabolism and obesity. We hypothesized involvement of interactions between ovarian hormones with acylation stimulating protein (ASP).
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Association of immune and metabolic receptors C5aR and C5L2 with adiposity in women.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Adipose tissue receptors C5aR and C5L2 and their heterodimerization/functionality and interaction with ligands C5a and acylation stimulating protein (ASP) have been evaluated in cell and rodent studies. Their contribution to obesity factors in humans remains unclear. We hypothesized that C5a receptors, classically required for host defense, are also associated with adiposity. Anthropometry and fasting blood parameters were measured in 136 women divided by body mass index (BMI): normal/overweight (?30?kg/m(2); n = 34), obese I (?45?kg/m(2); n = 33), obese II (?51?kg/m(2); n = 33), and obese III (?80?kg/m(2); n = 36). Subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue C5aR and C5L2 expression were analysed. C5L2 expression was comparable between subcutaneous and omental across all BMI groups. Plasma ASP and ASP/omental C5L2 expression increased with BMI (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, resp.). While plasma C5a was unchanged, C5aR expression decreased with increasing BMI in subcutaneous and omental tissues (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, resp.), with subcutaneous omental depots. Omental C5L2/C5aR ratio increased with BMI (P < 0.01) with correlations between C5L2/C5aR and waist circumference, HDL-C, and adiponectin. Tissue and BMI differences in receptors and ligands, particularly in omental, suggest relationship to metabolic disturbances and highlight adipose-immune interactions.
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C5aR and C5L2 act in concert to balance immunometabolism in adipose tissue.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Recent studies suggested that the immunometabolic receptors; C5aR and C5L2, constitutively self-associate into homo-/heterodimers and that acylation stimulating protein (ASP/C3adesArg) or C5a treatment of adipocytes increased their colocalization. The present study evaluates the C5aR contribution in adipocytes to the metabolic and immune responses elicited by ligand stimulation. The effects of C5a, ASP, and insulin on cytokine production, triglyceride synthesis (TGS), and key signaling pathways were evaluated in isolated primary adipocytes and cultured 3T3-L1 differentiated adipocytes. In addition, mRNA expression of IRS1 and PGC1? was compared in adipose tissue samples from WT vs. C5aRKO mice. Both C5a and ASP directly increased MCP-1 (238±4%; P<0.001, and 377±2% vs. basal 100%; P<0.001, respectively) and KC (413±11%; P<0.001, and 529±16%; P<0.001 vs. basal 100%, respectively) secretion, TGS (131±1%; P<0.001, and 152±6%; P<0.001, vs. basal 100% respectively), and Akt/NF?B phosphorylation pathways in adipocytes. However, in C5aRKO adipocytes, C5a effects were disrupted, while stimulatory effects of ASP were mostly maintained. Addition of C5a completely blocked ASP signaling and activity in both C5aRKO and WT adipocytes as well as 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, C5aRKO adipocytes revealed impaired insulin stimulation of cytokine production, with partial impairment of signaling and TGS stimulation, consistent with decreased IRS1 and PGC1? mRNA expression in adipose tissue. These observations indicate the importance of C5aR in adipose tissue metabolism and immunity, which may be regulated through heterodimerization with C5L2.
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Lack of causal relationship between leukocyte telomere length and coronary heart disease.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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To investigate the association between genetic variation in telomerase RNA component (TERC) and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).
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Increased vaspin levels are associated with beneficial metabolic outcome pre- and post-bariatric surgery.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Vaspin (visceral-adipose-tissue-derived-serine-protease-inhibitor) is a recently identified adipokine with putative insulin-sensitizing properties. Plasma vaspin responses to surgery-induced weight loss are sparse and contradictory.
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Acylation stimulating protein, complement C3 and lipid metabolism in ketosis-prone diabetic subjects.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ketosis-prone diabetes (KPDM) is new-onset diabetic ketoacidosis without precipitating factors in non-type 1 diabetic patients; after management, some are withdrawn from exogenous insulin, although determining factors remain unclear.
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Downregulation of complement C3 and C3aR expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese women.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The central component of the complement system, C3, is associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease however the underlying reasons are unknown. In the present study we evaluated gene expression of C3, the cleavage product C3a/C3adesArg and its cognate receptor C3aR in subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in women.
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Protective role for properdin in progression of experimental murine atherosclerosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Genetic, dietary and immune factors contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in humans and mice. Complement activation is an integral part of the innate immune defence but also shapes cellular responses and influences directly triglyceride synthesis. Deficiency of Factor B of the alternative pathway (AP) of complement is beneficial in LDLR(-/-) mice fed a high fat diet. The serum glycoprotein properdin is a key positive regulator of the AP but has not been studied in experimental atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis was assessed after feeding low fat (LFD) or high fat (HFD) Western type diets to newly generated LDLR(-/-) Properdin(KO) (LDLR(-/-)P(KO)) and LDLR-/-PWT mice. Lipids, lymphocytes and monocytes were similar among genotypes, genders and diets. Complement C3, but not C3adesarg, levels were enhanced in LDLR(-/-)P(KO) mice regardless of diet type or gender. Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were decreased in male LDLR(-/-)P(KO) fed a HFD compared with controls. All mice showed significant atherosclerotic burden in aortae and at aortic roots but male LDLR(-/-) mice fed a LFD were affected to the greatest extent by the absence of properdin. The protective effect of properdin expression was overwhelmed in both genders of LDLR(-/-)mice when fed a HFD. We conclude that properdin plays an unexpectedly beneficial role in the development and progression of early atherosclerotic lesions.
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Endoplasmic reticulum stress participates in aortic valve calcification in hypercholesterolemic animals.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Aortic valve (AV) calcification occurs via a pathophysiological process that includes lipoprotein deposition, inflammation, and osteoblastic differentiation of valvular interstitial cells. Here, we investigated the association between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and AV calcification.
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Chronic inhibition of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase 5 suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress in heart failure.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Inhibition of the cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) exerts profound beneficial effects on failing hearts. However, the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of PDE5 inhibition on heart failure are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether PDE5 inhibition decreases endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a key event in heart failure.
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Plasma gamma-glutamyltransferase is strongly determined by acylation stimulating protein levels independent of insulin resistance in patients with acute coronary syndrome.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Steatosis is a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome often associated with release of liver enzymes and inflammatory adipocytokines linked to cardiovascular risk. Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is one sensitive liver marker recently identified as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Mechanisms involved in enhanced hepatic lipogenesis causing steatosis are not yet identified and are usually linked to insulin resistance (IR). Acylation stimulating protein (ASP), a potent lipogenic factor, was recently shown to increase in patients with steatosis and was implicated in its pathogenesis.
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Obesity-inducing diet promotes acylation stimulating protein resistance.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Acylation stimulating protein (ASP) is an adipokine derived from the immune complement system that is involved in energy homeostasis and inflammation. ASP acts on and correlates positively with postprandial fat clearance in healthy subjects. However, in obesity, ASP levels are elevated and correlate inversely with fat clearance, indicative of a potential resistance to ASP. Using a mouse model, we hypothesized that, over time, diet-induced obesity (DIO) would result in development of ASP insensitivity, as compared to chow-fed animals as controls. Injection of recombinant ASP in DIO mice failed to accelerate fat clearance to the same extent as in chow-fed mice. DIO mice exhibited higher basal levels of plasma ASP and, after 30weeks of diet, showed lower ASP receptor (C5L2) expression in adipose tissue compared to chow-fed mice. Additionally, ex vivo ASP stimulation failed to induce normal Ser(473)AKT phosphorylation in adipose tissue from DIO mice VS chow-fed controls. These results demonstrate for the first time a state of diet-induced ASP resistance. Changes in the ASP-C5L2 pathway dynamics in obesity could alter the development of obesity and co-morbidities such as atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes.
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Differential methylation in glucoregulatory genes of offspring born before vs. after maternal gastrointestinal bypass surgery.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Obesity and overnutrition during pregnancy affect fetal programming of adult disease. Children born after maternal bariatric gastrointestinal bypass surgery (AMS) are less obese and exhibit improved cardiometabolic risk profiles carried into adulthood compared with siblings born before maternal surgery (BMS). This study was designed to analyze the impact of maternal weight loss surgery on methylation levels of genes involved in cardiometabolic pathways in BMS and AMS offspring. Differential methylation analysis between a sibling cohort of 25 BMS and 25 AMS (2-25 y-old) offspring from 20 mothers was conducted to identify biological functions and pathways potentially involved in the improved cardiometabolic profile found in AMS compared with BMS offspring. Links between gene methylation and expression levels were assessed by correlating genomic findings with plasma markers of insulin resistance (fasting insulin and homeostatic model of insulin resistance). A total of 5,698 genes were differentially methylated between BMS and AMS siblings, exhibiting a preponderance of glucoregulatory, inflammatory, and vascular disease genes. Statistically significant correlations between gene methylation levels and gene expression and plasma markers of insulin resistance were consistent with metabolic improvements in AMS offspring, reflected in genes involved in diabetes-related cardiometabolic pathways. This unique clinical study demonstrates that effective treatment of a maternal phenotype is durably detectable in the methylome and transcriptome of subsequent offspring.
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Changes in predicted cardiovascular disease risk after biliopancreatic diversion surgery in severely obese patients.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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To determine the impact of biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) surgery on cardiovascular risk profile and predicted cardiovascular risk in severely obese patients.
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Acute and chronic effects of biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch surgery on plasma visfatin and apelin levels in patients with severe obesity.
Obes Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Visfatin is an adipokine linked to obesity and inflammation, and it has insulin-mimetic properties. Apelin is an adipokine with positive cardiac inotropic effects, and it may be related to inflammatory molecules. Variations in plasma visfatin and apelin levels following bariatric surgery remain controversial.
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Methylation and expression of immune and inflammatory genes in the offspring of bariatric bypass surgery patients.
J Obes
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Maternal obesity, excess weight gain and overnutrition during pregnancy increase risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease in the offspring. Maternal biliopancreatic diversion is an effective treatment for severe obesity and is beneficial for offspring born after maternal surgery (AMS). These offspring exhibit lower severe obesity prevalence and improved cardiometabolic risk factors including inflammatory marker compared to siblings born before maternal surgery (BMS).
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Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and thinness in Cameroon urban children and adolescents.
J Obes
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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This study examined the prevalence of thinness, overweight, and obesity in Cameroon children ranging from 8 to 15 years old using several published references as evaluation tools.
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Paradoxical glucose-sensitizing yet proinflammatory effects of acute ASP administration in mice.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Acylation stimulating protein (ASP) is an adipokine derived from the immune complement system, which stimulates fat storage and is typically increased in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Using a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model, the acute effects of ASP on energy metabolism and inflammatory processes in vivo were evaluated. We hypothesized that ASP would specifically exert proinflammatory effects. C57Bl/6 wild-type mice were put on a high-fat-high-sucrose diet for 12 weeks. Mice were then subjected to both glucose and insulin tolerance tests, each manipulation being preceded by recombinant ASP or vehicle (control) bolus injection. ASP supplementation increased whole-body glucose excursion, and this was accomplished with reduced concomitant insulin levels. However, ASP did not directly alter insulin sensitivity. ASP supplementation induced a proinflammatory phenotype, with higher levels of cytokines including IL-6 and TNF-? in plasma and in adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle mRNA. Additionally, ASP increased M1 macrophage content of these tissues. ASP exerted a direct concentration-dependent role in the migration and M1 activation of cultured macrophages. Altogether, the in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrate that ASP plays a role in both energy metabolism and inflammation, with paradoxical whole-body glucose-sensitizing yet proinflammatory effects.
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Effects of sugar-sweetened beverages on plasma acylation stimulating protein, leptin and adiponectin: Relationships with Metabolic Outcomes.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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The effects of fructose and glucose consumption on plasma acylation stimulating protein (ASP), adiponectin, and leptin concentrations relative to energy intake, body weight, adiposity, circulating triglycerides, and insulin sensitivity were determined.
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Relationship of C5L2 receptor to skeletal muscle substrate utilization.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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To investigate the role of Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP) receptor C5L2 in skeletal muscle fatty acid accumulation and metabolism as well as insulin sensitivity in both mice and human models of diet-induced insulin resistance.
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Elevated visfatin levels in obese children are related to proinflammatory factors.
J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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Obesity and related metabolic diseases are associated with a state of chronic low-grade inflammation,which is characterized by abnormal cytokine production and increased synthesis of proinflammatory proteins.Recent studies have indicated that visfatin is both an adipokine and an inflammatory cytokine.
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Effect of the Mediterranean diet on plasma adipokine concentrations in men with metabolic syndrome.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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While a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MedDiet) has been associated with favorable changes in several features of metabolic syndrome (MetS), its impact on plasma adipokine concentrations remains largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of the MedDiet consumed under controlled feeding conditions, without (-WL) and with weight loss (+WL), on plasma adipokine concentrations in adult men with MetS (NCEP-ATP III).
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C5a receptor deficiency alters energy utilization and fat storage.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To investigate the impact of whole body C5a receptor (C5aR) deficiency on energy metabolism and fat storage.
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Deficiency of C5L2 increases macrophage infiltration and alters adipose tissue function in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Obesity is considered as a systemic chronic low grade inflammation characterized by increased serum pro-inflammatory proteins and accumulation of macrophages within white adipose tissue (WAT) of obese patients. C5L2, a 7-transmembrane receptor, serves a dual function, binding the lipogenic hormone acylation stimulating protein (ASP), and C5a, involved in innate immunity.
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High-dose insulin therapy reduces postoperative liver dysfunction and complications in liver resection patients through reduced apoptosis and altered inflammation.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2011
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An exaggerated inflammatory response in patients undergoing major liver resection coupled with poor nutrition diminishes liver regenerative capacity and increases the risk of postoperative complications.
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Plasma tissue kallikrein level is negatively associated with incident and recurrent stroke: a multicenter case-control study in China.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
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Tissue kallikrein (TK) cleaves kininogen to produce the potent bioactive compounds kinin and bradykinin, which lower blood pressure and protect the heart, kidneys, and blood vessels. Reduction in TK levels is associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes in animal models. In this study, we investigated the association of TK levels with event-free survival over 5 years in Chinese first-ever stroke patients.
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Motilin stimulates preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation and adipocyte lipid storage.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2011
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Motilin is a circulating gastrointestinal peptide secreted primarily by duodenal mucosal M cells and recognized for its prokinetic effects on gastrointestinal tissues. Little information is available regarding effects on insulin/glucose homeostasis or adipocyte function. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of motilin on adipocyte proliferation, differentiation, lipolysis, and macronutrient uptake in adipocytes. 3T3-L1 cells and primary rat adipocytes were treated acutely and chronically with varying motilin concentrations, and effects were compared with vehicle alone (control), set as 100% for all assays. In preadipocytes, motilin stimulated proliferation ([(3)H]thymidine incorporation) and mitochondrial activity (141 ± 10%, P < 0.001 and 158 ± 10%, respectively, P < 0.001), in a concentration-dependent manner. Chronic supplementation with motilin during differentiation further increased lipogenesis (Oil red O staining 191 ± 27%, P < 0.05) and was associated with an upregulation of PPAR? (148 ± 8%, P < 0.01), C/EBP? (142 ± 17%, P < 0.05), and Cav3 (166 ± 20%, P < 0.05) expression. In mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes motilin increased fatty acid uptake/incorporation (? 202 ± 12%; P < 0.01) and glucose uptake (146 ± 9% P < 0.05) and decreased net fatty acid release (maximal -31%, P < 0.05) without influencing total lipolysis (glycerol release). Similar effects were obtained in primary rat adipocytes. Motilin acutely increased expression of PPAR?, CEBP?, DGAT1, and CD36 while decreasing adiponectin mRNA and secretion. In human adipose tissue, motilin receptor GPR38 correlated with HOMA-IR and GHSR1 (r = 0.876, P < 0.0001). Motilin binding and fatty acid incorporation into adipocytes were inhibited by antagonists MB10 and [D-lys3]-GRP6 and PI 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin. Taken together, these results suggest that motilin may directly influence adipocyte functions by stimulating energy storage.
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Association between polymorphisms of CYP2J2 and EPHX2 genes and risk of coronary artery disease.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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Common polymorphisms within cytochrome P450 2J2 (CYP2J2) and epoxide hydrolase 2 (EPHX2), which are involved in the generation or hydrolysis of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, may determine susceptibility to the development of cardiovascular disease. To derive a more precise estimation of their relationship, we undertook a case-control study as well as a meta-analysis to assess possible associations of coronary artery disease (CAD) risk with CYP2J2 and EPHX2 genetic variations.
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The role of complement in the development and manifestation of murine atherogenic inflammation: novel avenues.
J Innate Immun
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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Atherosclerosis is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease which manifests in the arterial vascular tree. It is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and contributes significantly to mortality in the developed world. Triggers for this inflammatory process are elevated levels of cholesterol, bacterial infection and obesity. The immune response in atherosclerosis is essentially pro-atherogenic, leading to lipid accumulation and cellular changes within the arterial wall. Small-animal models of atherosclerosis are used to study the relevance of candidate factors (cells, genes, diets) in the development and progression of lesions. From a multidisciplinary viewpoint, there are challenges and limitations to this approach. Activation of complement determines or modifies the outcome of acute and chronic inflammation. This review dissects the role of complement in the early development as well as the progressive manifestation of murine atherosclerosis and the advances in knowledge provided by the use of specific mouse models. It gives a critical overview of existing models, analyses seemingly conflicting results obtained with complement-deficient mouse models, highlights the importance of interrelationships between pro-coagulpant activity, adipose tissue, macrophages and complement, and uncovers exciting avenues of topical research.
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Acute injection of ASP in the third ventricle inhibits food intake and locomotor activity in rats.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP; also known as C3adesArg) stimulates triglyceride synthesis and glucose transport via interaction with its receptor C5L2, which is expressed peripherally (adipose tissue, muscle) and centrally. Previous studies have shown that ASP-deficient mice (C3KO) and C5L2-deficient mice (C5L2KO) are hyperphagic (59 to 229% increase, P < 0.0001), which is counterbalanced by increased energy expenditure measured as oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) and a lower RQ. The aim of the present study was to evaluate ASPs effect on food intake, energy expenditure, and neuropeptide expression. Male rats were surgically implanted with intracerebroventricular (icv) cannulas directed toward the third ventricle. After a 5-h fast, rats were injected, and food intake was assessed at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 16, 24, and 48 h, with a 5- to 7-day washout period between each injection. Acute icv injections of ASP (0.3-1,065 pmol) had a time-dependent effect on decreasing food intake by 20 to 57% (P < 0.05). Decreases were detected by 30 min (maximum 57%, P < 0.01) and at the highest dose effects extended to 48 h (19%, P < 0.05, 24- to 48-h period). Daily body weight gain was decreased by 131% over the first 24 h and 29% over the second 24 h (P < 0.05). A conditioned taste aversion test indicated that there was no malaise. Furthermore, acute ASP injection affected energy substrate usage, demonstrated by decreased Vo(2) and RQ (P < 0.05; implicating greater fatty acid usage), with a 49% decrease in total activity over 24 h (P < 0.05). ASP administration also increased anorexic neuropeptide POMC expression (44%) in the arcuate nucleus, with no change in NPY. Altogether ASP may have central in addition to peripheral effects.
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Comparison between arterial and venous sampling of circulating hormones, substrates and peptides in severe obesity.
Clin Invest Med
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Severely obese patients are being encountered more frequently in clinical practice. Factors implicated in the relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disease may be measured from a blood sample obtained through arterial access in a cardiology setting, such as during cardiac catheterization or heart surgery. The comparability of a given sample site (arterial vs. venous) with regards to blood parameters is yet to be established.
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Abnormal adipokines associated with various types of obesity in Chinese children and adolescents.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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To explore the role of adipokines including insulin, resistin, leptin, adiponectin, acylation stimulating protein (ASP) and complement C3 (C3) in various types of obesity (peripheral obesity, abdominal obesity and mixed obesity) in Chinese children and adolescents, and their relationships with body size and pubertal development.
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The molecular mechanism of acylation stimulating protein regulation of adipophilin and perilipin expression: involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phospholipase C.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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The novel adipokine acylation stimulating protein (ASP) is involved in lipid metabolism and obesity-related disorders. Adipophilin and perilipin, two members of the lipid droplet protein family, participate not only in fat storage within adipocytes, but also in ectopic lipid deposition in the form of cytoplasmic triglyceride (TG) droplets within many types of mammalian cells. During differentiation to mature adipocytes, mechanisms controlling the synthesis and turnover of these lipid droplet proteins are only partially understood, the mechanisms regulating gene/protein expression as yet unidentified. In our previous study, ASP has been shown to regulate adipophilin and perilipin expression to facilitate TG synthesis during 3T3-L1 cell differentiation. Our aim in this study was to provide insight into the physiological importance of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and phospholipase C (PLC) in ASP-triggered alteration of adipophilin and perilipin expression. We found that acute (2.5?h) inhibition of PLC or PI3K results in a decrease in mRNA and protein of perilipin and adipophilin at any time during differentiation. The fact that there is such a rapid change even with mRNA levels suggests a rapid turnover of both mRNA and protein independent of a direct ASP effect. Also, the presence of these inhibitors blocked the ASP stimulatory effects with a maximal decrease in gene and protein expression of adipophilin (-45% and -60%, respectively, P?
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The therapeutic role of very low-density lipoprotein receptor gene in hyperlipidemia in type 2 diabetic rats.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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Hyperlipidemia is a common feature of type 2 diabetes and is related to cardiovascular disease. The very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) binds to and internalizes triglyceride-rich lipoproteins with high specificity. In this study, we evaluated the role of VLDLR in hyperlipidemia in type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by injection of low-dose streptozotocin coupled with a high-fat diet. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors encoding the human VLDLR gene (rAAV·VLDLR) were intravenously administered to diabetic rats. Results showed that in vivo, total VLDLR mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased in skeletal muscle (type I VLDLR mainly reduced) and adipose tissue (type II VLDLR mainly reduced) but not in heart in hypercholesterolemic, hypertriglyceridemic diabetic rats compared with normal rats. And in vitro, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, insulin-induced (1.0?mmol/liter) insulin resistance significantly decreased VLDLR mRNA expression. In rats, rAAV·VLDLR delivery resulted in a reduction in serum cholesterol and triglyceride that lasted for the duration of the study (12 weeks). Fasting blood insulin was significantly lower in the rAAV·VLDLR group versus untreated diabetic rats although fasting blood glucose levels were not significantly different in both groups at the end of the study. rAAV·VLDLR-treated animals had significantly increased lipoprotein lipase activity and reduced aortic atherosclerosis. Taken together, our data suggest that type 2 diabetes and related insulin resistance manifest decreased VLDLR with elevated serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and overexpression of VLDLR through a single injection of rAAV·VLDLR reversed these effects and consequentially attenuated aorta atherosclerotic plaque progression.
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Right coronary artery fistula to left ventricle complicated with huge coronary artery aneurysm.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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Congenital coronary artery fistula (CAF) with huge coronary artery aneurysm is a very rare condition. In this paper, we describe a 26-year-old asymptomatic male patient with right coronary artery (RCA) to the left ventricle fistula with a huge coronary artery aneurysm which was diagnosed by multidetector computed tomography and coronary angiography. The patient received surgical treatment for coronary artery after diagnosis. Both RCA and a giant aneurysm were excised; surgical closure of CAF and coronary artery bypass grafting were performed on this patient. Two months after surgery, the enlarged left ventricle returned to normal as evaluated by echocardiography.
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Circulating proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) regulates VLDLR protein and triglyceride accumulation in visceral adipose tissue.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) promotes the degradation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and its gene is the third locus implicated in familial hypercholesterolemia. Herein, we investigated the role of PCSK9 in adipose tissue metabolism.
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Effect of desacyl ghrelin, obestatin and related peptides on triglyceride storage, metabolism and GHSR signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Acyl-ghrelin (AG), desacyl-ghrelin (DAG) and obestatin are all derived from the same gene transcript; however their plasma levels do not necessarily change in parallel. The influence of these peptides towards the development of obesity and their direct effects on adipocyte physiology has not been thoroughly investigated. This study was designed to evaluate the direct effects of peptides of the ghrelin family on preadipocyte proliferation, differentiation and adipocyte lipid and glucose metabolism in 3T3-L1 cells. 3T3 cells were treated with physiological peptide concentrations for 1?h to 9 days, and the relevant assays measured. In preadipocytes, AG, GHRP-6 and DAG stimulated proliferation, measured as (3)H-thymidine incorporation (up to 200%, P?
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Evaluation of chylomicron effect on ASP production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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In the past few years, there has been increasing interest in the production and physiological role of acylation-stimulating protein (ASP), identical to C3adesArg, a product of the alternative complement pathway generated through C3 cleavage. Recent studies in C3 (-/-) mice that are ASP deficient have demonstrated a role for ASP in postprandial triglyceride clearance and fat storage. The aim of the present study was to establish a cell model and sensitive ELISA assay for the evaluation of ASP production using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes, then cultured in different media such as serum-free (SF), Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium (DMEM)/F12 + 10% fetal calf serum (FBS), and at varying concentrations of chylomicrons and insulin + chylomicrons up to 48 h. ASP production in SF and DMEM/F12 + 10% FBS was compared. Chylomicrons stimulated ASP production in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. By contrast, chylomicron treatment had no effect on the production of C3, the precursor protein of ASP, which was constant over 48 h. Addition of insulin (100 nM) to a low-dose of chylomicrons (100 µg TG/ml) significantly increased ASP production compared with chylomicrons alone at 48 h (P < 0.001). Furthermore, addition of insulin significantly increased C3 secretion at both 18 and 48 h of incubation (P < 0.05, P < 0.001, respectively). Overall, the proportion of ASP to C3 remained constant, indicating no change in the ratio of C3 cleaved to generate ASP. This study demonstrated that 3T3-L1 adipocyte is a useful model for the evaluation of C3 secretion and ASP production by using a sensitive mouse-specific ELISA assay. The stimulation of ASP production with chylomicrons demonstrates a physiologically relevant response, and provides a strategy for further studies on ASP production and function.
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Complement C3 and cleavage products in cardiometabolic risk.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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This review summarizes available evidence on the role of serum complement component 3 (C3), produced by liver, adipocytes and activated macrophages at inflammation sites, and C3 cleavage products linking lipoproteins and metabolism to immunity. C3 and cleavage products are modified in several associated metabolic disorders including obesity, insulin resistance, type-2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases. Circulating C3 is independently and linearly associated with serum triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP), waist circumference and in some populations inversely with current smoking. The complement cascade is activated during myocardial ischemia and likely mediates immune and inflammatory responses in ischemic myocardium. Serum complement activation is elevated in unstable rather than stable angina pectoris suggesting added contribution to damage extension in acute coronary syndromes. In logistic regression models for incident metabolic syndrome (MetS), increasing C3 concentrations predicted MetS in women, after adjusting for continuous values of 3 major MetS components and other confounders, with a relative risk similar in magnitude to an established component suggesting elevated C3 likely constitutes part of the cluster of MetS in women. C3 interacts with MetS in men for independently conferring risk of incident type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD). In women, though C3 is equally predictive of cardiometabolic risk, it is less so additively to MetS components or to CRP. Evidence suggests that circulating C3 might serve as a signal for an immune process that enhances - via mediation of increased apolipoprotein (apo) E levels - the development of dysfunctional apoA-I particles rendering them diabetogenic and atherogenic in populations prone to MetS or subsets of populations harboring impaired glucose tolerance. C3 activation also leads to production of chemoattractants C3a and C5a, and acylation stimulating protein (ASP, C3adesArg), a lipogenic hormone, which contribute additionally to the metabolic phenotypes generated. These observations have clinical and public health implications.
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Plasma adipokine and hormone changes in mountaineers on ascent to 5300 meters.
Wilderness Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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The current study evaluated multiple metabolic and inflammatory hormone responses in recreational climbers (7 men and 3 women, age 26-49 years) over 9 days. In particular, acylation-stimulating protein (ASP), which influences fat storage in adipose tissue, has not been measured at high altitude.
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Milk supplementation facilitates appetite control in obese women during weight loss: a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Dairy products provide Ca and protein which may facilitate appetite control. Conversely, weight loss is known to increase the motivation to eat. This randomised controlled trial verified the influence of milk supplementation on appetite markers during weight loss. Low Ca consumer women participated in a 6-month energy-restricted programme (-2508 kJ/d or -600 kcal/d) and received either a milk supplementation (1000 mg Ca/d) or an isoenergetic placebo (n 13 and 12, respectively). Fasting appetite sensations were assessed by visual analogue scales. Anthropometric parameters and fasting plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin and cortisol were measured as well. Both groups showed a significant weight loss (P < 0·0001). In the milk-supplemented group, a time x treatment interaction effect showed that weight loss with milk supplementation induced a smaller increase in desire to eat and hunger (P < 0·05). Unlike the placebo group, the milk-supplemented group showed a lower than predicted decrease in fullness (-17·1 v. -8·8; -2·7 v. 3·3 mm, P < 0·05, measured v. predicted values, respectively). Even after adjustment for fat mass loss, changes in ghrelin concentration predicted those in desire to eat (r 0·56, P < 0·01), hunger (r 0·45, P < 0·05) and fullness (r -0·40, P < 0·05). However, the study did not show a between-group difference in the change in ghrelin concentration in response to the intervention. These results show that milk supplementation attenuates the orexigenic effect of body weight loss.
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The role of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and cystatin C in ischemic stroke complicating atrial fibrillation.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2010
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This study examined the role of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cystatin C in ischemic stroke complicating atrial fibrillation (AF) and the relationship of systemic inflammation with this disease in order to identify AF patients who are at high risk of stroke and need optimal anticoagulant therapy. A total of 103 AF patients, simple (n=75) or complicated by ischemic stroke (n=28), and 112 control subjects were recruited. IL-6 level was detected by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Cystatin C and hsCRP levels were measured by means of a particle-enhanced immunonephelometric assay. The results showed that the AF patients had higher levels of hsCRP (P=0.004), IL-6 (P=0.000), and cystatin C (P=0.000) than control subjects. Plasma hsCRP level was increased in the AF patients with ischemic stroke as compared to the patients with simple AF (P=0.036). The AF patients who had the level of hsCRP exceeding 3.83 mg/L were at a higher risk than those with hsCRP level lower than 3.83 mg/L (P=0.030). After adjusting for other factors, cystatin C remained positively associated with IL-6 (r=0.613) and hsCRP (r=0.488). It was concluded that hsCRP is positively correlated with ischemic stroke complicating AF and may be a risk factor independent of other risk factors for AF. Elevated cystatin C level is also indicative of the increased risk of AF.
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Adiponectin and leptin metabolic biomarkers in chinese children and adolescents.
J Obes
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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Objective. To evaluate leptin and adiponectin as biomarkers of metabolic syndrome (MS) risk factors even in nonobese children/adolescents. Methods. Serum leptin, adiponectin, leptin:adiponectin ratio, lipids, glucose, and insulin concentrations as well as body size parameters and pubertal development were evaluated in a large population of Chinese children/adolescents (n = 3505, 6-18 years, 1722 girls and 1783 boys). Results. Leptin concentration increased while adiponectin decreased with obesity, both were influenced by pubertal development. Central obesity had an additive effect on leptin levels (above obesity alone). Leptin/adiponectin increased 8.4-fold and 3.2-fold in overweight/obesity, and 15.8- and 4.5-fold with obesity plus MS, in early and late puberty, respectively. Even in normal weight children/adolescents, higher leptin and lower adiponectin concentrations associated with increased risk profile. Conversely, overweight/obese with lower leptin or higher adiponectin concentrations had a less compromised metabolic profile. Conclusion. Leptin, adiponectin, and leptin:adiponectin ratio are informative biomarkers for obesity, central obesity, MS, and abnormal metabolic profile even in normal weight children/adolescents.
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The effects of acylation stimulating protein supplementation VS antibody neutralization on energy expenditure in wildtype mice.
BMC Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2010
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Acylation stimulating protein (ASP) is an adipogenic hormone that stimulates triglyceride (TG) synthesis and glucose transport in adipocytes. Previous studies have shown that ASP-deficient C3 knockout mice are hyperphagic yet lean, as they display increased oxygen consumption and fatty acid oxidation compared to wildtype mice. In the present study, antibodies against ASP (Anti-ASP) and human recombinant ASP (rASP) were tested in vitro and in vivo. Continuous administration for 4 weeks via osmotic mini-pump of Anti-ASP or rASP was evaluated in wildtype mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) to examine their effects on body weight, food intake and energy expenditure.
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[Throat infection, neck spinal disease, chest pain and cardiac response: a new clinical syndrome?].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2010
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To analyze the characteristics of a new clinical syndrome, including throat infection, neck spinal disease, chest pain and cardiac response.
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Cardiovascular and metabolic risk profile and acylation-stimulating protein levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome and effects of growth hormone treatment.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2010
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Reports on the cardiovascular and metabolic risk profile in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and the effects of GH treatment are scarce. Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) stimulates glucose uptake and triglyceride storage in adipose tissue.
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Downregulation of adipose glutathione S-transferase A4 leads to increased protein carbonylation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
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Peripheral insulin resistance is linked to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading in part to the production of reactive lipid aldehydes that modify the side chains of protein amino acids in a reaction termed protein carbonylation. The primary enzymatic method for lipid aldehyde detoxification is via glutathione S-transferase A4 (GSTA4) dependent glutathionylation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of GSTA4 and the role(s) of protein carbonylation in adipocyte function.
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Association of adipocyte genes with ASP expression: a microarray analysis of subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in morbidly obese subjects.
BMC Med Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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Prevalence of obesity is increasing to pandemic proportions. However, obese subjects differ in insulin resistance, adipokine production and co-morbidities. Based on fasting plasma analysis, obese subjects were grouped as Low Acylation Stimulating protein (ASP) and Triglyceride (TG) (LAT) vs High ASP and TG (HAT). Subcutaneous (SC) and omental (OM) adipose tissues (n = 21) were analysed by microarray, and biologic pathways in lipid metabolism and inflammation were specifically examined.
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Hormone and pharmaceutical regulation of ASP production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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Several studies have demonstrated increases in acylation stimulating protein (ASP), and precursor protein C3 in obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia, however the nature of the regulation is unknown. To evaluate chronic hormonal and pharmaceutical mediated changes in ASP and potential mechanisms, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with physiological concentrations of relevant hormones and drugs currently used in treatment of metabolic diseases for 48 h. Medium ASP production and C3 secretion were evaluated in relation to changes in adipocyte lipid metabolism (cellular triglyceride (TG) mass, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) release and real-time FA uptake). Chylomicrons increased ASP production (up to 411 +/- 133% P < 0.05), while leptin, triiodothyronine, and beta-blockers atenolol and propranolol had no effect. Dexamethasone, lovastatin, rosiglitazone and rimonabant decreased ASP production (-53 to -85%, P < 0.05), associated with a decrease in the precursor protein C3 (-37% to -65%, P < 0.01). By contrast, epinephrine, progesterone, testosterone, angiotensin II and metformin also decreased ASP (-54% to -100%, P < 0.05), but without change in precursor protein C3, suggesting a direct effect on convertase activity, possibly mediated by interference (except metformin) due to marked increases in NEFA (5.6-31-fold, increased P < 0.05). Both lovastatin and metformin induced decreases in ASP were also associated with decreased TG mass (maximal -60%, P < 0.05) and real-time FA uptake (maximum -75%, P < 0.05), suggesting a change in adipocyte differentiation status. These in vitro results are consistent with in vivo ASP profiles in subjects, and suggest that ASP may be regulated through precursor C3 availability, convertase activity and differentiation status.
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Acylation stimulating protein is higher in Inuit from Nunavik compared to a southern Quebec population.
Int J Circumpolar Health
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2009
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The Inuit of Nunavik in northern Quebec have a lower risk for ischemic heart disease (IHD) compared to Caucasian populations. Acylation stimulating protein (ASP), which is involved in the storage of dietary fat, may play a role. The objective of the study was to determine plasma concentration of ASP in an Inuit and a southern Quebec Caucasian population.
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Change in plasma acylation stimulating protein during euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp in overweight and obese postmenopausal women: a MONET study.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2009
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Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) has been shown to positively stimulate fatty acid esterification and glucose uptake in adipocytes. In vitro studies demonstrate that insulin stimulates ASP secretion from adipocytes. Individuals with obesity and/or metabolic disturbances (insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes) have increased plasma ASP.
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Recombinant C3adesArg/acylation stimulating protein (ASP) is highly bioactive: a critical evaluation of C5L2 binding and 3T3-L1 adipocyte activation.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2009
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C5L2 is a recently identified receptor for C5a/C5adesArg, C3a and C3adesArg (ASP). C5a/C5adesArg bind with high affinity, with no identified activation. By contrast, some studies demonstrate C3a/ASP binding/activation to C5L2; others do not. Our aim is to critically evaluate ASP/C3adesArg-C5L2 binding and bioactivity. Cell-associated fluorescent-ASP (Fl-ASP) binding to C5L2 increased from transiently transfected
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CD151 gene delivery after myocardial infarction promotes functional neovascularization and activates FAK signaling.
Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2009
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Our previous studies showed that tetraspanin CD151 promotes neovascularization in rat hindlimb and myocardial ischemia models. This study is to assess whether CD151 induces arteriogenesis and promotes functional neovascularization in a pig myocardial infarction model, and to determine the signaling pathways involved. CD151 cDNA and antiCD151 sequence were constructed into a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector. All 26 pigs used either were subjected to coronary artery ligation or did not undergo surgery. Eight wks after viral administration, the expression of CD151 protein was measured by Western blot. The densities of capillaries and arterioles were determined using immunohistochemistry. Regional myocardial perfusion and other myocardial functions were evaluated by (13)N-labeled NH(3) positron emission computed tomography ((13)N-NH(3) PET) and echocardiography. Western blot was performed for assessing the signaling mechanisms. Overexpression of CD151 markedly increased the densities of capillaries and arterioles, significantly enhanced the regional myocardial perfusion, reduced myocardial ischemia, and improved the myocardial contraction, wall motion, and wall thickness. Conversely, antiCD151 gene delivery reversed the above changes. In addition, CD151 activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-teminal kinase (JNK), phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), and endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS), and increased nitric oxide (NO) level. These findings demonstrate a robust role of CD151 in inducing and/or upregulating neovascularization. CD151-dependent neovascularization correlates with the activations of FAK, mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and PI3K signaling, suggesting that CD151 may promote neovascularization via MAPKs and PI3K pathways.
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A complement-dependent balance between hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury and liver regeneration in mice.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2009
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Massive liver resection and small-for-size liver transplantation pose a therapeutic challenge, due to increased susceptibility of the remnant/graft to ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) and impaired regeneration. We investigated the dual role of complement in IRI versus regeneration in mice. Complement component 3 (C3) deficiency and complement inhibition with complement receptor 2-complement receptor 1-related protein y (CR2-Crry, an inhibitor of C3 activation) provided protection from hepatic IRI, and while C3 deficiency also impaired liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy (PHx), the effect of CR2-Crry in this context was dose dependent. In a combined model of IRI and PHx, either C3 deficiency or high-dose CR2-Crry resulted in steatosis, severe hepatic injury, and high mortality, whereas low-dose CR2-Crry was protective and actually increased hepatic proliferative responses relative to control mice. Reconstitution experiments revealed an important role for the C3a degradation product acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) in the balance between inflammation/injury versus regeneration. Furthermore, liver regeneration was dependent on the putative ASP receptor, C5L2. Several potential mechanisms of hepatoprotection and recovery were identified in mice treated with low-dose CR2-Crry, including enhanced IL-6 expression and STAT3 activation, reduced hepatic ATP depletion, and attenuated oxidative stress. These data indicate that a threshold of complement activation, involving ASP and C5L2, promotes liver regeneration and suggest a balance between complement-dependent injury and regeneration.
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C5a- and ASP-mediated C5L2 activation, endocytosis and recycling are lost in S323I-C5L2 mutation.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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C5L2, a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), has been identified as an ASP (C3adesArg) and C5a receptor. Controversy exists regarding both ligand binding and functionality. ASP activation of C5L2 is proposed to regulate fat storage. C5L2 is also proposed as a decoy receptor for C5a, an inflammatory mediator, based on absence of Ca(2+) or chemotaxis changes.
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Racial difference in Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP) correlates to triglyceride in non-obese and obese African American and Caucasian women.
Nutr Metab (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP) has been shown to influence adipose tissue triglyceride (TG) storage. The aim was to examine ethnic differences in ASP and leptin levels in relation to lipid profiles and postprandial changes amongst African American (AA) and Caucasian American (CA) women matched for BMI.
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Small dense low-density lipoproteins and associated risk factors in patients with stroke.
Cerebrovasc. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2009
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Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are a heterogeneous group of particles, with small, dense particles being more atherogenic. It remains controversial whether elevated plasma levels of small dense LDL (sd-LDL) are risk factors for stroke. The aim of the present study was to examine the plasma levels of sd-LDL in patients with stroke and to investigate the associations in a large Chinese case-control study.
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Acylation-stimulating protein increases and correlates with increased progesterone levels during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.
Eur. J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2009
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The menstrual cycle represents a continuous state of change in terms of female sex steroid environment. Progesterone is linked to increased fat storage while estrogen exerts anti-lipogenic effects. This study investigated variations in the potent lipogenic factor acylation-stimulating protein (ASP), and examined its association with hormonal and lipid profile alterations across the menstrual cycle.
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Lipoprotein lipase deficiency is associated with elevated acylation stimulating protein plasma levels.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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Acylation stimulating protein (ASP, C3adesArg) is an adipose tissue derived hormone that stimulates triglyceride (TG) synthesis. ASP stimulates lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity by relieving feedback inhibition caused by fatty acids (FA). The present study examines plasma ASP and lipids in male and female LPL-deficient subjects primarily with the P207L mutation, common in the population of Quebec, Canada. We evaluated the fasting and postprandial states of LPL heterozygotes and fasting levels in LPL homozygotes. Homozygotes displayed increased ASP (58-175% increase, P < 0.05-0.01), reduced HDL-cholesterol (64-75% decrease, P < 0.0001), and elevated levels of TG (19-38-fold, P < 0.0001) versus control (CTL) subjects. LPL heterozygotes with normal fasting TG (1.3-1.9 mmol/l) displayed increased ASP (101-137% increase, P < 0.05-0.01) and delayed TG clearance after a fatload; glucose levels remained similar to controls. Hypertriglyceridemics with no known LPL mutation also had increased ASP levels (63-192% increase, P < 0.001). High-TG LPL heterozygotes were administered a fatload before and after fibrate treatment. The treatment reduced fasting and postprandial plasma ASP, TG, and FA levels without changing insulin or glucose levels. ASP enhances adipose tissue fatty-acid trapping following a meal; however in LPL deficiency, high ASP levels are coupled with delayed lipid clearance.
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Throat infection, neck and chest pain and cardiac response: a persistent infection-related clinical syndrome.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2009
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Dizziness, chest discomfort, chest depression and dyspnea are a group of symptoms that are common complaints in clinical practice. Patients with these symptoms are usually informed that while neurosis consequent to coronary heart disease is excluded nonetheless they remain unhealthy with no rational explanation or treatment. 165 cases of these symptoms and 85 control subjects were reviewed and underwent further medical history inquiry, routine EKG test and cardiac ultrasound examination. Thirty-five patients received coronary artery angiography to exclude coronary heart disease. Serum myocardial autoantibodies against beta(1)-adrenoceptor, alpha-myosin heavy chain, M(2)-muscarinic receptor and adenine-nucleotide translocator were tested, and inflammatory cytokines and high sensitivity C-reaction protein were measured and lymphocyte subclass was assayed by flow cytometry. All patients had a complex of four symptoms or tetralogy: (1) persistent throat or upper respiratory tract infection, (2) neck pain, (3) chest pain and (4) chest depression or dyspnea, some of them with anxiety. Anti-myocardial autoantibodies (AMCAs) were present in all patients vs. 8% in controls. TNF-alpha, IL-1 and IL-6 were significantly higher in patients than in controls (P<0.01). CD3(+) and CD4-CD8(+) lymphocytes were significantly higher and CD56(+) lymphocytes lower in patients than those in controls (P<0.01). The ratio of serum pathogen antibodies positive against Coxsackie virus-B, cytomegalovirus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae were all markedly higher in patients. These data led to identification of a persistent respiratory infection-related clinical syndrome, including persistent throat infection, neck spinal lesion, rib cartilage inflammation, symptoms of cardiac depression and dyspnea with or without anxiety.
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Increased acylation-stimulating protein, C-reactive protein, and lipid levels in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2009
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To evaluate potential changes that are independent of body size in the lipogenic adipokine acylation-stimulating protein (ASP), complement C3 (ASP precursor), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
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C5L2 and C5aR interaction in adipocytes and macrophages: insights into adipoimmunology.
Cell. Signal.
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Obesity is associated with inflammation characterized by increased infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue. C5aR-like receptor 2 (C5L2) has been identified as a receptor for acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) and the inflammatory factor C5a, which also binds C5aR. The present study examines the effects of ligands ASP and C5a on interactions between the receptors C5L2 and C5aR in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and J774 macrophages. BRET experiments indicate that C5L2 and C5aR form homo- and heterodimers in transfected HEK 293 cells, which were stable in the presence of ligand. Cell surface receptor levels of C5L2 and C5aR increased during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation; both receptors are also highly expressed in J774 macrophages. Using confocal microscopy to evaluate endogenous receptors in adipocytes following stimulation with ASP or C5a, C5L2 is internalized with increasing perinuclear colocalization with C5aR. There is little C5a-dependent colocalization in macrophages. While adipocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) increased C5L2-C5aR colocalization in macrophages, this was blocked by C5a. ASP stimulation increased Akt (Ser(473)) phosphorylation in both cell types; C5a induced slight Akt phosphorylation in adipocytes with less effect in macrophages. ASP, but not C5a, increased fatty acid uptake/esterification in adipocytes. C5L2-C5aR homodimerization versus heterodimerization may thus contribute to differential responses obtained following ASP vs C5a stimulation of adipocytes and macrophages, providing new insights into the complex interaction between these two cell types within adipose tissue. Studying the mechanisms involved in the differential responses of C5L2-C5aR activation based on cell type will further our understanding of inflammatory processes in obesity.
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Amylin stimulates fatty acid esterification in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
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Amylin is co-localized and co-secreted with insulin, however its direct effects on adipocytes are unexplored. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, amylin increased thymidine incorporation (174%; p<0.05) and Myc mRNA expression (378%; p<0.01). Amylin supplementation during differentiation enhanced triglyceride accumulation (272%; p<0.001). In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, amylin increased fatty acid uptake (238%; p<0.01) and further potentiated the effects of insulin (insulin 158%; p<0.01, amylin+insulin 335%; p<0.001 vs CTL, p<0.001 vs insulin). By contrast, amylin inhibited glycerol release in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (-50%; p<0.05) and primary adipocytes (-34%; p<0.05). Amylin stimulated cytokine secretion (monocyte chemotactic protein-1+166%, keratinocyte-derived chemokine+174%; both p<0.05) and mRNA expression of PPAR? (163%; p<0.01), C/EBP? (121%, p<0.05), DGAT1 (157%; p<0.01), FABP4 (122%; p<0.01), and CD36 (122%; p<0.05). In human adipose tissue, mRNA expression of amylin receptor genes (CALCR and RAMP3) correlated with numerous lipid and insulin signaling genes, plasma glucose and HOMA. Altogether amylin directly stimulates fat cells, potentiates the effects of insulin and may influence insulin resistance.
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Substance P decreases fat storage and increases adipocytokine production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
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Obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance are closely linked. Substance P (SP), via its neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R), mediates inflammatory and, possibly, neuroendocrine processes. We examined SP effects on lipid storage and cytokine production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and adipose tissues. 3T3-L1 adipocytes and preadipocytes express NK1R, and 8 days of SP supplementation during differentiation to 3T3-L1 preadipocytes decreased lipid droplet accumulation. SP (10 nM, 24 h) increased lipolysis in primary adipocytes (138 ± 7%, P < 0.05) and reduced fatty acid uptake (-31 ± 7%, P < 0.05) and mRNA expression of the differentiation-related transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? type 2 (-64 ± 2%, P < 0.001) and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (CEBP)-? (-65 ± 2%, P < 0.001) and the lipid storage genes fatty acid-binding protein type 4 (-59 ± 2%, P < 0.001) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1 (-45 ± 2%, P < 0.01) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, while CD36, a fatty acid transporter (+82 ± 19%, P < 0.01), was augmented. SP increased secretion of complement C3 (148 ± 15%, P < 0.04), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (156 ± 16%, P < 0.03), and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (148 ± 18%, P = 0.045) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (496 ± 142%, P < 0.02) and complement C3 (152 ± 25%, P < 0.04) in adipose tissue and primary adipocytes, respectively. These SP effects were accompanied by downregulation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (-82 ± 2%, P < 0.01) and GLUT4 (-76 ± 2%, P < 0.01) mRNA expression, and SP acutely blocked insulin-mediated stimulation of fatty acid uptake and Akt phosphorylation. Although adiponectin secretion was unchanged, mRNA expression was decreased (-86 ± 8%, P < 0.001). In humans, NK1R expression correlates positively with plasma insulin, fatty acid, and complement C3 and negatively with adiponectin, CEBP?, CEBP?, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? mRNA expression in omental, but not subcutaneous, adipose tissue. Our results suggest that, beyond its neuroendocrine and inflammatory effects, SP could also be involved in targeting adipose tissue and influencing insulin resistance.
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Differential chemoattractant response in adipocytes and macrophages to the action of acylation stimulating protein.
Eur. J. Cell Biol.
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Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation with increased adipose tissue pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Acylation stimulating protein (ASP) stimulates triglyceride synthesis and glucose transport via its receptor C5L2. Circulating ASP is increased in obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The present study examines the effects of normal (50 nM), high physiological (200 nM) and pathological (600 nM) levels of ASP on inflammatory changes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and J774 macrophages and the underlying mechanisms involved. Treatment with ASP for 24h increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1, 800%, P<0.001) and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC, >150%, P<0.01) secretion in adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner, with no effect on IL-6 or adiponectin. In macrophages, ASP had no effect on these cytokines. C5a, a ligand for C5L2 and C5aR receptors, differed from ASP. Macrophage-adipocyte coculture increased MCP-1 and adiponectin secretion, and ASP further enhanced secretion (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively) at doses of 50 nM and 200 nM. ASP increased Ser(468) and Ser(536) phosphorylation of p65 NF?B in a time- and concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05) as well as phosphorylation of Akt Ser(473) (p=0.02). ASP and insulin stimulations of Ser(536) p65 NF?B phosphorylation were comparable (both p<0.05) but not additive. Both inhibition of PI3kinase (with wortmannin) and NF?B (with BAY11-7085) prevented ASP stimulation of MCP-1 and KC secretion in adipocytes. These findings suggest that ASP, especially at high physiologic doses, may stimulate specific inflammatory cytokines in adipocytes through PI3kinase- and NF?B-dependant pathways, thus further promoting macrophage infiltration and local inflammation in obese adipose tissue.
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