JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Single-agent tenofovir versus combination emtricitabine plus tenofovir for pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 acquisition: an update of data from a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), with daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in combination with emtricitabine, has been shown to be efficacious for HIV-1 prevention. Although the use of more than one antiretroviral agent is essential for effective HIV-1 treatment, more than one agent might not be required for effective prophylaxis. We assessed the efficacy of single-agent tenofovir disoproxil fumarate relative to combination emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate as PrEP.
Related JoVE Video
Daily oral tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir preexposure prophylaxis reduces herpes simplex virus type 2 acquisition among heterosexual HIV-1-uninfected men and women: a subgroup analysis of a randomized trial.
Ann. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Daily oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using the antiretroviral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) alone or in combination with emtricitabine (FTC-TDF) reduces the risk for HIV-1 acquisition. Tenofovir has in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2).
Related JoVE Video
Intrinsic viscoelasticity in thin high-molecular-weight polymer films.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The rheology of 44-75-nm-thick polystyrene films were probed by destabilization in an electric field. The non-cross-linked films showed the hallmark of viscoelasiticy; they exhibited elastic behavior at high shear rates and viscous rheology at low shear rates for stationary applied fields. These results are interpreted in terms of surface adhesion of chain segments in contact with the substrate surface, which substantially reduces reptative molecular motion of nearly all chains within the film.
Related JoVE Video
An intervention to support HIV preexposure prophylaxis adherence in HIV-serodiscordant couples in Uganda.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Daily preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention strategy, but adherence is required for maximum benefit. To date, there are no empirically supported PrEP adherence interventions. This article describes the process of developing a PrEP adherence intervention and presents results on its impact on adherence.
Related JoVE Video
The Aversive Interpersonal Behaviors Associated With Pathological Personality Traits.
J. Pers. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although interpersonal dysfunction is a defining feature of personality disorders (PDs), relatively little is known about how features of PD are perceived by others. In the current study, students (n = 225) reported on the traits and aversive interpersonal behaviors of individuals with pathological personality features. Aversive behaviors were measured using the Interpersonal Sensitivity Circumplex, and pathological personality features were assessed using the DSM-5 Section 3 traits. The structural summary method for circumplex data was used to evaluate how pathological traits related to both general and specific aversive behaviors. Most traits associated with PDs were related to general aversive behaviors. Specific associations suggested that young adults are most irritated when individuals with personality pathology try to form or sustain attachments, as opposed to control, withdraw, or submit to them. These results are consistent with the assumption that personality pathology is broadly characterized by aversive behaviors and imply that individuals are most bothered by maladaptive attempts by others to become or stay connected.
Related JoVE Video
Delay of antiretroviral therapy initiation is common in East African HIV-infected individuals in serodiscordant partnerships.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
WHO guidance recommends antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation for all persons with a known HIV-uninfected partner, as a strategy to prevent HIV transmission. Uptake of ART among HIV-infected partners in serodiscordant partnerships is not known, which we evaluated in African HIV serodiscordant couples.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of affective instability in borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder using a self-report measure.
Personal Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study used a new self-report instrument to measure frequency and intensity of nine dimensions of affective instability, as well as the extent to which affective instability was interpersonal, in subjects endorsing elevated features of BPD and bipolar disorder.
Related JoVE Video
Obesity stigmatization as the status quo: structural considerations and prevalence among young adults in the U.S.
Eat Behav
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although obesity stigmatization contributes to significant health, economic, and quality-of-life challenges for U.S. adults, the prevalence and nature of stigmatizing attitudes requires an update and clarification. The present study sought to examine the prevalence and major dimensions of negative attitudes toward obesity through assessment of young U.S. adults' responses to the Attitudes Toward Obese Persons Scale.
Related JoVE Video
Mannose-binding lectin and ficolin-2 do not influence humoral immune response to hepatitis B vaccine.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Host genetics appear to be an important factor in the failure to generate a protective immune response after hepatitis B (HBV) vaccination. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolin-2 (FCN2), two pattern recognition receptors of the lectin pathway of complement, influence the clinical outcome of HBV, and MBL deficiency has been shown to augment the humoral response to HBV vaccination in several experimental models. Here, we investigated the association of MBL and FCN2 with the humoral response to HBV vaccination in a candidate gene and functional study.
Related JoVE Video
Interpersonal dysfunction and affect-regulation difficulties in disordered eating among men and women.
Eat Behav
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although several studies suggest that negative affect and interpersonal problems serve as important contributors for eating-related problems, much of this research has been conducted among women and less is known about their roles in precipitating and maintaining eating problems among men. Previous studies with undergraduate men suggest that difficulties in emotion regulation are associated with disordered eating even after controlling for differences in body mass index (BMI) and negative affect. The present study sought to replicate these findings and extend them to assess any unique variance explained by problems in interpersonal functioning among both men and women. Participants were men (n=213) and women (n=521) undergraduates at a large Midwestern university who completed a demographic information form, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Short Circumplex Form (IIP-SC). A series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that DERS and IIP-SC significantly predicted EDE-Q global scores after controlling for variability in BMI and negative affect and that the results were similar for men and women. Our findings offer preliminary support for models that highlight emotional vulnerability and interpersonal problems for disordered eating for young adult men. Future research extending these findings among treatment-seeking samples and employing multi-method assessment would serve to further clarify the tenability of these theoretical models for both men and women.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy of preexposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention among high-risk heterosexuals: subgroup analyses from a randomized trial.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Daily oral antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising strategy for prevention of HIV-1 acquisition. Three clinical trials demonstrated PrEP efficacy; however, two PrEP trials among women did not find protection against HIV-1. One hypothesis proposed for these divergent results is that PrEP efficacy may be reduced in populations with higher HIV-1 incidence.
Related JoVE Video
Sexual behaviour of heterosexual men and women receiving antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: a longitudinal analysis.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Scarce data are available to assess sexual behaviour of individuals using antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention. Increased sexual risk taking by individuals using effective HIV prevention strategies, like pre-exposure prophylaxis, could offset the benefits of HIV prevention. We studied whether the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis in HIV-uninfected men and women in HIV-serodiscordant couples was associated with increased sexual risk behaviour.
Related JoVE Video
Personality Heterogeneity in PTSD: Distinct Temperament and Interpersonal Typologies.
Psychol Assess
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Researchers examining personality typologies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have consistently identified 3 groups: low pathology, internalizing, and externalizing. These groups have been found to predict functional severity and psychiatric comorbidity. In this study, we employed Latent Profile Analysis to compare this previously established typology, grounded in temperament traits (negative emotionality; positive emotionality; constraint), to a novel typology rooted in interpersonal traits (dominance; warmth) in a sample of individuals with PTSD (n = 155). Using Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) traits to create latent profiles, the 3-group temperament model was replicated. Using Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC) traits to create latent profiles, we identified a 4-group solution with groups varying in interpersonal style. These models were nonredundant, indicating that the depiction of personality variability in PTSD depends on how personality is assessed. Whereas the temperament model was more effective for distinguishing individuals based on distress and comorbid disorders, the interpersonal model was more effective for predicting the chronicity of PTSD over the 10 year course of the study. We discuss the potential for integrating these complementary temperament and interpersonal typologies in the clinical assessment of PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Related JoVE Video
Momentary Assessment of Interpersonal Process in Psychotherapy.
J Couns Psychol
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To demonstrate how a novel computer joystick coding method can illuminate the study of interpersonal processes in psychotherapy sessions, we applied it to Shostroms (1966) well-known films in which a client, Gloria, had sessions with 3 prominent psychotherapists. The joystick method, which records interpersonal behavior as nearly continuous flows on the plane defined by the interpersonal dimensions of control and affiliation, provides an excellent sampling of variability in each persons interpersonal behavior across the session. More important, it yields extensive information about the temporal dynamics that interrelate clients and therapists behaviors. Glorias 3 psychotherapy sessions were characterized using time-series statistical indices and graphical representations. Results demonstrated that patterns of within-person variability tended to be markedly asymmetric, with a predominant, set-point-like interpersonal style from which deviations mostly occurred in just 1 direction (e.g., occasional submissive departures from a modal dominant style). In addition, across each session, the therapist and client showed strongly cyclical variations in both control and affiliation, and these oscillations were entrained to different extents depending on the therapist. We interpreted different patterns of moment-to-moment complementarity of interpersonal behavior in terms of different therapeutic goals, such as fostering a positive alliance versus disconfirming the clients interpersonal expectations. We also showed how this method can be used to provide a more detailed analysis of specific shorter segments from each of the sessions. Finally, we compared our approach to alternative techniques, such as act-to-act lagged relations and dynamic systems and pointed to a variety of possible research and training applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Related JoVE Video
Adherence to antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention: a substudy cohort within a clinical trial of serodiscordant couples in East Africa.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Randomized clinical trials of oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention have widely divergent efficacy estimates, ranging from 0% to 75%. These discrepancies are likely due to differences in adherence. To our knowledge, no studies to date have examined the impact of improving adherence through monitoring and/or intervention, which may increase PrEP efficacy, or reported on objective behavioral measures of adherence, which can inform PrEP effectiveness and implementation.
Related JoVE Video
Manganese-oxidizing photosynthesis before the rise of cyanobacteria.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The emergence of oxygen-producing (oxygenic) photosynthesis fundamentally transformed our planet; however, the processes that led to the evolution of biological water splitting have remained largely unknown. To illuminate this history, we examined the behavior of the ancient Mn cycle using newly obtained scientific drill cores through an early Paleoproterozoic succession (2.415 Ga) preserved in South Africa. These strata contain substantial Mn enrichments (up to ?17 wt %) well before those associated with the rise of oxygen such as the ?2.2 Ga Kalahari Mn deposit. Using microscale X-ray spectroscopic techniques coupled to optical and electron microscopy and carbon isotope ratios, we demonstrate that the Mn is hosted exclusively in carbonate mineral phases derived from reduction of Mn oxides during diagenesis of primary sediments. Additional observations of independent proxies for O2--multiple S isotopes (measured by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry) and redox-sensitive detrital grains--reveal that the original Mn-oxide phases were not produced by reactions with O2, which points to a different high-potential oxidant. These results show that the oxidative branch of the Mn cycle predates the rise of oxygen, and provide strong support for the hypothesis that the water-oxidizing complex of photosystem II evolved from a former transitional photosystem capable of single-electron oxidation reactions of Mn.
Related JoVE Video
Partner characteristics predicting HIV-1 set point in sexually acquired HIV-1 among African seroconverters.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Plasma HIV-1 RNA set point is an important predictor of HIV-1 disease progression. We hypothesized that inoculum size and HIV-1 exposure prior to HIV-1 transmission may modulate set point. We evaluated predictors of set point among 141 African HIV-1 seroconverters and their HIV-1-infected study partners. We compared characteristics of seroconverters and their HIV-1-infected partners and HIV-1 set point. Data were from a clinical trial of genital HSV-2 suppression with acyclovir to reduce HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with HIV-1 transmission linkage assigned through virus sequencing. Our analysis includes data from all transmissions including those with transmission linkage to the HIV-1-infected "source partner" and those that were not linked to their HIV-1-infected study partner. In multivariable analysis, higher plasma HIV-1 in source partners was associated with higher seroconverter set point ( + 0.44 log10 copies/ml per log(10) source partner plasma HIV-1, p < 0.001). In addition, bacterial vaginosis (BV) among female source partners near the time of infection was associated with higher set point in their male seroconverters ( + 0.49 log(10), p = 0.04). Source partner characteristics associated with lower set point included male circumcision ( - 0.63 log(10), p = 0.03) and assignment to acyclovir ( - 0.44 log10, p = 0.02). The proportion of variation in set point explained by plasma HIV-1 RNA of the source partner, after controlling for other factors, was 0.06. Source partner plasma HIV-1 level is the most significant predictor of seroconverter set point, possibly reflecting characteristics of the transmitted virus. Acyclovir use, BV among women source partners, and circumcision among male source partners may alter the set point by affecting transmitted virus inoculum in the source partners genital compartment.
Related JoVE Video
Conceptions of narcissism and the DSM-5 pathological personality traits.
Assessment
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) features two conceptions of Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), one based on the retained DSM-IVs categorical diagnosis and the other based on a model that blends impairments in personality functioning with a specific trait profile intended to recapture DSM-IV NPD. Nevertheless, the broader literature contains a richer array of potential conceptualizations of narcissism, including distinguishable perspectives from psychiatric nosology, clinical observation and theory, and social/personality psychology. This raises questions about the most advantageous pattern of traits to use to reflect various conceptions of narcissistic pathology via the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5). In this study, we examine the associations of the Personality Disorder Questionnaire-Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale, Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16, and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory and the PID-5 dimensions and facets in a large sample (N = 1,653) of undergraduate student participants. Results point to strong associations with PID-5 Antagonism scales across narcissism measures, consistent with the DSM-5s proposed representation of NPD. However, additional notable associations emerged with PID-5 Negative Affectivity and Psychoticism scales when considering more clinically relevant narcissism measures.
Related JoVE Video
Meeting health and psychological needs of women in drug treatment court.
J Subst Abuse Treat
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We explored healthcare-related experiences of women drug court participants through combining context from the socio-ecological model with motivation needs for health behavior as indicated by self-determination theory. Five focus groups with 8 women drug court participants, 8 court staff, and 9 community service providers were examined using qualitative framework analysis. Themes emerged across the socio-ecological model and were cross-mapped with self-determination theory-defined motivation needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Socio-ecological levels contained experiences either supporting or eroding womens motivation needs: 1) intrapersonal challenges participants termed an "evil cycle" of relapse, recidivism, trauma, and life challenges; 2) interpersonal context of parenting and stigma involving features of this "evil cycle"; 3) institutions with logistical barriers to legal and medical assistance; 4) community resources inadequate to support living and employment needs. Self-determination theory helps explain motivation required to address the womens healthcare needs and multiple demands at all levels of the socio-ecological model.
Related JoVE Video
Comparing methods for scoring personality disorder types using maladaptive traits in DSM-5.
Assessment
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed.) Section III will include an alternative hybrid system for the diagnosis of personality disorder (PD). This alternative system defines PD types partly through specific combinations of maladaptive traits, rather than by using a set of polythetic diagnostic criteria. The current report utilizes a large sample of undergraduates (n = 1,159) to examine three dimensional methods for comparing an individuals trait profile to each PD type. We found that the sum of an individuals scores on the assigned traits obtained large convergent correlations (Mdn r =.61) and best reproduced the patterns of PD discriminant correlations observed within the DSM-IV measure. We also tested the DSM-5 Section III model algorithms and compared them with different thresholds for assigning categorical diagnoses. Frequency rates using the algorithms were greatly reduced, whereas requiring half of the assigned traits produced rates that more closely approximated current prevalence estimates. Our research suggests that DSM-5 Section III trait model can reproduce the DSM-IV-TR PD constructs and identifies effective methods of doing so.
Related JoVE Video
Changing trends in the use of seizure prophylaxis after traumatic brain injury: a shift from phenytoin to levetiracetam.
J Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Current guidelines for traumatic brain injury (TBI) recommend antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for 7 days after injury to decrease posttraumatic seizure risk. Phenytoin decreases seizure risk 73% vs placebo during this time. Levetiracetam (LEV) is an alternative; however, no published data validate comparable efficacy. Our objective was to evaluate seizure incidence 7 days after TBI in patients treated with phenytoin (PHT) vs LEV and to characterize practice of AED selection.
Related JoVE Video
Heterogeneity of interpersonal problems among depressed young adults: associations with substance abuse and pathological personality traits.
J Pers Assess
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study extended previous theory and research on interpersonal heterogeneity in depression by identifying groups of depressed young adults who differ in their type and degree of interpersonal problems, and by examining patterns of pathological personality traits and alcohol abuse among these groups. We examined the interpersonal problems, personality traits, and alcohol-related problems of 172 college students with at least moderate levels of self-reported depression on the Patient Health Questionnaire (Spitzer, Kroenke, & Williams, 1999). Scores from the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Short Circumplex (Soldz, Budman, Demby, & Merry, 1995) were subjected to latent profile analysis, which classified individuals into 5 distinct groups defined by the types of interpersonal problems they experience (dominant, warm, submissive, cold, and undifferentiated). As hypothesized, groups did not differ in depression severity, but did show predicted patterns of differences on normative and maladaptive personality traits, as well as alcohol-related problems. The presence of clinically meaningful interpersonal heterogeneity in depression could have important implications for designing more individualized treatments and prevention efforts for depression that target diverse associated interpersonal problems.
Related JoVE Video
Psychometric properties and norms for the Personality Assessment Inventory in egg donors and gestational carriers.
J Pers Assess
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although psychological evaluations are an integral element of screening for third-party reproduction and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) is commonly used for these evaluations, little is known about the psychometric properties or normative scores on the PAI among egg donors and carriers. We evaluated the PAI among 1,044 egg donors and gestational carriers from various fertility clinics across the United States. PAI scales were generally internally consistent in this population, although range restriction appeared to attenuate reliability on several scales. The PAI profiles of egg donors and carriers had elevated positive impression management and suppressed clinical scale scores relative to the community standardization sample, as would be expected given the contingencies of this assessment context. Scores were similar across egg donors and carriers and were similar whether the carrier or donor was known or not known to the prospective parents. Sample-specific norms are provided for the use of the PAI in this setting.
Related JoVE Video
Evocative gene-environment correlation in the mother-child relationship: a twin study of interpersonal processes.
Dev. Psychopathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The behavior genetic literature suggests that genetically influenced characteristics of the child elicit specific behaviors from the parent. However, little is known about the processes by which genetically influenced child characteristics evoke parental responses. Interpersonal theory provides a useful framework for identifying reciprocal behavioral processes between children and mothers. The theory posits that, at any given moment, interpersonal behavior varies along the orthogonal dimensions of warmth and control and that the interpersonal behavior of one individual tends to elicit corresponding or contrasting behavior from the other (i.e., warmth elicits warmth, whereas control elicits submission). The current study thus examined these dimensions of interpersonal behavior as they relate to the parent-child relationship in 546 twin families. A computer joystick was used to rate videos of mother-child interactions in real time, yielding information on mother and child levels of warmth and control throughout the interaction. Analyses indicated that maternal control, but not maternal warmth, was influenced by evocative gene-environment correlational processes, such that genetic influences on maternal control and child control were largely overlapping. Moreover, these common genetic influences were present both cross-sectionally and over the course of the interaction. Such findings not only confirm the presence of evocative gene-environment correlational processes in the mother-child relationship but also illuminate at least one of the specific interpersonal behaviors that underlie this evocative process.
Related JoVE Video
Formation of Kinneyia via shear-induced instabilities in microbial mats.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Kinneyia are a class of microbially mediated sedimentary fossils. Characterized by clearly defined ripple structures, Kinneyia are generally found in areas that were formally littoral habitats and covered by microbial mats. To date, there has been no conclusive explanation of the processes involved in the formation of these fossils. Microbial mats behave like viscoelastic fluids. We propose that the key mechanism involved in the formation of Kinneyia is a Kelvin-Helmholtz-type instability induced in a viscoelastic film under flowing water. A ripple corrugation is spontaneously induced in the film and grows in amplitude over time. Theoretical predictions show that the ripple instability has a wavelength proportional to the thickness of the film. Experiments carried out using viscoelastic films confirm this prediction. The ripple pattern that forms has a wavelength roughly three times the thickness of the film. This behaviour is independent of the viscosity of the film and the flow conditions. Laboratory-analogue Kinneyia were formed via the sedimentation of glass beads, which preferentially deposit in the troughs of the ripples. Well-ordered patterns form, with both honeycomb-like and parallel ridges being observed, depending on the flow speed. These patterns correspond well with those found in Kinneyia, with similar morphologies, wavelengths and amplitudes being observed.
Related JoVE Video
Interpersonal pathoplasticity in the course of major depression.
J Consult Clin Psychol
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The identification of reliable predictors of course in major depressive disorder (MDD) has been difficult. Evidence suggests that the co-occurrence of personality pathology is associated with longer time to MDD remission. Interpersonal pathoplasticity, the mutually influencing nonetiological relationship between psychopathology and interpersonal traits, offers an avenue for examining specific personality vulnerabilities that may be associated with depressive course.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of sexual activity on vaginal colonization with hydrogen peroxide-producing lactobacilli and Gardnerella vaginalis.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bacterial vaginosis is associated with sexual activity, but mechanisms for this association are unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Topical penile microbicide use by men to prevent recurrent bacterial vaginosis in sex partners: a randomized clinical trial.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) recurs frequently after metronidazole treatment. This randomized, single-masked clinical trial evaluated the efficacy of topical application of 62% ethyl alcohol in emollient gel (gel) to the penis by male partners of women diagnosed with BV for preventing post-treatment BV recurrence.
Related JoVE Video
Genomewide association study for determinants of HIV-1 acquisition and viral set point in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with quantified virus exposure.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Host genetic factors may be important determinants of HIV-1 sexual acquisition. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for host genetic variants modifying HIV-1 acquisition and viral control in the context of a cohort of African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples. To minimize misclassification of HIV-1 risk, we quantified HIV-1 exposure, using data including plasma HIV-1 concentrations, gender, and condom use.
Related JoVE Video
A behavioural intervention to reduce persistence of bacterial vaginosis among women who report sex with women: results of a randomised trial.
Sex Transm Infect
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is common in lesbians, and treatment fails in up to 28%. Risks include sexual behaviours that transmit vaginal fluid. The authors measured efficacy of a behavioural intervention to reduce sexual transfer of vaginal fluid between female sex partners in reducing BV persistence.
Related JoVE Video
Nonequilibrium behavior of thin polymer films.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The rheological behavior of 100-nm-thick polystyrene films cast from various solvents was examined using an electric field to weakly perturb the free surface of the polymer melt. The effective viscosity and residual stresses of the as-spun films are seen to strongly depend on the properties of the casting solvent and the solvent quality. Both effects are explained in terms of the coil dimension at the solvent-polymer composition at which the film vitrifies. The more compact chains in a near-?-solvent are less entangled and less deformed when quenched to the dry melt compared to the more swollen chains in an athermal solution. Despite chain conformations that are further from equilibrium for the ?-solvent cast chains, these films have reduced stored stresses compared to the chains cast in films from athermal solvents. A more detailed analysis of the data suggests that the formation of a surface-near region with more strongly deformed chains during spin coating. Since thermal equilibration of spin-cast high-molecular-weight films is unpractical, solvent vapor annealing was used to equilibrate films on timescale of a few hours.
Related JoVE Video
Hyperbolic temperament and borderline personality disorder.
Personal Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Zanarini and Frankenburg (2007) described the "essential nature" of borderline psychopathology as involving intense and chronic inner pain deriving from a hyperbolic temperament that is mediated through interpersonal behaviors. These interpersonal behaviors can either provoke kindling events that promote the expression of borderline pathology or buffer against borderline symptoms. This study was designed to test this general hypothesis and to articulate both the temperamental and the mediating constructs implicated in this theory more specifically. A questionnaire containing the elements of this theory was administered to non-clinical (N = 545), clinical (N = 316) and treatment (N = 50) samples. Covariance analyses supported a hyperbolic temperament factor and four mediating factors labeled passive, agentic, validation seeking, and detached. Overall, validity correlations conformed to predictions in showing a strong association between hyperbolic temperament and borderline and other forms of personality pathology, and in demonstrating varying relations between the mediating factors with adaptivity, including psychiatric improvements in a treatment trial. The place of this theoretical model of borderline pathology beside other theories that tend to emphasize personality traits or interpersonal patterns are discussed, and clinical implications of the model are highlighted.
Related JoVE Video
Developmental gender differences for overhand throwing in Aboriginal Australian children.
Res Q Exerc Sport
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES > 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and kinematics were recorded in 30 female and male Aboriginal Australian children 6-10 years old. Results indicated the Aboriginal girls and boys were more similar in horizontal ball velocities than U.S. girls and boys. Throwing kinematics between girls and boys were also more similar in Australian Aborigines than U.S. children. Aboriginal girls threw with greater velocities than U.S., German, Japanese, and Thai girls, while the boys were similar across cultures.
Related JoVE Video
The differential effects of child abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder on schizotypal personality disorder.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous findings suggest a relation between trauma exposure and risk for schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). However, the reasons for this relationship are not well understood. Some research suggests that exposure to trauma, particularly early trauma and child abuse, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may play a role.
Related JoVE Video
Expedited partner therapy: a robust intervention.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Expedited partner therapy (EPT) has been shown to reduce the risk of persistent or recurrent gonorrhea and chlamydial infection in heterosexuals, and to increase the proportion of sex partners receiving treatment. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the consistency of EPTs effect across sociodemographic and behavioral subgroups.
Related JoVE Video
Function of blue iridescence in tropical understorey plants.
J R Soc Interface
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The blue colouration seen in the leaves of Selaginella willdenowii is shown to be iridescent. Transmission electron microscopy studies confirm the presence of a layered lamellar structure of the upper cuticle of iridescent leaves. Modelling of these multi-layer structures suggests that they are responsible for the blue iridescence, confirming the link between the observed lamellae and the recorded optical properties. Comparison of blue and green leaves from the same plant indicates that the loss of the blue iridescence corresponds to a loss of the multi-layer structure. The results reported here do not support the idea that iridescence in plants acts to enhance light capture of photosynthetically important wavelengths. The reflectance of light in the range 600-700 nm is very similar for both iridescent and non-iridescent leaves. However, owing to the occurrence of blue colouration in a wide variety of shade dwelling plants it is probable that this iridescence has some adaptive benefit. Possible adaptive advantages of the blue iridescence in these plants are discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission after initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort analysis.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations are associated with increased risk of HIV-1 transmission. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces plasma HIV-1 concentrations. We aimed to assess the effect of ART use by patients infected with HIV-1 on risk of transmission to their uninfected partners.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence and risks for bacterial vaginosis in women who have sex with women.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common cause of vaginitis and, for unknown reasons, is common in lesbian and bisexual women. We defined risks for prevalent BV in lesbian and bisexual women with attention to detailed sexual risk history.
Related JoVE Video
Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias and pseudohypo-parathyroidism type Ib.
Pediatr. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pseudohypoparathyroidism is a rare cause of paroxysmal dyskinesias. We describe an otherwise well 10-year-old girl who was diagnosed with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib after presenting with involuntary movements of the hands and feet that occurred while running or walking. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain indicated T(1) hyperintensities of the bilateral basal ganglia. A computed tomography scan of the head revealed diffuse cerebral calcifications, most prominent in the basal ganglia. Treatment with calcitriol and calcium carbonate led to a complete resolution of her signs. We recommend that hypoparathyroidism always be considered in patients with kinesigenic paroxysmal dyskinesias, especially insofar as it is a treatable disorder.
Related JoVE Video
Temporal variability of human vaginal bacteria and relationship with bacterial vaginosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Little is known about short-term bacterial fluctuations in the human vagina. This study used PCR to assess the variability in concentrations of key vaginal bacteria in healthy women and the immediate response to antibiotic treatment in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV).
Related JoVE Video
Risks for acquisition of bacterial vaginosis among women who report sex with women: a cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is common in women who have sex with women. While cross-sectional data support a role for sexual transmission, risks for incident BV have not been prospectively studied in this group.
Related JoVE Video
HIV testing in a high-incidence population: is antibody testing alone good enough?
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently recommended the expansion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing. However, antibody tests have longer "window periods" after HIV acquisition than do nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs).
Related JoVE Video
Determinants of recent HIV infection among Seattle-area men who have sex with men.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We sought to identify HIV-infection risk factors related to partner selection and sexual behaviors with those partners among men who have sex with men (MSM) in King County, Washington.
Related JoVE Video
Changes in vaginal bacterial concentrations with intravaginal metronidazole therapy for bacterial vaginosis as assessed by quantitative PCR.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several fastidious bacteria have been associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) using broad-range bacterial PCR methods such as consensus sequence 16S rRNA gene PCR, but their role in BV remains poorly defined. We describe changes in vaginal bacterial concentrations following metronidazole therapy for BV. Vaginal swabs were collected from women with BV diagnosed using Amsel clinical criteria, and vaginal fluid was assessed by Gram stain to generate Nugent scores. Follow-up swabs were collected 1 month after a 5-day course of vaginal 0.75% metronidazole gel and analyzed for 24 subjects with cured BV and 24 subjects with persistent BV. Changes in bacterial concentrations were measured using eight bacterium-specific 16S rRNA gene quantitative PCR assays. DNA from several fastidious BV-associated bacteria (BVAB) were present at high concentrations in the vagina prior to treatment. Successful antibiotic therapy resulted in 3- to 4-log reductions in median bacterial loads of BVAB1 (P=0.02), BVAB2 (P=0.0004), BVAB3 (P=0.03), a Megasphaera-like bacterium (P<0.0001), Atopobium species (P<0.0001), Leptotrichia/Sneathia species (P=0.0002), and Gardnerella vaginalis (P<0.0001). Median posttreatment bacterial levels did not change significantly in subjects with persistent BV except for a decline in levels of BVAB3. The presence or absence of BV is reflected by vaginal concentrations of BV-associated bacteria such as BVAB1, BVAB2, Leptotrichia/Sneathia species, Atopobium species, Gardnerella vaginalis, and a Megasphaera-like bacterium, suggesting that these bacteria play an important role in BV pathogenesis and may be suitable markers of disease and treatment response.
Related JoVE Video
Standard treatment regimens for nongonococcal urethritis have similar but declining cure rates: a randomized controlled trial.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Azithromycin or doxycycline is recommended for nongonococcal urethritis (NGU); recent evidence suggests their efficacy has declined. We compared azithromycin and doxycycline in men with NGU, hypothesizing that azithromycin was more effective than doxycycline.
Related JoVE Video
The validity of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale for assessing pathological grandiosity.
J Pers Assess
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although controversy surrounds the definition and measurement of narcissism, the claim that pathological grandiosity is central to the construct generates little disagreement. Yet representations of pathological grandiosity vary across measures of narcissism, leading to conceptual confusion in the literature. The validity of a DSM-based measure of pathological narcissism, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale (PDQ-4 NPD), was evaluated in 1 clinical and 3 nonclinical samples (total N=2,391) for its ability to measure pathological grandiosity. Findings were generally supportive: average scores were higher in the clinical than nonclinical samples and the PDQ-4 NPD scale correlated most strongly with (a) other measures of NPD; (b) other DSM Cluster B personality disorders; (c) traits involving antagonism, hostility, and assertiveness; and (d) interpersonal distress and disaffiliative dominance. However, the low internal consistency of the PDQ-4 NPD scale and unexpected associations with Cluster A and obsessive-compulsive features point to potential psychometric weaknesses with this instrument. These findings are useful for evaluating the PDQ-4 NPD scale and for informing ongoing debates regarding how to define and assess pathological narcissism.
Related JoVE Video
Before the headache: infant colic as an early life expression of migraine.
Neurology
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Childhood periodic syndromes are thought to be early life expressions of the genetic tendency for migraine. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal migraine is associated with an increased risk of infant colic, because this may indicate that colic is a childhood periodic syndrome.
Related JoVE Video
The convergent structure of DSM-5 personality trait facets and five-factor model trait domains.
Assessment
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorder Work Group have proposed diagnosing personality disorder based in part on 25 pathological traits. Initial research suggests that five factors explain the covariance among these traits and that these factors reflect the domains of the well-validated Five-Factor Model (FFM) of normative personality. This finding is important because it signifies the potential to apply normative trait research to personality disorder classification in the DSM-5. In this study, trait scale scores on the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and domain scores from the FFM Rating Form (FFMRF) were subjected to a conjoint exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to test the higher-order convergence of the DSM-5 pathological trait model and the FFM in a nonclinical sample (N = 808). Results indicate that the five higher-order factors of the conjoint EFA reflect the domains of the FFM. The authors briefly discuss implications of this correspondence between the normative FFM and the pathological PID-5.
Related JoVE Video
Zinc-induced envelope stress diminishes type III secretion in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.
BMC Microbiol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dietary supplementation with zinc has been shown to reduce the duration and severity of diarrhoeal disease caused by Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, common in infants in developing countries. Initially this therapeutic benefit was attributed to the correction of zinc deficiency in malnourished individuals, but recently evidence has emerged that zinc significantly impacts the pathogens themselves: zinc concentrations achievable by oral supplementation can reduce the expression of key virulence-related genes in EPEC and related organisms.
Related JoVE Video
An interpersonal analysis of pathological personality traits in DSM-5.
Assessment
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The proposed changes to the personality disorder section of the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.) places an increased focus on interpersonal impairment as one of the defining features of personality psychopathology. In addition, a proposed trait model has been offered to provide a means of capturing phenotypic variation on the expression of personality disorder. In this study, the authors subject the proposed DSM-5 traits to interpersonal analysis using the inventory of interpersonal problems-circumplex scales via the structural summary method for circumplex data. DSM-5 traits were consistently associated with generalized interpersonal dysfunction suggesting that they are maladaptive in nature, the majority of traits demonstrated discriminant validity with prototypical and differentiated interpersonal problem profiles, and conformed well to a priori hypothesized associations. These results are discussed in the context of the DSM-5 proposal and contemporary interpersonal theory, with a particular focus on potential areas for expansion of the DSM-5 trait model.
Related JoVE Video
The hierarchical structure of DSM-5 pathological personality traits.
J Abnorm Psychol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A multidimensional trait system has been proposed for representing personality disorder (PD) features in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) to address problematic classification issues such as comorbidity. In this model, which may also assist in providing scaffolding for the underlying structure of major forms of psychopathology more generally, 25 primary traits are organized by 5 higher order dimensions: Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism. We examined (a) the generalizability of the structure proposed for DSM-5 PD traits, and (b) the potential for an integrative hierarchy based upon DSM-5 PD traits to represent the dimensions scaffolding psychopathology more generally. A large sample of student participants (N = 2,461) completed the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, which operationalizes the DSM-5 traits. Exploratory factor analysis replicated the initially reported 5-factor structure, as indicated by high factor congruencies. The 2-, 3-, and 4-factor solutions estimated in the hierarchy of the DSM-5 traits bear close resemblance to existing models of common mental disorders, temperament, and personality pathology. Thus, beyond the description of individual differences in personality disorder, the trait dimensions might provide a framework for the metastructure of psychopathology in the DSM-5 and the integration of a number of ostensibly competing models of personality trait covariation.
Related JoVE Video
Extravaginal reservoirs of vaginal bacteria as risk factors for incident bacterial vaginosis.
J. Infect. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) represents shifts in microbiota from Lactobacillus spp. to diverse anaerobes. Although antibiotics relieve symptoms and temporarily eradicate BV-associated bacteria (BVAB), BV usually recurs. We investigated the role of extravaginal BVAB reservoirs in recurrence.
Related JoVE Video
Sleep rounds: a multidisciplinary approach to optimize sleep quality and satisfaction in hospitalized patients.
J Hosp Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Poor sleep has adverse affects on heath, yet few studies have addressed the goal of improving sleep among hospitalized patients. We evaluated the effectiveness of a sleep-promoting intervention on the quality and quantity of sleep among inpatients.
Related JoVE Video
Evidence for the criterion validity and clinical utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory.
Assessment
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, the authors evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (N = 299 and 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability with established indices of normal personality traits, psychopathology and clinical concerns, and pathological personality traits. Overall, the pattern of correlations supported the convergent and discriminant validity of grandiose and vulnerable conceptualizations of pathological narcissism as measured by the PNI. Clinical utility was assessed by evaluating the extent to which clinicians without specific training in pathological narcissism as well as clinicians with expertise in pathological narcissism could accurately predict the correlates of PNI grandiosity and vulnerability with normal and pathological personality traits and psychopathology. The r(contrast-cv) coefficient provided a global index of accuracy in clinicians predictions that was more fully elaborated by examining systematic discrepancies across groups. Overall, novice and expert clinicians were generally able to predict criterion correlations, with some exceptions (e.g., counter to predictions, pathological narcissism was negatively associated with treatment resistance). These results provide further evidence regarding the validity and utility of the narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability constructs as measured by the PNI.
Related JoVE Video
Chlamydia positivity in women screened in family planning clinics: racial/ethnic differences and trends in the northwest U.S., 1997-2006.
Public Health Rep
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We assessed chlamydia trends, individual-level risk factors, and population-level area-based socioeconomic measures (ABSMs) associated with chlamydia infection in women attending U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) Region X Infertility Prevention Project (IPP) family planning (FP) clinics from 1997-2006. We then explored these measures within racial/ethnic subpopulations.
Related JoVE Video
DSM-5 personality traits and DSM-IV personality disorders.
J Abnorm Psychol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two issues pertinent to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model, which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5 traits as assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 explained a substantial proportion of variance in DSM-IV PDs as assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+, and trait indicators of the 6 proposed DSM-5 PDs were mostly specific to those disorders with some exceptions. Regression analyses support the DSM-5 hybrid model in that pathological traits, and an indicator of general personality pathology severity provided incremental information about PDs. Findings are discussed in the context of broader issues around the proposed DSM-5 model of personality disorders.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.