Plastid division is fundamental to the biology of plant cells. Division by binary fission entails the coordinated assembly and constriction of four concentric rings, two internal and two external to the organelle. The internal FtsZ ring and external dynamin-like ARC5/DRP5B ring are connected across the two envelopes by the membrane proteins ARC6, PARC6, PDV1, and PDV2. Assembly-stimulated GTPase activity drives constriction of the FtsZ and ARC5/DRP5B rings, which together with the plastid-dividing rings pull and squeeze the envelope membranes until the two daughter plastids are formed, with the final separation requiring additional proteins. The positioning of the division machinery is controlled by the chloroplast Min system, which confines FtsZ-ring formation to the plastid midpoint. The dynamic morphology of plastids, especially nongreen plastids, is also considered here, particularly in relation to the production of stromules and plastid-derived vesicles and their possible roles in cellular communication and plastid functionality.
Chloroplast division is initiated by assembly of a mid-chloroplast FtsZ (Z) ring comprising two cytoskeletal proteins, FtsZ1 and FtsZ2. The division-site regulators ACCUMULATION AND REPLICATION OF CHLOROPLASTS3 (ARC3), MinD1, and MinE1 restrict division to the mid-plastid, but their roles are poorly understood. Using genetic analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that ARC3 mediates division-site placement by inhibiting Z-ring assembly, and MinD1 and MinE1 function through ARC3. ftsZ1 null mutants exhibited some mid-plastid FtsZ2 rings and constrictions, whereas neither constrictions nor FtsZ1 rings were observed in mutants lacking FtsZ2, suggesting FtsZ2 is the primary determinant of Z-ring assembly in vivo. arc3 ftsZ1 double mutants exhibited multiple parallel but no mid-plastid FtsZ2 rings, resembling the Z-ring phenotype in arc3 single mutants and showing that ARC3 affects positioning of FtsZ2 rings as well as Z rings. ARC3 overexpression in the wild type and ftsZ1 inhibited Z-ring and FtsZ2-ring assembly, respectively. Consistent with its effects in vivo, ARC3 interacted with FtsZ2 in two-hybrid assays and inhibited FtsZ2 assembly in a heterologous system. Our studies are consistent with a model wherein ARC3 directly inhibits Z-ring assembly in vivo primarily through interaction with FtsZ2 in heteropolymers and suggest that ARC3 activity is spatially regulated by MinD1 and MinE1 to permit Z-ring assembly at the mid-plastid.
FtsZ is a key cytoskeletal component of the chloroplast division machinery that arose from the related cell division FtsZ in the cyanobacterial ancestor of chloroplasts. FtsZ is widely conserved in photosynthetic eukaryotes, where it forms a ring inside the organelle at the chloroplast division site. A distinctive feature of chloroplast division systems is the evolution of two phylogenetically and structurally distinct FtsZ families by independent gene duplications in different photosynthetic lineages. While many functional aspects of these proteins remain unknown, recent studies on the biochemical and dynamic properties of FtsZs from land plants, in combination with ongoing research on bacterial FtsZs, have begun to suggest mechanisms by which two functionally distinct FtsZ proteins may cooperate to drive chloroplast division.
We identified an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, clumped chloroplasts 1 (clmp1), in which disruption of a gene of unknown function causes chloroplasts to cluster instead of being distributed throughout the cytoplasm. The phenotype affects chloroplasts and nongreen plastids in multiple organs and cell types, but is detectable only at certain developmental stages. In young leaf petioles of clmp1, where clustering is prevalent, cells lacking chloroplasts are detected, suggesting impaired chloroplast partitioning during mitosis. Although organelle distribution and partitioning are actin-dependent in plants, the actin cytoskeleton in clmp1 is indistinguishable from that in WT, and peroxisomes and mitochondria are distributed normally. A CLMP1-YFP fusion protein that complements clmp1 localizes to discrete foci in the cytoplasm, most of which colocalize with the cell periphery or with chloroplasts. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that chloroplasts within clmp1 clusters are held together by membranous connections, including thin isthmi characteristic of late-stage chloroplast division. This finding suggests that constriction of dividing chloroplasts proceeds normally in clmp1, but separation is impaired. Consistently, chloroplast size and number, as well as positioning of the plastid division proteins FtsZ and ARC5/DRP5B, are unaffected in clmp1, indicating that loss of CLMP1-mediated chloroplast separation does not prevent otherwise normal division. CLMP1-like sequences are unique to green algae and land plants, and the CLMP1 sequence suggests that it functions through protein-protein interactions. Our studies identify a unique class of proteins required for plastid separation after the constriction stage of plastid division and indicate that CLMP1 activity is also required for plastid distribution and partitioning during cell division.
A comprehensive understanding of the lipid and fatty acid metabolic machinery is needed for optimizing production of oils and fatty acids for fuel, industrial feedstocks and nutritional improvement in plants. T-DNA mutants in the poorly annotated Arabidopsis thaliana gene At1g08640 were identified as containing moderately high levels (50-100%) of 16?1?7 and 18?1?9 leaf fatty acids and subtle decreases (5-30%) of 16?3 and 18?3 (http://www.plastid.msu.edu/). TLC separation of fatty acids in the leaf polar lipids revealed that the chloroplastic galactolipids monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) were the main lipid types affected by this mutation. Analysis of the inferred amino acid sequence of At1g08640 predicted the presence of a transit peptide, three transmembrane domains and an N-terminal J-like domain, and the gene was named CJD1 for Chloroplast J-like Domain 1. GFP reporter experiments and in vitro chloroplast import assays demonstrated CJD1 is a chloroplast membrane protein. Screening of an Arabidopsis cDNA library by yeast-2-hybrid (Y2H) using the J-like domain of CJD1 as bait identified a plastidial inner envelope protein (Accumulation and Replication of Chloroplasts 6, ARC6) as the primary interacting partner in the Y2H assay. ARC6 plays a central role in chloroplast division and binds CJD1 via its own J-like domain along with an adjacent conserved region whose function is not fully known. These results provide a starting point for future investigations of how mutations in CJD1 affect lipid composition.
Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals localization of proteins in cells and tissues by means of highly specific, fluorescently labeled antibodies. This technique is an important complement to localization methods that use genetically encoded fluorescent tags. This chapter describes the five stages of immunofluorescence localization of proteins in plant chloroplasts in sectioned leaf tissue: (1) fixation, (2) tissue embedding and sectioning, (3) treatment of sections prior to immunolabeling, (4) immunostaining, and (5) fluorescence microscopy and image capture. Protocols for both cryosectioning and sectioning of low-melting-point wax-embedded samples are described. Immunofluorescence localization in chloroplasts is complicated by their intense autofluorescence background. Measures to suppress nonspecific background staining, confirm specificity of the fluorescence signal, and optimize imaging conditions are described.
Bacteria and chloroplasts require the ring-forming cytoskeletal protein FtsZ for division. Although bacteria accomplish division with a single FtsZ, plant chloroplasts require two FtsZ types for division, FtsZ1 and FtsZ2. These proteins colocalize to a mid-plastid Z ring, but their biochemical relationship is poorly understood. We investigated the in vitro behavior of recombinant FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 separately and together. Both proteins bind and hydrolyze GTP, although GTPase activities are low compared with the activity of Escherichia coli FtsZ. Each protein undergoes GTP-dependent assembly into thin protofilaments in the presence of calcium as a stabilizing agent, similar to bacterial FtsZ. In contrast, when mixed without calcium, FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 exhibit slightly elevated GTPase activity and coassembly into extensively bundled protofilaments. Coassembly is enhanced by FtsZ1, suggesting that it promotes lateral interactions between protofilaments. Experiments with GTPase-deficient mutants reveal that FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 form heteropolymers. Maximum coassembly occurs in reactions containing equimolar FtsZ1 and FtsZ2, but significant coassembly occurs at other stoichiometries. The FtsZ1:FtsZ2 ratio in coassembled structures mirrors their input ratio, suggesting plasticity in protofilament and/or bundle composition. This behavior contrasts with that of alpha- and beta-tubulin and the bacterial tubulin-like proteins BtubA and BtubB, which coassemble in a strict 1:1 stoichiometry. Our findings raise the possibility that plasticity in FtsZ filament composition and heteropolymerization-induced bundling could have been a driving force for the coevolution of FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 in the green lineage, perhaps arising from an enhanced capacity for the regulation of Z ring composition and activity in vivo.
A circadian clock coordinates physiology and behavior in diverse groups of living organisms. Another major cyclic cellular event, the cell cycle, is regulated by the circadian clock in the few cases where linkage of these cycles has been studied. In the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus, the circadian clock gates cell division by an unknown mechanism. Using timelapse microscopy, we confirm the gating of cell division in the wild-type and demonstrate the regulation of cytokinesis by key clock components. Specifically, a state of the oscillator protein KaiC that is associated with elevated ATPase activity closes the gate by acting through a known clock output pathway to inhibit FtsZ ring formation at the division site. An activity that stimulates KaiC phosphorylation independently of the KaiA protein was also uncovered. We propose a model that separates the functions of KaiC ATPase and phosphorylation in cell division gating and other circadian behaviors.
FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 are phylogenetically distinct families of FtsZ in plants that co-localize to mid-plastid rings and facilitate division of chloroplasts. In plants, altered levels of either FtsZ1 or FtsZ2 cause dose-dependent defects in chloroplast division; thus, studies on the functional relationship between FtsZ genes require careful manipulation of FtsZ levels in vivo. To define the functional relationship between the two FtsZ2 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, FtsZ2-1 and FtsZ2-2, we expressed FtsZ2-1 in an ftsZ2-2 null mutant, and vice versa, and determined whether the chloroplast division defects were rescued in plants expressing different total levels of FtsZ2. Full rescue was observed when either the FtsZ2-1 or FtsZ2-2 level approximated total FtsZ2 levels in wild-type (WT). Additionally, FtsZ2-2 interacts with ARC6, as shown previously for FtsZ2-1. These data indicate that FtsZ2-1 and FtsZ2-2 are functionally redundant for chloroplast division in Arabidopsis. To rigorously validate the requirement of each FtsZ family for chloroplast division, we replaced FtsZ1 with FtsZ2 in vivo, and vice versa, while maintaining the FtsZ level in the transgenic plants equal to that of the total level in WT. Chloroplast division defects were not rescued, demonstrating conclusively that FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 are non-redundant for maintenance of WT chloroplast numbers. Finally, we generated ftsZ triple null mutants and show that plants completely devoid of FtsZ protein are viable and fertile. As plastids are presumably essential organelles, these findings suggest that an FtsZ-independent mode of plastid partitioning may occur in higher plants.
Chloroplast division in plant cells is accomplished through the coordinated action of the tubulin-like FtsZ ring inside the organelle and the dynamin-like ARC5 ring outside the organelle. This coordination is facilitated by ARC6, an inner envelope protein required for both assembly of FtsZ and recruitment of ARC5. Recently, we showed that ARC6 specifies the mid-plastid positioning of the outer envelope proteins PDV1 and PDV2, which have parallel functions in dynamin recruitment. PDV2 positioning involves direct ARC6-PDV2 interaction, but PDV1 and ARC6 do not interact indicating that an additional factor functions downstream of ARC6 to position PDV1. Here, we show that PARC6 (paralog of ARC6), an ARC6-like protein unique to vascular plants, fulfills this role. Like ARC6, PARC6 is an inner envelope protein with its N-terminus exposed to the stroma and Arabidopsis parc6 mutants exhibit defects of chloroplast and FtsZ filament morphology. However, whereas ARC6 promotes FtsZ assembly, PARC6 appears to inhibit FtsZ assembly, suggesting that ARC6 and PARC6 function as antagonistic regulators of FtsZ dynamics. The FtsZ inhibitory activity of PARC6 may involve its interaction with the FtsZ-positioning factor ARC3. A PARC6-GFP fusion protein localizes both to the mid-plastid and to a single spot at one pole, reminiscent of the localization of ARC3, PDV1 and ARC5. Although PARC6 localizes PDV1, it is not required for PDV2 localization or ARC5 recruitment. Our findings indicate that PARC6, like ARC6, plays a role in coordinating the internal and external components of the chloroplast division complex, but that PARC6 has evolved distinct functions in the division process.
Plastids arose from a free-living cyanobacterial endosymbiont and multiply by binary division as do cyanobacteria. Plastid division involves nucleus-encoded homologs of cyanobacterial division proteins such as FtsZ, MinD, MinE, and ARC6. However, homologs of many other cyanobacterial division genes are missing in plant genomes and proteins of host eukaryotic origin, such as a dynamin-related protein, PDV1 and PDV2 are involved in the division process. Recent identification of plastid division proteins has started to elucidate the similarities and differences between plastid division and cyanobacterial cell division. To further identify new proteins that are required for plastid division, we characterized previously and newly isolated plastid division mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.
Unicellular marine algae have promise for providing sustainable and scalable biofuel feedstocks, although no single species has emerged as a preferred organism. Moreover, adequate molecular and genetic resources prerequisite for the rational engineering of marine algal feedstocks are lacking for most candidate species. Heterokonts of the genus Nannochloropsis naturally have high cellular oil content and are already in use for industrial production of high-value lipid products. First success in applying reverse genetics by targeted gene replacement makes Nannochloropsis oceanica an attractive model to investigate the cell and molecular biology and biochemistry of this fascinating organism group. Here we present the assembly of the 28.7 Mb genome of N. oceanica CCMP1779. RNA sequencing data from nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-depleted growth conditions support a total of 11,973 genes, of which in addition to automatic annotation some were manually inspected to predict the biochemical repertoire for this organism. Among others, more than 100 genes putatively related to lipid metabolism, 114 predicted transcription factors, and 109 transcriptional regulators were annotated. Comparison of the N. oceanica CCMP1779 gene repertoire with the recently published N. gaditana genome identified 2,649 genes likely specific to N. oceanica CCMP1779. Many of these N. oceanica-specific genes have putative orthologs in other species or are supported by transcriptional evidence. However, because similarity-based annotations are limited, functions of most of these species-specific genes remain unknown. Aside from the genome sequence and its analysis, protocols for the transformation of N. oceanica CCMP1779 are provided. The availability of genomic and transcriptomic data for Nannochloropsis oceanica CCMP1779, along with efficient transformation protocols, provides a blueprint for future detailed gene functional analysis and genetic engineering of Nannochloropsis species by a growing academic community focused on this genus.
FtsZ, a cytoskeletal GTPase, forms a contractile ring for cell division in bacteria and chloroplast division in plants. Whereas bacterial Z rings are composed of a single FtsZ, those in chloroplasts contain two distinct FtsZ proteins, FtsZ1 and FtsZ2, whose functional relationship is poorly understood. We expressed fluorescently tagged FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 in fission yeast to investigate their intrinsic assembly and dynamic properties. FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 formed filaments with differing morphologies when expressed separately. FRAP showed that FtsZ2 filaments were less dynamic than FtsZ1 filaments and that GTPase activity was essential for FtsZ2 filament turnover but may not be solely responsible for FtsZ1 turnover. When coexpressed, the proteins colocalized, consistent with coassembly, but exhibited an FtsZ2-like morphology. However, FtsZ1 increased FtsZ2 exchange into coassembled filaments. Our findings suggest that FtsZ2 is the primary determinant of chloroplast Z-ring structure, whereas FtsZ1 facilitates Z-ring remodeling. We also demonstrate that ARC3, a regulator of chloroplast Z-ring positioning, functions as an FtsZ1 assembly inhibitor.
The Arabidopsis arc1 (accumulation and replication of chloroplasts 1) mutant has pale seedlings and smaller, more numerous chloroplasts than the wild type. Previous work has suggested that arc1 affects the timing of chloroplast division but does not function directly in the division process. We isolated ARC1 by map-based cloning and discovered it encodes FtsHi1 (At4g23940), one of several FtsHi proteins in Arabidopsis. These poorly studied proteins resemble FtsH metalloproteases important for organelle biogenesis and protein quality control but are presumed to be proteolytically inactive. FtsHi1 bears a predicted chloroplast transit peptide and localizes to the chloroplast envelope membrane. Phenotypic studies showed that arc1 (hereafter ftsHi1-1), which bears a missense mutation, is a weak allele of FtsHi1 that disrupts thylakoid development and reduces de-etiolation efficiency in seedlings, suggesting that FtsHi1 is important for chloroplast biogenesis. Consistent with this finding, transgenic plants suppressed for accumulation of an FtsHi1 fusion protein were often variegated. A strong T-DNA insertion allele, ftsHi1-2, caused embryo-lethality, indicating that FtsHi1 is an essential gene product. A wild-type FtsHi1 transgene rescued both the chloroplast division and pale phenotypes of ftsHi1-1 and the embryo-lethal phenotype of ftsHi1-2. FtsHi1 overexpression produced a subtle increase in chloroplast size and decrease in chloroplast number in wild-type plants while suppression led to increased numbers of small chloroplasts, providing new evidence that FtsHi1 negatively influences chloroplast division. Taken together, our analyses reveal that FtsHi1 functions in an essential, envelope-associated process that may couple plastid development with division.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.