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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Homologues of insecticidal toxin complex genes within a genomic island in the marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Three insecticidal toxin complex (tc)-like genes were identified in Vibrio parahaemolyticus 13-028/A3, which can cause acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease in penaeid shrimp. The three genes are a tcdA-like gene (7710 bp), predicted to code for a 284-kDa protein; a tcdB-like gene (4272 bp), predicted to code for a 158-kDa protein; and a tccC3-like gene (2916 bp), predicted to encode a 107-kDa protein. All three predicted proteins contain conserved domains that are characteristic of their respective Tc proteins. By RT-PCR, all three tc-like genes were found to be expressed in this bacterium. Through genome walking and the use of PCR to join contigs surrounding these three genes, a genomic island (87 712 bp, named tc-GIvp) was found on chromosome II localized next to the tRNA Gly. The GC content of this island, which is not found in other Vibrio species, is 40%. The tc-GIvp is characterized to have 60 ORFs encoding regulatory or virulence factors. These include a type 6 secretion protein VgrG, EAL domain-containing proteins, fimbriae subunits and assembly proteins, invasin-like proteins, peptidoglycan-binding proteins, and Tc proteins. The tc-GIvp also contains 21 transposase genes, suggesting that it was acquired through horizontal transfer from other organisms.
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Validation of a commercial insulated isothermal PCR-based POCKIT test for rapid and easy detection of white spot syndrome virus infection in Litopenaeus vannamei.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Timely pond-side detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) plays a critical role in the implementation of bio-security measures to help minimize economic losses caused by white spot syndrome disease, an important threat to shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. A portable device, namely POCKIT™, became available recently to complete fluorescent probe-based insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR), and automatic data detection and interpretation within one hour. Taking advantage of this platform, the IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system was established to allow simple and easy WSSV detection for on-site users. The assay was first evaluated for its analytical sensitivity and specificity performance. The 95% limit of detection (LOD) of the assay was 17 copies of WSSV genomic DNA per reaction (95% confidence interval [CI], 13 to 24 copies per reaction). The established assay has detection sensitivity similar to that of OIE-registered IQ2000™ WSSV Detection and Protection System with serial dilutions of WSSV-positive Litopenaeus vannamei DNA. No cross-reaction signals were generated from infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) positive samples. Accuracy analysis using 700 L. vannamei of known WSSV infection status shows that the established assayhassensitivity93.5% (95% CI: 90.61-95.56%) and specificity 97% (95% CI: 94.31-98.50%). Furthermore, no discrepancy was found between the two assays when 100 random L. vannamei samples were tested in parallel. Finally, excellent correlation was observed among test results of three batches of reagents with 64 samples analyzed in three different laboratories. Working in a portable device, IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system allows reliable, sensitive and specific on-site detection of WSSV in L. vannamei.
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Novel, closely related, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genotypes from Madagascar, Mozambique and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Dis. Aquat. Org.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is highly pathogenic to penaeid shrimp and has caused significant economic losses in the aquaculture industry around the world. During 2010 to 2012, WSSV caused severe mortalities in cultured penaeid shrimp in Saudi Arabia, Mozambique and Madagascar. To investigate the origins of these WSSV, we performed genotyping analyses at 5 loci: the 3 open reading frames (ORFs) 125, 94 and 75, each containing a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), and deletions in the 2 variable regions, VR14/15 and VR23/24. We categorized the WSSV genotype as {N125, N94, N75, ?X14/15, ?X23/24} where N is the number of repeat units in a specific ORF and ?X is the length (base pair) of deletion within the variable region. We detected 4 WSSV genotypes, which were characterized by a full-length deletion in ORF94/95, a relatively small ORF75 and one specific deletion length in each variable region. There are 2 closely related genotypes in these 3 countries: {6125, del94, 375, ?595014/15, ?1097123/24} and {7125, del94, 375, ?595014/15, ?1097123/24}, where del is the full-length ORF deletion. In Saudi Arabia, 2 other related types of WSSV were also found: {6125, 794, 375, ?595014/15, ?1097123/24} and {8125, 1394, 375, ?595014/15, ?1097123/24}. The identical patterns of 3 loci in these 4 types indicate that they have a common lineage, and this suggests that the WSSV epidemics in these 3 countries were from a common source, possibly the environment.
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A histological variant of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
J. Invertebr. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is highly pathogenic to penaeid shrimp. The major targets of WSSV infection are tissues of ectodermal and mesodermal embryonic origin, predominantly the cuticular epithelium and subcuticular connective tissues. Recently, we discovered a WSSV variant in Penaeus indicus that heavily infects the subcuticular connective tissue, with very slight indications in the cuticular epithelium. The variant was also unusual in that WSSV accumulations were found in the interstitial spaces of both the subcuticular connective tissue and the lymphoid organ. This WSSV variant was confirmed through immunohistochemistry with an anti-WSSV VP28 monoclonal antibody, and also by in situ hybridization with a VP28 DNA probe. By in situ hybridization, shrimp with variant and typical histology were shown a deletion in ORF94, which is characteristic of a new type of WSSV found in Saudi Arabia; apparently, the loss of this ORF is not associated with the variants reduced capability of infecting the cuticular epithelium cells.
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The effect of menthol on cigarette smoking behaviors, biomarkers and subjective responses.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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As part of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration charged the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee with developing a report and recommendations about the effect of menthol in cigarettes on the public health. The purpose of this study was to examine smoking behaviors, biomarkers of exposure, and subjective responses when switching from a novel menthol cigarette to a non-menthol cigarette to isolate the effect of menthol and to approximate the effect a menthol ban might have on smokers.
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A geographical analysis of breast cancer clustering in southern Ontario: generating hypotheses on environmental influences.
Int J Environ Health Res
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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This article presents the results of spatial analysis of breast cancer clustering in southern Ontario. Data from the Cancer Care Ontario were analyzed using the Scan Statistic at the level of county, with further analysis conducted within counties that were identified as primary clusters at the dissemination area level. The results identified five counties as primary clusters of women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1986 and 2002: Essex (relative risk [RR] =1.096-1.061; p<0.001), Lambton (RR=1.05-1.167), Chatham-Kent (RR=1.133-1.191), Niagara (RR=1.228-1.290) and Toronto (RR=1.152-1.146). The within county analysis revealed several DAs with significantly higher (RR>3, p<0.05) rates of breast cancer, and supports our hypothesis that breast cancer risk in southern Ontario may be associated with industrial and environmental (such as pesticides) pollutants. Further research is needed to verify the environmental links within the identified clusters.
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Ultrastructural and sequence characterization of Penaeus vannamei nodavirus (PvNV) from Belize.
Dis. Aquat. Org.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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The Penaeus vannamei nodavirus (PvNV), which causes muscle necrosis in Penaeus vannamei from Belize, was identified in 2005. Infected shrimp show clinical signs of white, opaque lesions in the tail muscle. Under transmission electron microscopy, the infected cells exhibit increases in various organelles, including mitochondria, Golgi stacks, and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Cytoplasmic inclusions containing para-crystalline arrays of virions were visualized. The viral particle is spherical in shape and 19 to 27 nm in diameter. A cDNA library was constructed from total RNA extracted from infected shrimp. Through nucleotide sequencing from the cDNA clones and northern blot hybridization, the PvNV genome was shown to consist of 2 segments: RNA1 (3111 bp) and RNA2 (1183 bp). RNA1 contains 2 overlapped open reading frames (ORF A and B), which may encode a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a B2 protein, respectively. RNA2 contains a single ORF that may encode the viral capsid protein. Sequence analyses showed the presence of 4 RdRp characteristic motifs and 2 conserved domains (RNA-binding B2 protein and viral coat protein) in the PvNV genome. Phylogenetic analysis based on the translated amino acid sequence of the RdRp reveals that PvNV is a member of the genus Alphanodavirus and closely related to Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). In a study investigating potential PvNV vectors, we monitored the presence of PvNV by RT-PCR in seabird feces and various aquatic organisms collected around a shrimp farm in Belize. PvNV was detected in mosquitofish, seabird feces, barnacles, and zooplankton, suggesting that PvNV can be spread via these carriers.
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Histopathological characterization and in situ detection of Callinectes sapidus reovirus.
J. Invertebr. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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A reovirus (tentatively designated as Callinectes sapidus reovirus, CsRV) was found in the blue crabs C. sapidus collected in Chesapeake Bay in 2005. Histological examination of hepatopancreas and gill from infected crabs revealed eosinophilic to basophilic, cytoplasmic, inclusions in hemocytes and in cells of connective tissue. A cDNA library was constructed from total RNA extracted from hemolymph of infected crabs. One clone (designated as CsRV-28) with a 532-bp insert was 75% identical in nucleotide sequence (and 95% similar in translated amino acid sequence) to the quanylytransferase gene of the Scylla serrata reovirus (SsRV). The insert of CsRV-28 was labeled with digoxigenin-11-dUTP and hybridized to sections of hepatopancreas and gill of infected C. sapidus, this probe reacted to hemocytes and cells in the connective tissue. No reaction was seen in any of the tissues prepared from uninfected crabs. Thus, this in situ hybridization procedure can be used to diagnose CsRV.
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Synthesis and characterization of dimethacrylates containing quaternary ammonium functionalities for dental applications.
Dent Mater
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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The widespread incidence of recurrent caries highlights the need for improved dental restorative materials. The objective of this study was to synthesize low viscosity ionic dimethacrylate monomers (IDMAs) that contain quaternary ammoniums groups (antimicrobial functionalities) and are compatible with existing dental dimethacrylate-based monomers. Such monomers have the potential to copolymerize with other methacrylate monomers and produce antibacterial polymers.
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Duplex real-time PCR for detection and quantification of monodon baculovirus (MBV) and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) in Penaeus monodon.
Dis. Aquat. Org.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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We describe a duplex real-time PCR assay using TaqMan probes for the simultaneous detection of monodon baculovirus (MBV) and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV). Both MBV and HPV are shrimp enteric viruses that infect intestinal and hepatopancreatic epithelial cells. Both viruses can cause significant mortalities and depressed growth in infected larval, postlarval, and early juvenile stages of shrimp, and thus present a risk to commercial aquaculture. In this duplex assay, we combined 2 single real-time PCRs, amplifying MBV and HPV, in a one-tube PCR reaction. The 2 viruses were distinguished by specific fluorescent labels at the 5 end of TaqMan probes: the MBV probe was labeled with dichlorodimethoxyfluorescein (JOE), and the HPV probe was labeled with 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM). The duplex real-time PCR assay was performed in a multi-channel real-time PCR detection system, and MBV and HPV amplification signals were separately detected by the JOE and FAM channels. This duplex assay was validated to be specific to the target viruses and found to have a detection limit of single copies for each virus. The dynamic range was found to be from 1 to 1 x 10(8) copies per reaction. This assay was further applied to quantify MBV and HPV in samples of infected Penaeus monodon collected from Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand. The specificity and sensitivity of this duplex real-time PCR assay offer a valuable tool for routine diagnosis and quantification of MBV and HPV from both wild and farmed shrimp stocks.
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Graphic-enhanced information improves perceived risks of cigar smoking.
Addict Behav
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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The Internet is a major source of health information and several notable health web sites contain information on the risks associated with cigar smoking. Previous research indicates that Internet pages containing health information on cigars have high reading levels and are restricted to text material, which can decrease understanding. We examined the effects of existing text-only (from the United States National Cancer Institute website) versus novel graphic-enhanced information on smokers perceptions of health risks associated with cigar smoking. The study was a laboratory-based single session of current cigarette smokers (n=102) who viewed cigar smoking risk information on a computer monitor then completed cigar risk questionnaire items. Participants were randomized to view either text-only or graphic-enhanced cigar information. The graphic version contained additional risk information about cigarillos and little cigars. Text-only participants were more likely to underestimate perceived health risks associated with cigar smoking compared to graphic-enhanced participants (47.1% versus 17.7%, p=.001); and, graphic-enhanced participants were more likely to report that they would share the cigar health risk information with friends compared to those viewing text-only, 47.0% versus 27.4%, p=.005. Employing graphics to convey health risks associated with cigar smoking increases understanding and likeliness to share information. Integrating information about little cigar and cigarillo risk in conjunction with large cigar risk information is an effective public health strategy to provide more comprehensive risk information. Utilizing graphics on health information internet pages can increase knowledge and perceived risks of cigar smoking.
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An agonist sensitive, quick and simple cell-based signaling assay for determination of ligands mimicking prostaglandin E2 or E1 activity through subtype EP1 receptor: Suitable for high throughput screening.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
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Conventionally the active ingredients in herbal extracts are separated into individual components, by fractionation, desalting, and followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In this study we have tried to directly screen water-soluble fractions of herbs with potential active ingredients before purification or extraction. We propose that the herbal extracts mimicking prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)) and E(2) (PGE(2)) can be identified in the water-soluble non-purified fraction. PGE(1) is a potent anti-inflammatory molecule used for treating peripheral vascular diseases while PGE(2) is an inflammatory molecule.
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Nicotine metabolite ratio predicts smoking topography and carcinogen biomarker level.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Variability in smoking behavior is partly attributable to heritable individual differences in nicotine clearance rates. This can be assessed as the ratio of the metabolites cotinine and 3-hydroxycotinine (referred to as the nicotine metabolism ratio; NMR). We hypothesized that faster NMR would be associated with greater cigarette puff volume and higher levels of total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), a carcinogen biomarker.
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Genotyping of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) geographical isolates from Brazil and comparison to other isolates from the Americas.
Dis. Aquat. Org.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2010
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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a viral pathogen that has caused significant economic losses in shrimp farming. Variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) (open reading frame [ORF] 94, 125 and 75), a large deletion (ORF 23/24) and a transposase were proposed as molecular markers for genotyping. WSSV-infected shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were collected in 2 Brazilian regions (Santa Catarina and Bahia) from 2005 to 2008. DNA was extracted and PCR of the variable regions was performed, followed by sequencing. All Santa Catarina samples showed the same number of repeats for the minisatellites analyzed. Bahia samples showed a different pattern for the regions, indicating that there are at least 2 different WSSV genotypes in Brazil. Both Brazilian isolates have an 11453 bp deletion in ORF 23/24 when compared with WSSV-TW (Taiwan), which has the full sequence for this locus. The Brazilian WSSV isolates were compared with WSSV isolates from other countries in the Americas (USA, Panama, Honduras, Mexico and Nicaragua); the repeat number patterns for the 3 VNTR regions analyzed were different between the Brazilian isolates and the other western-hemisphere isolates. This may be due to mutations in WSSV after its introduction into the different countries. Our results also show that WSSV found in Bahia and Santa Catarina very likely originated from different sources of contamination.
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Behavioral filter vent blocking on the first cigarette of the day predicts which smokers of light cigarettes will increase smoke exposure from blocked vents.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2009
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Filter vent blocking on best-selling light cigarettes increases smoke yield during standard machine testing but not in clinical investigations of smokers. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of (a) manipulating cigarette filter vent blocking and (b) blocking status of first cigarette of the day on carbon monoxide (CO) boost. Participants (n = 25; Marlboro Lights nonmenthol cigarette smokers, age range 21-60 years, minimum 15 daily cigarettes, and daily smoking for a minimum 5 years) completed the laboratory-based, within-subject, double-blind, cross-over design of 2 smoking sessions, one utilizing a smoking topography device, one without. Each session consisted of smoking 4 cigarettes; 2 with filter vents blocked and 2 with filter vents unblocked. Spent first daily cigarette filters collected between sessions were scored for evidence of filter vent blocking. Smoking cigarettes with blocked filter vents significantly increased CO boost in both laboratory sessions (p < .001). Those who blocked their first cigarette of the day (n = 10) had significantly greater CO boost when smoking a blocked cigarette, in relation to smoking an unblocked cigarette and in comparison with nonblockers (p = .04). Total puff volume was a significant predictor of CO boost when smoking unblocked and blocked cigarettes (ps < .04). Blocking filter vents significantly increased smoke exposure in relation to when filter vents are not blocked, particularly for those who block filter vents on their first cigarette of the day. Total puff volume predicted CO boost, and results suggest that smokers adjust their smoking behavior by cigarette blocking status. Those smokers who block filter vents may be increasing their exposure by 30%.
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Development of a real-time PCR assay for detection of monodon baculovirus (MBV) in penaeid shrimp.
J. Invertebr. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2009
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A real-time PCR method was developed to detect monodon baculovirus (MBV) in penaeid shrimp. A pair of MBV primers to amplify a 135bp DNA fragment and a TaqMan probe were developed. The primers and TaqMan probe were specific for MBV and did not cross react with Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic virus (IHHNV) and specific pathogen free (SPF) shrimp DNA. A plasmid (pMBV) containing the target MBV sequence was constructed and used for determination of the sensitivity of the real-time PCR. This real-time PCR assay had a detection limit of one plasmid MBV DNA copy. Most significantly, this real-time PCR method can detect MBV positive samples from different geographic locations in the University of Arizona collection, including Thailand and Indonesia collected over a 13-year period.
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A quick fuse and the emergence of Taura syndrome virus.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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Over the last two decades, Taura syndrome virus (TSV) has emerged as a major pathogen in penaeid shrimp aquaculture and has caused substantial economic loss. The disease was first discovered in Ecuador in 1991, and the virus is now globally distributed with the greatest concentration of infections in the Americas and Southeast Asia. To determine the evolutionary history of this virus, we constructed a phylogeny containing 83 TSV isolates from 16 countries sampled over a 16-year period. This phylogeny was inferred using a relaxed molecular clock in a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo framework. We found phylogenetic evidence that the TSV epidemic did indeed originate in the Americas sometime around 1991 (1988-1993). We estimated the TSV nucleotide substitution rate at 2.37 x 10(-3) (1.98 x 10(-3) to 2.82 x 10(-3)) substitutions/site/year within capsid gene 2. In addition, the phylogeny was able to independently corroborate many of the suspected routes of TSV transmission around the world. Finally, we asked whether TSV emergence in new geographic locations operates under a quick fuse (i.e. rapid appearance of widespread disease). Using a relaxed molecular clock, we determined that TSV is almost always discovered within a year of entering a new region. This suggests that current monitoring programs are effective at detecting novel TSV outbreaks.
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Experimental evaluation of antitobacco PSAs: effects of message content and format on physiological and behavioral outcomes.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2009
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Antitobacco media campaigns using public service announcements (PSAs) have shown promise in reducing smoking initiation and increasing intentions to quit. Research on what makes an effective PSA has had mixed outcomes. The present study tested the effects of specific message features in antitobacco PSAs, using theory-based physiological and self-report outcomes.
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Assessing the spatial distribution of nitrogen dioxide in London, Ontario.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc
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Land use regression (LUR) models have been widely used to characterize the spatial distribution of urban air pollution and estimate exposure in epidemiologic studies. However, spatial patterns of air pollution vary greatly between cities due to local source type and distribution. London, Ontario, Canada, is a medium-sized city with relatively few and isolated industrial point sources, which allowed the study to focus on the contribution of different transportation sectors to urban air pollution. This study used LUR models to estimate the spatial distribution of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and to identify local sources influencing NO2 concentrations in London, ON. Passive air sampling was conducted at 50 locations throughout London over a 2-week period in May-June 2010. NO2 concentrations at the monitored locations ranged from 2.8 to 8.9 ppb, with a median of 5.2 ppb. Industrial land use, dwelling density, distance to highway, traffic density, and length of railways were significant predictors of NO2 concentrations in the final LUR model, which explained 78% of NO2 variability in London. Traffic and dwelling density explained most of the variation in NO2 concentrations, which is consistent with LUR models developed in other Canadian cities. We also observed the importance of local characteristics. Specifically, 17% of the variation was explained by distance to highways, which included the impacts of heavily traveled corridors transecting the southern periphery of the city. Two large railway yards and railway lines throughout central areas of the city explained 9% of NO2 variability. These results confirm the importance of traditional LUR variables and highlight the importance of including a broader array of local sources in LUR modeling. Finally, future analyses will use the model developed in this study to investigate the association between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular disease outcomes, including plaque burden, cholesterol, and hypertension.
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Effect of polymer degree of conversion on Streptococcus mutans biofilms.
Macromol Biosci
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Biofilm-material interactions are increasingly recognized as critical to success of some materials/devices and failure of others. We use a model system of dental monomers, salivary pellicles, and oral biofilms to demonstrate for the first time that degree of conversion of cross-linked dimethacrylate polymers alters biofilm metabolic activity. This response is due primarily to leachable release (not surface chemistry) and is complex, with no changes in some biofilm measurements (i.e., biomass), and time- and leachable-dependent responses in others (i.e., metabolic activity). These results highlight the need for considering biofilm-material interactions when designing/evaluating new materials.
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Characterization of a new strain of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) from Colombian shrimp farms and the implication in the selection of TSV resistant lines.
J. Invertebr. Pathol.
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Prior to 2004, Colombian shrimp farming benefited from a selection program in which Penaeus vannamei stocks were developed with resistance to Taura syndrome disease (TS). However since 2004, TS reappeared as a significant disease. In 2010, an apparently new strain of TSV (designated as CO 10) was collected in Colombia. Its genome was sequenced and compared with six other fully sequenced isolates. This analysis revealed that the TSV CO 10 is closely related to the isolates from Hawaii and Venezuela. Phylogenetic analysis based on capsid protein 2 (CP2) region from 59 TSV isolates shows that the recent Colombian isolates (2006-2010) form a new cluster and differ from the previous Colombia isolates (1994-1998) by 4% in nucleotide sequence. The virulence of this CO 10 isolate was similar to a Belize TSV determined through experimental infection in P. vannamei showing 100% mortalities and similar survival curves. By RT-qPCR for TSV, the viral loads were also close in the infected shrimp from both CO 10 and Belize at the order of 1×10(10) copies per ?l RNA. To develop TSV-resistant lines, the candidate shrimp should be challenged with virus strains that have been isolated most recently from the regions where they will be cultured. This study suggests that the TSV present in Colombian shrimp farms during the last 5 years is a new TSV strain with high virulence.
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New genotypes of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Taura syndrome virus (TSV) from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Dis. Aquat. Org.
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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Taura syndrome virus (TSV) are highly pathogenic to penaeid shrimp and have caused significant economic losses in the shrimp culture industry around the world. During 2010 and 2011, both WSSV and TSV were found in Saudi Arabia, where they caused severe mortalities in cultured Indian white shrimp Penaeus indicus. Most outbreaks of shrimp viruses in production facilities can be traced to the importation of infected stocks or commodity shrimp. In an attempt to determine the origins of these viral outbreaks in Saudi Arabia, we performed variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analyses for WSSV isolates and a phylogenetic analysis for TSV isolates. From the WSSV genome, the VNTR in open reading frames (ORFs) 125 and 94 were investigated with PCR followed by DNA sequence analysis. The genotypes were categorized as {N125, N94} where N is the number of repeat units in a specific ORF, and the subscript indicates the ORF (i.e. ORFs 125 and 94 in this case). From 15 Saudi Arabia WSSV isolates, we detected 3 genotypes: {6125, 794}, {7125, del94}, and {8125, 1394}. The WSSV genotype of {7125, del94} appears to be a new variant with a 1522 bp deletion encompassing complete coding regions of ORF 94 and ORF 95 and the first 82 bp of ORF 93. For TSV genotyping, we used a phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of TSV capsid protein 2 (CP2). We analyzed 8 Saudi Arabian isolates in addition to 36 isolates from other areas: SE Asia, Mexico, Venezuela and Belize. The Saudi Arabian TSV clustered into a new, distinct group. Based on these genotyping analyses, new WSSV and TSV genotypes were found in Saudi Arabia. The data suggest that they have come from wild shrimp Penaeus indicus from the Red Sea that are used for broodstock.
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Graphic warning labels in cigarette advertisements: recall and viewing patterns.
Am J Prev Med
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The Family Smoking Prevention and Control Act gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legal authority to mandate graphic warning labels on cigarette advertising and packaging. The FDA requires that these graphic warning labels be embedded into cigarette advertising and packaging by September 2012.
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Effects of 21 days of varenicline versus placebo on smoking behaviors and urges among non-treatment seeking smokers.
J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford)
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Varenicline promotes smoking cessation and reduces urges to smoke. However, the mechanisms associated with these effects and their time course are not well characterized. One mechanism may be extinction, but the duration of the current dosing protocol may not be sufficient. We examined the effect of extended pre-treatment with varenicline on smoking behavior among 17 non-treatment seeking adult smokers. Using a within-subjects, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, participants received standard dosing of varenicline for 21 days, followed by a 14-day washout period and 21 days of placebo; order counterbalanced. Cigarettes per day (CPD), smoking topography, smoking urges (QSU), and side effects were assessed every three days. Biomarkers (e.g. nicotine metabolites) were collected on days 1, 7, and 21. There was a significant drug by time interaction indicating a reduction in CPD during varenicline phase (between days 10-21), but no reduction during placebo. Varenicline also led to reductions in nicotine metabolites and urges to smoke. Among this sample of non-treatment seeking smokers, varenicline significantly reduced smoking behavior. Results have important treatment implications because changes in CPD and craving did not occur until after the typical one-week run-up period. This suggests that a longer duration of pre-treatment may be beneficial for some smokers.
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Protection from yellow head virus (YHV) infection in Penaeus vannamei pre-infected with Taura syndrome virus (TSV).
Dis. Aquat. Org.
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Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei that were pre-exposed to Taura syndrome virus (TSV) and then challenged with yellow head virus (YHV) acquired partial protection from yellow head disease (YHD). Experimental infections were carried out using specific-pathogen-free (SPF) shrimp which were first exposed per os to TSV; at 27, 37 and 47 d post infection they were then challenged by injection with 1 × 104 copies of YHV per shrimp (designated the TSV-YHV group). Shrimp not infected with TSV were injected with YHV as a positive control. Survival analyses comparing the TSV-YHV and YHV (positive control) groups were conducted, and significant survival rates were found for all the time groups (p < 0.001). A higher final survival was found in the TSV-YHV group (mean 55%) than in the positive control (0%) (p < 0.05). Duplex reverse transcription quantitative PCR was used to quantify both TSV and YHV. Lower YHV copy numbers were found in the TSV-YHV group than in the positive control in pleopods (3.52 × 109 vs. 1.88 × 1010 copies µg RNA-1) (p < 0.001) and lymphoid organ (LO) samples (3.52 × 109 vs. 1.88 × 1010 copies µg RNA-1) (p < 0.01). In situ hybridization assays were conducted, and differences in the distribution of the 2 viruses in the target tissues were found. The foci of LO were infected with TSV but were not infected with YHV. This study suggests that a viral interference effect exists between TSV and YHV, which could, in part, explain the absence of YHD in the Americas, where P. vannamei are often raised in farms where TSV is present.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.