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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Reconstruction of insulin signal flow from phosphoproteome and metabolome data.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Cellular homeostasis is regulated by signals through multiple molecular networks that include protein phosphorylation and metabolites. However, where and when the signal flows through a network and regulates homeostasis has not been explored. We have developed a reconstruction method for the signal flow based on time-course phosphoproteome and metabolome data, using multiple databases, and have applied it to acute action of insulin, an important hormone for metabolic homeostasis. An insulin signal flows through a network, through signaling pathways that involve 13 protein kinases, 26 phosphorylated metabolic enzymes, and 35 allosteric effectors, resulting in quantitative changes in 44 metabolites. Analysis of the network reveals that insulin induces phosphorylation and activation of liver-type phosphofructokinase 1, thereby controlling a key reaction in glycolysis. We thus provide a versatile method of reconstruction of signal flow through the network using phosphoproteome and metabolome data.
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The selective control of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis by temporal insulin patterns.
Mol. Syst. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Insulin governs systemic glucose metabolism, including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis, through temporal change and absolute concentration. However, how insulin-signalling pathway selectively regulates glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis remains to be elucidated. To address this issue, we experimentally measured metabolites in glucose metabolism in response to insulin. Step stimulation of insulin induced transient response of glycolysis and glycogenesis, and sustained response of gluconeogenesis and extracellular glucose concentration (GLC(ex)). Based on the experimental results, we constructed a simple computational model that characterises response of insulin-signalling-dependent glucose metabolism. The model revealed that the network motifs of glycolysis and glycogenesis pathways constitute a feedforward (FF) with substrate depletion and incoherent feedforward loop (iFFL), respectively, enabling glycolysis and glycogenesis responsive to temporal changes of insulin rather than its absolute concentration. In contrast, the network motifs of gluconeogenesis pathway constituted a FF inhibition, enabling gluconeogenesis responsive to absolute concentration of insulin regardless of its temporal patterns. GLC(ex) was regulated by gluconeogenesis and glycolysis. These results demonstrate the selective control mechanism of glucose metabolism by temporal patterns of insulin.
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The extraction of simple relationships in growth factor-specific multiple-input and multiple-output systems in cell-fate decisions by backward elimination PLS regression.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Cells use common signaling molecules for the selective control of downstream gene expression and cell-fate decisions. The relationship between signaling molecules and downstream gene expression and cellular phenotypes is a multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) system and is difficult to understand due to its complexity. For example, it has been reported that, in PC12 cells, different types of growth factors activate MAP kinases (MAPKs) including ERK, JNK, and p38, and CREB, for selective protein expression of immediate early genes (IEGs) such as c-FOS, c-JUN, EGR1, JUNB, and FOSB, leading to cell differentiation, proliferation and cell death; however, how multiple-inputs such as MAPKs and CREB regulate multiple-outputs such as expression of the IEGs and cellular phenotypes remains unclear. To address this issue, we employed a statistical method called partial least squares (PLS) regression, which involves a reduction of the dimensionality of the inputs and outputs into latent variables and a linear regression between these latent variables. We measured 1,200 data points for MAPKs and CREB as the inputs and 1,900 data points for IEGs and cellular phenotypes as the outputs, and we constructed the PLS model from these data. The PLS model highlighted the complexity of the MIMO system and growth factor-specific input-output relationships of cell-fate decisions in PC12 cells. Furthermore, to reduce the complexity, we applied a backward elimination method to the PLS regression, in which 60 input variables were reduced to 5 variables, including the phosphorylation of ERK at 10 min, CREB at 5 min and 60 min, AKT at 5 min and JNK at 30 min. The simple PLS model with only 5 input variables demonstrated a predictive ability comparable to that of the full PLS model. The 5 input variables effectively extracted the growth factor-specific simple relationships within the MIMO system in cell-fate decisions in PC12 cells.
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Construction of a genetic AND gate under a new standard for assembly of genetic parts.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2010
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Appropriate regulation of respective gene expressions is a bottleneck for the realization of artificial biological systems inside living cells. The modification of several promoter sequences is required to achieve appropriate regulation of the systems. However, a time-consuming process is required for the insertion of an operator, a binding site of a protein for gene expression, to the gene regulatory region of a plasmid. Thus, a standardized method for integrating operator sequences to the regulatory region of a plasmid is required.
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The scaffold protein Shoc2/SUR-8 accelerates the interaction of Ras and Raf.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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Shoc2/SUR-8 positively regulates Ras/ERK MAP kinase signaling by serving as a scaffold for Ras and Raf. Here, we examined the role of Shoc2 in the spatio-temporal regulation of Ras by using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensor, together with computational modeling. In epidermal growth factor-stimulated HeLa cells, RNA-mediated Shoc2 knockdown reduced the phosphorylation of MEK and ERK with half-maximal inhibition, but not the activation of Ras. For the live monitoring of Ras binding to Raf, we utilized a FRET biosensor wherein Ras and the Ras-binding domain of Raf were connected tandemly and sandwiched with acceptor and donor fluorescent proteins for the FRET measurement. With this biosensor, we found that Shoc2 was required for the rapid interaction of Ras with Raf upon epidermal growth factor stimulation. To decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying the kinetics, we developed two computational models that might account for the action of Shoc2 in the Ras-ERK signaling. One of these models, the Shoc2 accelerator model, provided a reasonable explanation of the experimental observations. In this Shoc2 accelerator model, Shoc2 accelerated both the association and dissociation of Ras-Raf interaction. We propose that Shoc2 regulates the spatio-temporal patterns of the Ras-ERK signaling pathway primarily by accelerating the Ras-Raf interaction.
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Latent process genes for cell differentiation are common decoders of neurite extension length.
J. Cell. Sci.
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A latent process involving signal transduction and gene expression is needed as a preparation step for cellular function. We previously found that nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced cell differentiation has a latent process, which is dependent on ERK activity and gene expression and required for subsequent neurite extension. A latent process can be considered as a preparation step that decodes extracellular stimulus information into cellular functions; however, molecular mechanisms of this process remain unknown. We identified Metrnl, Dclk1 and Serpinb1a as genes that are induced during the latent process (LP) with distinct temporal expression profiles and are required for subsequent neurite extension in PC12 cells. The LP genes showed distinct dependency on the duration of ERK activity, and they were also induced during the latent process of PACAP- and forskolin-induced cell differentiation. Regardless of neurotrophic factors, expression levels of the LP genes during the latent process (0-12 hours), but not phosphorylation levels of ERK, always correlated with subsequent neurite extension length (12-24 hours). Overexpression of all LP genes together, but not of each gene separately, enhanced NGF-induced neurite extension. The LP gene products showed distinct spatial localization. Thus, the LP genes appear to be the common decoders for neurite extension length regardless of neurotrophic factors, and they might function in distinct temporal and spatial manners during the latent process. Our findings provide molecular insight into the physiological meaning of the latent process as the preparation step for decoding information for future phenotypic change.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.