The class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) can be activated by a large variety of extracellular stimuli and is responsible for generating phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P(3)) from phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate at the plasma membrane. The expression pattern of the class I PI3K and distribution of PI(3,4,5)P(3), visualized by its specific binding protein, GRP1-PH, were examined during Drosophila embryogenesis. We found that the RNA of Pi3K21B, encoding the Drosophila p60 regulatory subunit of the class I PI3Ks, was expressed maternally and expressed primarily in pole cells after cellularization until completion of germ band elongation. The RNA of Pi3K92E, encoding the Drosophila p110 catalytic subunit of the class I PI3Ks, was also expressed maternally. During gastrulation, its transcript level became lower and was slightly enriched in invaginating cells. Both Pi3K21B and Pi3K92E were expressed ubiquitously after germ band elongation and persisted during germ band shortening. PI(3,4,5)P(3) was distributed at the apical region of the invaginating cells during gastrulation. These findings suggest a possible involvement of class I PI3K and PI(3,4,5)P(3) in the regulation of invagination during gastrulation.
G2A is a G protein-coupled receptor that can be induced by various stressors. G2A is reported to have proton-sensing activity that mediates intracellular inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation with decreasing pH. We previously showed that G2A is also activated by some oxidized free fatty acids such as 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE). In this study, we identified a novel alternative splice variant of G2A (G2A-b) that has a partially different N terminus compared with the G2A originally reported (G2A-a). The two splice variants of G2A show similar tissue distributions, but G2A-b is expressed more abundantly. There was no difference between the two variants in 9-HODE-induced cellular responses, such as intracellular calcium mobilization and GDP/GTP exchange of Galpha protein, and in proton-sensitive IP accumulation. However, G2A-b showed a higher basal activity in terms of IP accumulation. Mutagenesis study revealed that the difference in the basal activity is attributable to the K7 residue that exists only in G2A-a. We further demonstrated that an R42A mutation largely impaired both the basal and proton-sensing activities, but did not affect the 9-HODE-induced intracellular calcium increase. Taken together, we found an additional novel G2A variant (G2A-b) that is the major transcript with functional response to ligand stimulation as well as G2A-a, and succeeded in discriminating proton-sensing and oxidized fatty acid-sensing activities of G2A.
Cells exposed to genotoxic stress, such as ionizing radiation and DNA damaging reagents, either arrest the cell cycle to repair the genome, or undergo apoptosis, depending on the extent of the DNA damage. DNA damage also has been implicated in various differentiation processes. It has been reported that gamma-ray exposure or treatment with DNA-damaging agents could induce myogenic differentiation in Drosophila Schneider cells. However, the mechanism underlying this process has been poorly understood. In this study, exposure of Schneider cells to X-rays or energetic carbon ion beams caused increase of TUNEL-positive cells and conversion of round-shaped cells to elongated cells. Both upregulation of genes related to myogenesis and increase of myosin indicate that the radiation-induced morphological changes of Schneider cells were accompanied with myogenic differentiation. Because the intracellular ceramide was increased in Schneider cells after exposure to X-ray, we examined whether exogenous ceramide could mimic radiation-induced myogenic differentiation. Addition of membrane-permeable C(2)-ceramide to Schneider cells increased apoptosis and expression of myogenic genes. These results suggest that ceramide plays important roles in both apoptosis and the radiation-induced myogenic differentiation process.
Acylprotein thioesterase 1 (APT1), also known as lysophospholipase 1, is an important enzyme responsible for depalmitoylation of palmitoyl proteins. To clarify the substrate selectivity and the intracellular function of APT1, we performed kinetic analyses and competition assays using a recombinant human APT1 (hAPT1) and investigated the subcellular localization. For this purpose, an assay for thioesterase activity against a synthetic palmitoyl peptide using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was established. The thioesterase activity of hAPT1 was most active at neutral pH, and did not require Ca(2+) for its maximum activity. The K(M) values for thioesterase and lysophospholipase (against lysophosphatidylcholine) activities were 3.49 and 27.3 microM, and the V(max) values were 27.3 and 1.62 micromol/min/mg, respectively. Thus, hAPT1 revealed much higher thioesterase activity than lysophospholipase activity. One activity was competitively inhibited by another substrate in the presence of both substrates. Immunocytochemical and Western blot analyses revealed that endogenous and overexpressed hAPT1 were mainly localized in the cytosol, while some signals were detected in the plasma membrane, the nuclear membrane and ER in HEK293 cells. These results suggest that eliminating palmitoylated proteins and lysophospholipids from cytosol is one of the functions of hAPT1.
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