Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who relapse after autologous transplantation have limited therapeutic options. We conducted a prospective, multicenter, phase IIa study to investigate the safety and efficacy of i.v. busulfan (Bu) in combination with bortezomib as a conditioning regimen for a second autotransplantation. Because a safe Bu exposure was unknown in patients receiving this combination, Bu was initially targeted to a total area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 20,000 ?M × minute. As no concentration-limiting toxicity was observed in 6 patients, this Bu exposure was utilized in the following treatment cohort (n = 24). Individualized Bu dose, based on test dose .8 mg/kg pharmacokinetics (PK), was administered daily for 4 consecutive days starting 5 days before transplantation, followed by a single dose of bortezomib (1.3 mg/m(2)) 1 day before transplantation. The total mean dose of i.v. Bu (including the test dose and 4-day administration) was 14.2 mg/kg (standard deviation = 2.48; range, 8.7 to 19.2). Confirmatory PK demonstrated that only 2 of 30 patients who underwent transplantation were dosed outside the Bu AUC target and dose adjustments were made for the last 2 doses of i.v. Bu. The median age was 59 years (range, 48 to 73). Median time from first to second transplantation was 28.0 months (range, 12 to 119). Of 26 evaluable patients, 10 patients attained a partial response (PR) or better at 3 months after transplantation, with 2 patients attaining a complete response. At 6 months after transplantation, 5 of 12 evaluable patients had maintained or improved their disease status. Median progression-free survival was 191 days, whereas median overall survival was not reached during the study period. The most common grade 3 and 4 toxicities were febrile neutropenia (50.0%) and stomatitis (43.3%). One transplantation-related death was observed. A combination of dose-targeted i.v. Bu and bortezomib induced PR or better in one third of patients with MM who underwent a second autotransplantation, with acceptable toxicity.
We conducted a prospective cohort study testing the noninferiority of survival of ablative intravenous busulfan (IV-BU) vs ablative total body irradiation (TBI)-based regimens in myeloid malignancies. A total of 1483 patients undergoing transplantation for myeloid malignancies (IV-BU, N = 1025; TBI, N = 458) were enrolled. Cohorts were similar with respect to age, gender, race, performance score, disease, and disease stage at transplantation. Most patients had acute myeloid leukemia (68% IV-BU, 78% TBI). Grafts were primarily peripheral blood (77%) from HLA-matched siblings (40%) or well-matched unrelated donors (48%). Two-year probabilities of survival (95% confidence interval [CI]), were 56% (95% CI, 53%-60%) and 48% (95% CI, 43%-54%, P = .019) for IV-BU (relative risk, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98, P = .03) and TBI, respectively. Corresponding incidences of transplant-related mortality (TRM) were 18% (95% CI, 16%-21%) and 19% (95% CI, 15%-23%, P = .75) and disease progression were 34% (95% CI, 31%-37%) and 39% (95% CI, 34%-44%, P = .08). The incidence of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) was 5% for IV-BU and 1% with TBI (P < .001). There were no differences in progression-free survival and graft-versus-host disease. Compared with TBI, IV-BU resulted in superior survival with no increased risk for relapse or TRM. These results support the use of myeloablative IV-BU vs TBI-based conditioning regimens for treatment of myeloid malignancies.
Tyrosine nitration is a covalent post-translational protein modification associated with various diseases related to oxidative/nitrative stress. A role for nitration of tyrosine in protein inactivation has been proposed; however, few studies have established a direct link between this modification and loss of protein function. In the present study, we determined the effect of nitration of Tyr345 and Tyr368 in the beta-subunit of the F1-ATPase using site-directed mutagenesis. Nitration of the beta-subunit, achieved by using TNM (tetranitromethane), resulted in 66% ATPase activity loss. This treatment resulted in the modification of several asparagine, methionine and tyrosine residues. However, nitrated tyrosine and ATPase inactivation were decreased in reconstituted F1 with Y368F (54%), Y345F (28%) and Y345,368F (1%) beta-subunits, indicating a clear link between nitration at these positions and activity loss, regardless of the presence of other modifications. Kinetic studies indicated that an F1 with one nitrated tyrosine residue (Tyr345 or Tyr368) or two Tyr368 residues was sufficient to grant inactivation. Tyr368 was four times more reactive to nitration due to its lower pKa. Inactivation was attributed mainly to steric hindrance caused by adding a bulky residue more than the presence of a charged group or change in the phenolic pKa due to the introduction of a nitro group. Nitration at this residue would be more relevant under conditions of low nitrative stress. Conversely, at high nitrative stress conditions, both tyrosine residues would contribute equally to ATPase inactivation.
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