We established a method to generate a large quantity of myeloid lineage cells from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, termed ES cell-derived proliferating myeloid cell lines (ES-ML). ES-ML continuously proliferated in the presence of M-CSF and GM-CSF. ES-ML genetically modified to express an anti-HER2 (neu) mAb single-chain V region fragment reduced the number of cocultured mouse Colon-26 cancer cells expressing HER2. Stimulation of ES-ML with IFN-? plus LPS or TNF resulted in almost complete killing of the Colon-26 cells by the ES-ML, and the cytotoxicity was mediated, in part, by NO produced by ES-ML. When ES-ML were injected into mice with i.p. established Colon-26 tumors, they efficiently infiltrated the tumor tissues. Injection of ES-ML with rIFN-? and LPS inhibited cancer progression in the mouse peritoneal cavity. Coinjection of TNF-transfected or untransfected ES-ML with rIFN-? inhibited cancer growth and resulted in prolonged survival of the treated mice. In this experiment, transporter associated with Ag processing (TAP)1-deficient ES-ML exhibited therapeutic activity in MHC-mismatched allogeneic recipient mice. Despite the proliferative capacity of ES-ML, malignancy never developed from the transferred ES-ML in the recipient mice. In summary, TAP-deficient ES-ML with anticancer properties exhibited a therapeutic effect in allogeneic recipients, suggesting the possible use of TAP-deficient human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived proliferating myeloid cell lines in cancer therapy.
We established a method to produce a large quantity of myeloid cells from human inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). When injected intraperitoneally into mice carrying established peritoneal tumors, iPSC-derived myeloid cells (iPS-MCs) efficiently accumulated within neoplastic lesions. The intraperitoneal injection of iPS-MCs expressing interferon ? significantly inhibited the growth of human gastric and pancreatic cancers implanted in the peritoneal cavity of immunocompromised mice.
The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) Tax protein is believed to play a crucial role in leukemogenesis by the virus. BLV usually causes asymptomatic infections in cattle, but only one-third develop persistent lymphocytosis that rarely progress after a long incubation period to lymphoid tumors, namely enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL). In the present study, we demonstrated that the BLV tax genes could be divided into two alleles and developed multiplex PCR detecting an L233P mutation of the Tax protein. Then, in order to define the relationship between the Tax protein and leukemogenicity, we examined 360 tumor samples randomly collected from dairy or breeding cattle in Japan, of which Tax proteins were categorized, for age at the time of diagnosis of EBL. The ages of 288 animals (80.0%) associated with L233-Tax and those of 70 animals (19.4%) with P233-Tax individually followed log-normal distributions. Only the two earliest cases (0.6%) with L233-Tax disobeyed the log-normal distribution. These findings suggest that the animals affected by EBL were infected with the virus at a particular point in life, probably less than a few months after birth. Median age of those with P233-Tax was 22 months older than that with L233-Tax and geometric means exhibited a significant difference (P<0.01). It is also quite unlikely that viruses carrying the particular Tax protein infect older cattle. Here, we conclude that BLV could be divided into two categories on the basis of amino acid at position 233 of the Tax protein, which strongly correlated with leukemogenicity.
Anticancer vaccination therapies with monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) are widely conducted. A large number of primary monocytes (approximately 10(8) cells) are needed to generate the number of DC required to achieve an effect upon vaccination, and monocytes are usually purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained by apheresis procedure, which is somehow invasive for cancer patients. As a means to facilitate the generation of DC for therapeutic use, we herein report a method to amplify human monocytes. We found that lentivirus-mediated transduction of cMYC along with BMI1 induced proliferation of CD14(+) monocytes derived from 9 out of 12 blood donors, and we named the monocyte-derived proliferating cells CD14-ML. Their proliferation continued for 3-5 weeks in the presence of M-CSF and GM-CSF, resulting in 20-1000-fold amplification. Importantly, the expanded CD14-ML differentiated into fully functional DC (CD14-ML-DC) upon the addition of IL-4 to the culture. We successfully stimulated autologous CD8(+) T cells with CD14-ML-DC pulsed with cytomegalovirus peptide or MART-1 peptide to generate antigen-specific CTL lines. This is the first report describing the method for in vitro expansion of human peripheral blood monocytes.
We recently developed a method to generate myeloid cells with proliferation capacity from human iPS cells. iPS-ML (iPS-cell-derived myeloid/macrophage line), generated by introducing proliferation and anti-senescence factors into iPS-cell-derived myeloid cells, grew continuously in an M-CSF-dependent manner. A large number of cells exhibiting macrophage-like properties can be readily obtained by using this technology. In the current study, we evaluated the possible application of iPS-ML in anti-cancer therapy. We established a model of peritoneally disseminated gastric cancer by intraperitoneally injecting NUGC-4 human gastric cancer cells into SCID mice. When iPS-ML were injected intraperitoneally into the mice with pre-established peritoneal NUGC-4 tumors, iPS-ML massively accumulated and infiltrated into the tumor tissues. iPS-ML expressing IFN-? (iPS-ML/IFN-?) significantly inhibited the intra-peritoneal growth of NUGC-4 cancer. Furthermore, iPS-ML/IFN-? also inhibited the growth of human pancreatic cancer MIAPaCa-2 in a similar model. iPS-ML are therefore a promising treatment agent for peritoneally disseminated cancers, for which no standard treatment is currently available.
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in cattle causes persistent lymphocytosis, and a few percent of infected animals develop lymphoid tumors, namely enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). In this study, a 440-bp fragment of the env gene was amplified from 204 tumor samples collected from different regions of Japan and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to determine the association of BLV with EBL. Of the seven RFLP types defined, types I, II, and III were dominant and found in 12.7, 75.0, and 8.3% of tumor samples, respectively. Cattle harboring type III virus were significantly older than other animals at the time of diagnosis of EBL. Type III viruses were found in approximately 33% and 5.5% of Japanese Black and Holstein cattle, respectively, with EBL. These findings indicate that genetically distinct BLV was associated with EBL in Japan and that the genetic profile may influence the leukemogenicity of the virus.
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection of cattle has been increasing yearly in Japan although several European countries have successfully eradicated the infection. In the present study, phylogenetic analysis on the env gene obtained from 64 tumor samples found in different regions in Japan was carried out in order to define the genetic background of BLV strains prevailing in the country. Most of the Japanese isolates were found to reside in the consensus cluster or genotype 1 of BLV strains (Rodriguez et al., 2009). Out of them, 21 isolates and 10 isolates exhibited the identical sequences, respectively. Only one isolate was classified into the different genotype related to the US isolates. Analysis on the deduced amino acids of gp51 demonstrated the sequence diversity in the neutralizing domain. These data may indicate that two major populations of BLV prevailed throughout Japan, whereas antigenic variants also exist. It was further proved that multiple invasion of the genetically different BLV strains have occurred in Japan.
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