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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Description, host range and distribution of a new Macrodiplosis species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) that induces leaf-margin fold galls on deciduous Quercus (Fagaceae) with comparative notes on Palaearctic congeners.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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A gall midge that induces upwardly folded leaf-margin galls on Quercus serrata, Q. mongolica and Q. dentata (Fagaceae) in Japan and South Korea is described as Macrodiplosis selenis sp. n. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). M. selenis is distinguished from Palaearctic congeners by a combination of morphological characters. Genetic differences supported the result of morphological comparison and indicated that M. selenis is closely related to the European M. roboris, whose gall is similar to that of M. selenis.
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Suicidal and online: how do online behaviors inform us of this high-risk population?
Death Stud
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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To assist suicide prevention we need a better understanding of how suicidal individuals act in their environment, and the online world offers an ideal opportunity to examine daily behaviors. This anonymous survey (N = 1,016) provides first-of-its-kind empirical evidence demonstrating suicide-risk people (n = 290) are unique in their online behaviors. Suicidal users reported more time online, greater likelihood of developing online personal relationships, and greater use of online forums. In addition, suicide-risk women reported more time browsing/surfing and social networking. The authors conclude that suicide prevention efforts should respond to suicide-risk users' greater demands for online interpersonal communications.
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2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol from sweet potato protects against oxidative stress in PC12 cells and in mice.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2013
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In this study, the protective effect of sweet potato extract against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity on the pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12) was investigated. The active component of the sweet potato extract was purified and determined to be 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. The antioxidant capacity of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol was measured by using 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical. To examine the effects of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol on amyloid-beta peptide (A?1????)-induced learning and memory impairment in mice, in vivo behavioral tests were performed. Administration of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol increased alternation behavior in mice injected with A?????. These results suggest that sweet potato extract could be protective against A?-induced neurotoxicity, possibly due to the antioxidative capacity of its constituent, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol.
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Decreased gut microbiota diversity, delayed Bacteroidetes colonisation and reduced Th1 responses in infants delivered by Caesarean section.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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The early intestinal microbiota exerts important stimuli for immune development, and a reduced microbial exposure as well as caesarean section (CS) has been associated with the development of allergic disease. Here we address how microbiota development in infants is affected by mode of delivery, and relate differences in colonisation patterns to the maturation of a balanced Th1/Th2 immune response.
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Evolution of the plankton paleome in the Black Sea from the Deglacial to Anthropocene.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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The complex interplay of climate shifts over Eurasia and global sea level changes modulates freshwater and saltwater inputs to the Black Sea. The dynamics of the hydrologic changes from the Late Glacial into the Holocene remain a matter of debate, and information on how these changes affected the ecology of the Black Sea is sparse. Here we used Roche 454 next-generation pyrosequencing of sedimentary 18S rRNA genes to reconstruct the plankton community structure in the Black Sea over the last ca. 11,400 y. We found that 150 of 2,710 species showed a statistically significant response to four environmental stages. Freshwater chlorophytes were the best indicator species for lacustrine conditions (>9.0 ka B.P.), although the copresence of previously unidentified marine taxa indicated that the Black Sea might have been influenced to some extent by the Marmara Sea since at least 9.6 ka calendar (cal) B.P. Dinoflagellates, cercozoa, eustigmatophytes, and haptophytes responded most dramatically to the gradual increase in salinity after the latest marine reconnection and during the warm and moist mid-Holocene climatic optimum. According to paired analysis of deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) isotope ratios in fossil alkenones, salinity increased rapidly with the onset of the dry Subboreal after ~5.2 ka B.P., leading to an increase in marine fungi and the first occurrence of marine copepods. A gradual succession of dinoflagellates, diatoms, and chrysophytes occurred during the refreshening after ~2.5 ka cal B.P. with the onset of the cool and wet Subatlantic climate and recent anthropogenic perturbations.
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Sexuality and suicidality: matched-pairs analyses reveal unique characteristics in non-heterosexual suicidal behaviors.
Arch Sex Behav
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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The present findings offer new perspectives on differences between suicide-risk heterosexuals and non-heterosexuals (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning: LGBQ). Results from an anonymous online survey, employing standardized scales, showed that LGBQ participants reported significantly greater suicide-risk than heterosexuals. Seventy-nine matched pairs of suicide-risk LGBQ and heterosexuals were examined by individual suicide risk factors. Results showed no significant differences on separate measures of suicidal ideation; however, LGBQ participants were more likely to report suicide attempts, disclosure of suicidal intentions, and prediction of future suicide attempts. The LGBQ group also indicated greater likelihood of going online to develop new personal relationships. Multiple regression modeling was conducted to guide outreach and support efforts, revealing unique factors predicting help-seeking denial of suicide-risk LGBQ. Implications include the importance of online support and considering sexual minorities not just as a potential high-risk group, but also as a population with unique suicide risks and behaviors.
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Pomegranate as a functional food and nutraceutical source.
Annu Rev Food Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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Pomegranate, a fruit native to the Middle East, has gained widespread popularity as a functional food and nutraceutical source. The health effects of the whole fruit, as well as its juices and extracts, have been studied in relation to a variety of chronic diseases. Promising results against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and prostate cancer have been reported from human clinical trials. The in vitro antioxidant activity of pomegranate has been attributed to its high polyphenolic content, specifically punicalagins, punicalins, gallagic acid, and ellagic acid. These compounds are metabolized during digestion to ellagic acid and urolithins, suggesting that the bioactive compounds that provide in vivo antioxidant activity may not be the same as those present in the whole food. Anthocyanins and the unique fatty acid profile of the seed oil may also play a role in pomegranates health effects. A more complete characterization of pomegranate components and their physiological fate may provide mechanistic insight into the potential health benefits observed in clinical trials.
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Whey protein but not soy protein supplementation alters body weight and composition in free-living overweight and obese adults.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effect of consumption of supplemental whey protein (WP), soy protein (SP), and an isoenergetic amount of carbohydrate (CHO) on body weight and composition in free-living overweight and obese but otherwise healthy participants. Ninety overweight and obese participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups for 23 wk: 1) WP; 2) SP (each providing ~56 g/d of protein and 1670 kJ/d); or 3) an isoenergetic amount of CHO. Supplements were consumed as a beverage twice daily. Participants were provided no dietary advice and continued to consume their free-choice diets. Participants body weight and composition data were obtained monthly. Dietary intake was determined by 24-h dietary recalls collected every 10 d. After 23 wk, body weight and composition did not differ between the groups consuming the SP and WP or between SP and CHO; however, body weight and fat mass of the group consuming the WP were lower by 1.8 kg (P < 0.006) and 2.3 kg (P < 0.005), respectively, than the group consuming CHO. Lean body mass did not differ among any of the groups. Waist circumference was smaller in the participants consuming WP than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Fasting ghrelin was lower in participants consuming WP compared with SP or CHO. Through yet-unknown mechanisms, different sources of dietary protein may differentially facilitate weight loss and affect body composition. Dietary recommendations, especially those that emphasize the role of dietary protein in facilitating weight change, should also address the demonstrated clinical potential of supplemental WP.
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WITHDRAWN: Interventions for dysphagia in oesophageal cancer.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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The majority of oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal cancers are diagnosed at an advanced stage and palliative treatment is the realistic management option for most patients. The optimal intervention for the palliation of dysphagia in these patients has not been established.
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Addressing the challenge of defining valid proteomic biomarkers and classifiers.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2010
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The purpose of this manuscript is to provide, based on an extensive analysis of a proteomic data set, suggestions for proper statistical analysis for the discovery of sets of clinically relevant biomarkers. As tractable example we define the measurable proteomic differences between apparently healthy adult males and females. We choose urine as body-fluid of interest and CE-MS, a thoroughly validated platform technology, allowing for routine analysis of a large number of samples. The second urine of the morning was collected from apparently healthy male and female volunteers (aged 21-40) in the course of the routine medical check-up before recruitment at the Hannover Medical School.
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Understanding DP receptor antagonism using a CoMSIA approach.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2010
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A Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA) was performed for 2,6-substituted-4-monosubstituted aminopyrimidine antagonists of prostaglandin D(2) receptor (DP). Both two-component (Q(2) = 0.63, R(2) = 0.82, SEE = 0.47 pIC(50)) and three-component (Q(2) = 0.70, R(2) = 0.91, SEE = 0.36 pIC(50)) CoMSIA models were established. Two hydrogen-bond acceptors with spatial separation of about 8Å are shown as optimal for binding. A large hydrophobic center that separates the two acceptors confers to the potency of the 2,6-substituted-4-monosubstituted aminopyrimidine. The models were used to predict IC(50) values for compounds which had functional groups different from those in the training set.
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Predictive response-relevant clustering of expression data provides insights into disease processes.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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This article describes and illustrates a novel method of microarray data analysis that couples model-based clustering and binary classification to form clusters of `response-relevant genes; that is, genes that are informative when discriminating between the different values of the response. Predictions are subsequently made using an appropriate statistical summary of each gene cluster, which we call the `meta-covariate representation of the cluster, in a probit regression model. We first illustrate this method by analysing a leukaemia expression dataset, before focusing closely on the meta-covariate analysis of a renal gene expression dataset in a rat model of salt-sensitive hypertension. We explore the biological insights provided by our analysis of these data. In particular, we identify a highly influential cluster of 13 genes--including three transcription factors (Arntl, Bhlhe41 and Npas2)-that is implicated as being protective against hypertension in response to increased dietary sodium. Functional and canonical pathway analysis of this cluster using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis implicated transcriptional activation and circadian rhythm signalling, respectively. Although we illustrate our method using only expression data, the method is applicable to any high-dimensional datasets. Expression data are available at ArrayExpress (accession number E-MEXP-2514) and code is available at http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/inference/metacovariateanalysis/.
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The internal suicide debate hypothesis: exploring the life versus death struggle.
Suicide Life Threat Behav
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2010
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Researchers and theorists (e.g., Shneidman, Stengel, Kovacs, and Beck) hyothesized that suicidal people engage in an internal debate, or struggle, over whether to live or die, but few studies have tested its tenability. This study introduces direct assessment of a suicidal debate, revealing new aspects of suicidal ideation. Results, from an online survey (N = 1,016), showed nearly all suicide-risk respondents engaged in the debate. In addition, debate frequency accounted for 54% of the variance in suicidality scores, and showed significant associations with other indicators of suicide risk. Likely factors of the debate, reasons for living and dying, showed significant differences by suicidality, and most suicide-risk participants reported going online for such purposes, demonstrating a behavioral component of the debate.
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Motivational interview improves treatment entry in homeless veterans.
Drug Alcohol Depend
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
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Motivational Interviewing (MI) has successfully been used to facilitate entry and compliance in drug and alcohol treatment programs. Some questions have been raised as to the effectiveness of MI in severely distressed populations. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of MI in a population of homeless, unemployed, and substance dependent veterans who are being wait-listed for entry into a residential treatment program. Seventy-five veterans placed on a wait-list were randomized to receive a single MI or standard (Std) intake interview. Outcomes assessed were entry, and length of stay (LOS). Secondary outcomes assessed included program completion and rates of graduation. Readiness to change and self-efficacy were assessed before and after the interview. Significantly more participants entered the program in the MI group (95%) than in the Std group (71%). Although those in the MI group remained in the program longer, and had higher program completion and graduation rates, these differences were not statistically significant. No significant between-group or within-group differences were found in readiness or self-efficacy. This study demonstrates that a single, easily administered intervention can increase program entry. Also based on the study findings, further research into the question of whether MI can increase program retention, in a severely distressed population, is warranted.
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Interventions for dysphagia in oesophageal cancer.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2009
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The majority of oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal cancers are diagnosed at an advanced stage and palliative treatment is the realistic management option for most patients. The optimal intervention for the palliation of dysphagia in these patients has not been established.
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Examining suicide-risk individuals who go online for suicide-related purposes.
Arch Suicide Res
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2009
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The objective of this study was to better help those in suicidal crisis by examining the types of suicide-risk individuals who make use of the Internet in relation to their suicidal problems. An anonymous online survey examined suicide-risk individuals who went online for suicide-related purposes (n = 165) and a reference group of suicide-risk individuals with no such experience (n = 125). Suicide-risk individuals who went online for suicide-related purposes, compared with online users who did not, reported greater suicide-risk symptoms, were less likely to seek help, and perceived less social support. Online, many reported more support, felt less alienated, believed they reduced their suicidality, but also sought suicide methods and were likely to visit "pro suicide" sites. Implications include designing help sites that allow peer-to-peer communications and anonymous professional support.
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Influence of biochar on nitrogen fractions in a coastal plain soil.
J. Environ. Qual.
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Interest in the use of biochar from pyrolysis of biomass to sequester C and improve soil productivity has increased; however, variability in physical and chemical characteristics raises concerns about effects on soil processes. Of particular concern is the effect of biochar on soil N dynamics. The effect of biochar on N dynamics was evaluated in a Norfolk loamy sand with and without NHNO. High-temperature (HT) (?500°C) and low-temperature (LT) (?400°C) biochars from peanut hull ( L.), pecan shell ( Wangenh. K. Koch), poultry litter (), and switchgrass ( L.) and a fast pyrolysis hardwood biochar (450-600°C) were evaluated. Changes in inorganic, mineralizable, resistant, and recalcitrant N fractions were determined after a 127-d incubation that included four leaching events. After 127 d, little evidence of increased inorganic N retention was found for any biochar treatments. The mineralizable N fraction did not increase, indicating that biochar addition did not stimulate microbial biomass. Decreases in the resistant N fraction were associated with the high pH and high ash biochars. Unidentified losses of N were observed with HT pecan shell, HT peanut hull, and HT and LT poultry litter biochars that had high pH and ash contents. Volatilization of N as NH in the presence of these biochars was confirmed in a separate short-term laboratory experiment. The observed responses to different biochars illustrate the need to characterize biochar quality and match it to soil type and land use.
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Contemporary Anglo-Jewish community leadership: coping with multiculturalism.
Br J Sociol
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In this article, drawing on qualitative interviews and documentary analysis, we argue that the Jewish community in Britain has undergone a fundamental shift since 1990 from a strategy of security, a strategy of communal leadership based on emphasizing the secure British citizenship and belonging of the UKs Jews, to a strategy of insecurity, where the communal leadership instead stresses an excess of security among Anglo-Jewry. We demonstrate this based on two case studies: of the Jewish renewal movement in the 1990s and the new antisemitism phenomenon of the 2000s. We conclude that this shift is tied to the shift from a monocultural Britain to an officially multicultural one, and that therefore there are lessons that can be taken from it for the study of British and other multiculturalisms.
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Delivery and safety of inhaled interferon-? in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv
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Inhaled interferon-? aerosol (aINF-?) may be effective treatment for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We evaluated safety and delivery of aIFN-? (100??g 3 times/week) in 10 IPF patients using the I-neb (Philips Respironics, Parsippany, NJ).
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Dirichlet multinomial mixtures: generative models for microbial metagenomics.
PLoS ONE
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We introduce Dirichlet multinomial mixtures (DMM) for the probabilistic modelling of microbial metagenomics data. This data can be represented as a frequency matrix giving the number of times each taxa is observed in each sample. The samples have different size, and the matrix is sparse, as communities are diverse and skewed to rare taxa. Most methods used previously to classify or cluster samples have ignored these features. We describe each community by a vector of taxa probabilities. These vectors are generated from one of a finite number of Dirichlet mixture components each with different hyperparameters. Observed samples are generated through multinomial sampling. The mixture components cluster communities into distinct metacommunities, and, hence, determine envirotypes or enterotypes, groups of communities with a similar composition. The model can also deduce the impact of a treatment and be used for classification. We wrote software for the fitting of DMM models using the evidence framework (http://code.google.com/p/microbedmm/). This includes the Laplace approximation of the model evidence. We applied the DMM model to human gut microbe genera frequencies from Obese and Lean twins. From the model evidence four clusters fit this data best. Two clusters were dominated by Bacteroides and were homogenous; two had a more variable community composition. We could not find a significant impact of body mass on community structure. However, Obese twins were more likely to derive from the high variance clusters. We propose that obesity is not associated with a distinct microbiota but increases the chance that an individual derives from a disturbed enterotype. This is an example of the Anna Karenina principle (AKP) applied to microbial communities: disturbed states having many more configurations than undisturbed. We verify this by showing that in a study of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) phenotypes, ileal Crohns disease (ICD) is associated with a more variable community.
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Mustelid herpesvirus-2, a novel herpes infection in northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni).
J. Wildl. Dis.
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Oral ulcerations and plaques with epithelial eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions were observed in northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) that died or were admitted for rehabilitation after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in Alaska, USA. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of herpesviral virions. Additionally, a serologic study from 2004 to 2005 found a high prevalence of exposure to a herpesvirus in live-captured otters. Tissues from 29 otters after the EVOS and nasal swabs from 83 live-captured otters in the Kodiak Archipelago were tested for herpesviral DNA. Analysis identified a novel herpesvirus in the gamma subfamily, most closely related to Mustelid herpesvirus-1 from badgers. Results indicated that this herpesvirus is associated with ulcerative lesions but is also commonly found in secretions of healthy northern sea otters.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.