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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Analytical reactivity of 13 commercially available rapid influenza diagnostic tests with H3N2v and recently circulating influenza viruses.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) used widely in clinical practice are simple to use and provide results within 15 minutes; however, reported performance is variable, which causes concern when novel or variant viruses emerge. This study's goal was to assess the analytical reactivity of 13 RIDTs with recently circulating seasonal and H3N2v influenza viruses, using three different viral measures.
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Prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus-associated lower respiratory infection and apnea in infants presenting to the emergency department.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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The prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus in children presenting to US emergency departments with lower respiratory tract infection or apnea (N = 4172) was evaluated outside the traditional respiratory syncytial virus season (September to October and April to May) relative to January to February. The Mid-Atlantic and Southeast demonstrated positivity rates in September to October comparable with rates observed during January to February.
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Distribution of respiratory syncytial virus subtypes A and B among infants presenting to the emergency department with lower respiratory tract infection or apnea.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a leading viral respiratory pathogen worldwide, has 2 major subtypes, A and B.
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H1N1 hemagglutinin-inhibition seroprevalence in Emergency Department Health Care workers after the first wave of the 2009 influenza pandemic.
Pediatr Emerg Care
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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The 2009 H1N1 pandemic (H1N1pdm) virus has been associated with high rates of asymptomatic infections. Existing influenza infection control policies do not address potential transmission through exposure to asymptomatic infected individuals in health care settings. We conducted a seroprevalence study of H1N1pdm infection to determine whether health care workers (HCWs) in the emergency department showed increased evidence of infection during the first wave of the pandemic than that previously reported in adults in the community.
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Whole genome sequencing and evolutionary analysis of human respiratory syncytial virus A and B from Milwaukee, WI 1998-2010.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory-tract infections in infants and young children worldwide. Despite this, only six complete genome sequences of original strains have been previously published, the most recent of which dates back 35 and 26 years for RSV group A and group B respectively.
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Phylogeography of the spring and fall waves of the H1N1/09 pandemic influenza virus in the United States.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2010
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Spatial variation in the epidemiological patterns of successive waves of pandemic influenza virus in humans has been documented throughout the 20th century but never understood at a molecular level. However, the unprecedented intensity of sampling and whole-genome sequencing of the H1N1/09 pandemic virus now makes such an approach possible. To determine whether the spring and fall waves of the H1N1/09 influenza pandemic were associated with different epidemiological patterns, we undertook a large-scale phylogeographic analysis of viruses sampled from three localities in the United States. Analysis of genomic and epidemiological data reveals distinct spatial heterogeneities associated with the first pandemic wave, March to July 2009, in Houston, TX, Milwaukee, WI, and New York State. In Houston, no specific H1N1/09 viral lineage dominated during the spring of 2009, a period when little epidemiological activity was observed in Texas. In contrast, major pandemic outbreaks occurred at this time in Milwaukee and New York State, each dominated by a different viral lineage and resulting from strong founder effects. During the second pandemic wave, beginning in August 2009, all three U.S. localities were dominated by a single viral lineage, that which had been dominant in New York during wave 1. Hence, during this second phase of the pandemic, extensive viral migration and mixing diffused the spatially defined population structure that had characterized wave 1, amplifying the one viral lineage that had dominated early on in one of the worlds largest international travel centers.
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Epidemiologic Observations from Passive and Targeted Surveillance during the First Wave of the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in Milwaukee, WI.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2010
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The first wave of the 2009 influenza H1N1 pandemic (H1N1pdm) in Milwaukee, WI has been recognized as the largest reported regional outbreak in the United States. The epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of this large first wave outbreak from April 28(th) 2009-July 25(th) 2009, studied using both passive and targeted surveillance methodologies are presented. A total of 2791 individuals with H1N1pdm infection were identified; 60 % were 5-18 years old. The 5-18 year and 0-4 year age groups had high infection (1131 and 1101 per 100,000) and hospitalization (49 and 12 per 100,000) rates respectively. Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics had the highest hospitalization and infection rates. In targeted surveillance, infected patients had fever (78%), cough (80%), sore throat (38%), and vomiting or diarrhea (8%). The "influenza like illness" definition captured only 68 % of infected patients. Modeling estimates that 10.3 % of Milwaukee population was infected in the first wave and 59% were asymptomatic. The distinct epidemiologic profile of H1N1pdm infections observed in the study has direct implications for predicting the burden of infection and hospitalization in the next waves of H1N1pdm. Careful consideration of demographic predictors of infection and hospitalization with H1N1pdm will be important for effective preparedness for subsequent influenza seasons.
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Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of children hospitalized with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A infection.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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In 2009, pandemic H1N1 influenza caused significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. We describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of children and adolescents hospitalized for 2009 H1N1 infections in Milwaukee, Wisconsin from April 2009 to August 2009.
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Molecular diagnosis of respiratory viruses.
Future Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2010
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Respiratory tract viral infections are responsible for an incredible amount of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Older diagnostic methods, such as tissue culture and serology, have been replaced with more advanced molecular techniques, such as PCR and reverse-transcriptase PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification and loop-mediated isothermal amplification. These techniques are faster, have greater sensitivity and specificity, and are becoming increasingly accessible. In the minds of most, PCR has replaced tissue culture and serology as the gold standard for detection of respiratory viruses owing to its speed, availability and versatility. PCR/reverse-transcriptase PCR has been used in a variety of detection platforms, in multiplex assays (detecting multiple pathogens simultaneously) and in automated systems (sample in-answer out devices). Molecular detection has many proven advantages over standard virological methods and will further separate itself through increased multiplexing, processing speed and automation. However, tissue culture remains an important method for detecting novel viral mutations within a virus population, for detecting novel viruses and for phenotypic characterization of viral isolates.
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Persistence of adenovirus nucleic acids in nasopharyngeal secretions: a diagnostic conundrum.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays increase the rate of viral detection in clinical specimens, compared with conventional virologic methods. Studies suggest that PCR may detect virus nucleic acid (NA) that persists in the respiratory tract.
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Development of a rapid automated influenza A, influenza B, and respiratory syncytial virus A/B multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay and its use during the 2009 H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus epidemic in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
J Mol Diagn
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2009
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Rapid, semiautomated, and fully automated multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays were developed and validated for the detection of influenza (Flu) A, Flu B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) from nasopharyngeal specimens. The assays can detect human H1N1, H3N2, and swine-origin (S-OIV) H1N1 Flu A viruses and were effectively used to distinguish Flu A infections (of all subtypes) from Flu B and RSV infections during the current S-OIV outbreak in Milwaukee, WI. The analytical limits of detection were 10(-2) to 10(1) TCID(50)/ml depending on the platform and analyte and showed only one minor cross-reaction among 23 common respiratory pathogens (intermittent cross-reaction to adenovirus at >10(7) TCID(50)/ml). A total of 100 clinical samples were tested by tissue culture, both automated assays, and the US Food and Drug Administration-approved ProFlu+ assay. Both the semiautomated and fully automated assays exhibited greater overall (Flu A, Flu B, and RSV combined) clinical sensitivities (93 and 96%, respectively) and individual Flu A sensitivities (100%) than the Food and Drug Administration-approved test (89% overall sensitivity and 93% Flu A sensitivity). All assays were 99% specific. During the S-OIV outbreak in Milwaukee, WI, the fully automated assay was used to test 1232 samples in 2 weeks. Flu A was detected in 134 clinical samples (126 H1N1 S-OIV, 5 H1N1 [human], and 1 untyped) with 100% positive agreement compared with other "in-house" validated molecular assays, with only 2 false-positive results. Such accurate testing using automated high-throughput molecule systems should allow clinicians and public health officials to react quickly and effectively during viral outbreaks.
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The early diversification of influenza A/H1N1pdm.
PLoS Curr
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2009
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Background Since its initial detection in April 2009, the A/H1N1pdm influenza virus has spread rapidly in humans, with over 5,700 human deaths. However, little is known about the evolutionary dynamics of H1N1pdm and its geographic and temporal diversification.Methods Phylogenetic analysis was conducted upon the concatenated coding regions of whole-genome sequences from 290 H1N1pdm isolates sampled globally between April 1 - July 9, 2009, including relatively large samples from the US states of Wisconsin and New York. Results At least 7 phylogenetically distinct viral clades have disseminated globally and co-circulated in localities that experienced multiple introductions of H1N1pdm. The epidemics in New York and Wisconsin were dominated by two different clades, both phylogenetically distinct from the viruses first identified in California and Mexico, suggesting an important role for founder effects in determining local viral population structures. Conclusions Determining the global diversity of H1N1pdm is central to understanding the evolution and spatial spread of the current pandemic, and to predict its future impact on human populations. Our results indicate that H1N1pdm has already diversified into distinct viral lineages with defined spatial patterns.
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Introduction of a Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus into Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 2009.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2009
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On 17 April 2009, novel swine origin influenza A virus (S-OIV) cases appeared within the United States. Most influenza A diagnostic assays currently utilized in local clinical laboratories do not allow definitive subtype determination. Detailed subtype analysis of influenza A positive samples in our laboratory allowed early confirmation of a large outbreak of S-OIV in southeastern Wisconsin (SEW). The initial case of S-OIV in SEW was detected on 28 April 2009. All influenza A samples obtained during the 16 week period prior to 28 April 2009, and the first four weeks of the subsequent epidemic were sub typed. Four different multiplex assays were employed, utilizing real time PCR and end point PCR to fully subtype human and animal influenza viral components. Specific detection of S-OIV was developed within days. Data regarding patient demographics and other concurrently circulating viruses were analyzed. During the first four weeks of the epidemic, 679 of 3726 (18.2%) adults and children tested for influenza A were identified with S-OIV infection. Thirteen patients (0.34%) tested positive for seasonal human subtypes of influenza A during the first two weeks and none in the subsequent 2 weeks of the epidemic. Parainfluenza viruses were the most prevalent seasonal viral agents circulating during the epidemic (of those tested), with detection rates of 12% followed by influenza B and RSV at 1.9% and 0.9% respectively. S-OIV was confirmed on day 2 of instituting subtype testing and within 4 days of report of national cases of S-OIV. Novel surge capacity diagnostic infrastructure exists in many specialty and research laboratories around the world. The capacity for broader influenza A sub typing at the local laboratory level allows timely and accurate detection of novel strains as they emerge in the community, despite the presence of other circulating viruses producing identical illness. This is likely to become increasingly important given the need for appropriate subtype driven anti-viral therapy and the potential shortage of such medications in a large epidemic.
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Rapid semiautomated subtyping of influenza virus species during the 2009 swine origin influenza A H1N1 virus epidemic in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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In the spring of 2009, a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus (swine origin influenza virus [S-OIV]) emerged and began causing a large outbreak of illness in Milwaukee, WI. Our group at the Midwest Respiratory Virus Program laboratory developed a semiautomated real-time multiplex reverse transcription-PCR assay (Seasonal), employing the NucliSENS easyMAG system (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) and a Raider thermocycler (HandyLab Inc., Ann Arbor, MI), that typed influenza A virus, influenza B virus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and subtyped influenza A virus into the currently circulating H1 and H3 subtypes, as well as a similar assay that identified H1 of S-OIV. The Seasonal and H1 S-OIV assays demonstrated analytical limits of detection of <50 50% tissue culture infective doses/ml and 3 to 30 input copies, respectively. Testing of the analytical specificities revealed no cross-reactivity with 41 and 26 different common organisms and demonstrated outstanding reproducibility of results. Clinical testing showed 95% sensitivity for influenza A virus and influenza B virus and 95 and 97% specificity compared to tissue culture. Comparisons of results from other molecular tests showed levels of positive agreement with the Seasonal and H1 S-OIV assay results of 99 and 100% and levels of negative agreement of 98 and 100%. This study has demonstrated the use of a semiautomated system for sensitive, specific, and rapid detection of influenza A virus, influenza B virus, and RSV and subtyping of influenza A virus into human H1 and H3 and S-OIV strains. This assay/system performed well in clinical testing of regular seasonal influenza virus subtypes and was outstanding during the 2009 Milwaukee S-OIV infection outbreak. This recent outbreak of infection with a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus also demonstrates the importance of quickly distributing information on new agents and of having rapid influenza virus subtyping assays widely available for clinical and public health decisions.
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Rapid multiplex reverse transcription-PCR typing of influenza A and B virus, and subtyping of influenza A virus into H1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, N1 (human), N1 (animal), N2, and N7, including typing of novel swine origin influenza A (H1N1) virus, during the 2009 o
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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A large outbreak of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus (swine origin influenza virus [S-OIV]) infection in Milwaukee, WI, occurred in late April 2009. We had recently developed a rapid multiplex reverse transcription-PCR enzyme hybridization assay (FluPlex) to determine the type (A or B) and subtype (H1, H2, H3, H5, H7, H9, N1 [human], N1 [animal], N2, or N7) of influenza viruses, and this assay was used to confirm the diagnoses for the first infected patients in the state. The analytical sensitivity was excellent at 1.5 to 116 copies/reaction, or 10(-3) to 10(-1) 50% tissue culture infective doses/ml. The testing of all existing hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes of influenza A virus and influenza B virus (41 influenza virus strains) and 24 common respiratory pathogens showed only one low-level H3 cross-reaction with an H10N7 avian strain and only at 5.2 x 10(6) copies/reaction, not at lower concentrations. Comparisons of the FluPlex results with results from multiple validated in-house molecular assays, CDC-validated FDA-approved assays, and gene sequencing demonstrated 100% positive agreement for the typing of 179 influenza A viruses and 3 influenza B viruses, the subtyping of 110 H1N1 (S-OIV; N1 [animal]), 62 H1N1 (human), and 6 H3N2 (human) viruses, and the identification of 24 negative clinical samples and 100% negative agreement for all viruses tested except H1N1 (human) (97.7%). The small number of false-positive H1N1 (human) samples most likely represent increased sensitivity over that of other in-house assays, with four of four results confirmed by the CDCs influenza virus subtyping assay. The FluPlex is a rapid, inexpensive, sensitive, and specific method for the typing and subtyping of influenza viruses and demonstrated outstanding utility during the first 2 weeks of an S-OIV infection outbreak. Methods for rapid detection and broad subtyping of influenza viruses, including animal subtypes, are needed to address public concern over the emergence of pandemic strains. Attempts to automate this assay are ongoing.
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Multiplex assay for simultaneously typing and subtyping influenza viruses by use of an electronic microarray.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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We report on the use of an electronic microarray to simultaneously type influenza A and B viruses and to distinguish influenza A virus subtypes H1N1 and H3N2 from the potentially pandemic avian virus subtype H5N1. The assay targets seven genes: the H1, H3, H5, N1, and N2 genes of influenza A virus; the matrix protein M1 gene of influenza A virus; and the nonstructural protein (NS) gene of influenza B virus. By combining a two-step reverse transcription-multiplex PCR with typing and subtyping on the electronic microarray, the assay achieved an analytical sensitivity of 10(2) to 10(3) copies of transcripts per reaction for each of the genes. The assay correctly typed and subtyped 15 different influenza virus isolates, including two influenza B virus, five A/H1N1, six A/H3N2, and two A/H5N1 isolates. In addition, the assay correctly identified 8 out of 10 diluted, archived avian influenza virus specimens with complete typing and subtyping information and 2 specimens with partial subtyping information. In a study of 146 human clinical specimens that had previously been shown to be positive for influenza virus or another respiratory virus, the assay showed a clinical sensitivity of 96% and a clinical specificity of 100%. The assay is a rapid, accurate, user-friendly method for simultaneously typing and subtyping influenza viruses.
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Simultaneous Detection of CDC Category "A" DNA and RNA Bioterrorism Agents by Use of Multiplex PCR & RT-PCR Enzyme Hybridization Assays.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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Assays to simultaneously detect multiple potential agents of bioterrorism are limited. Two multiplex PCR and RT-PCR enzyme hybridization assays (mPCR-EHA, mRT-PCR-EHA) were developed to simultaneously detect many of the CDC category "A" bioterrorism agents. The "Bio T" DNA assay was developed to detect: Variola major (VM), Bacillus anthracis (BA), Yersinia pestis (YP), Francisella tularensis (FT) and Varicella zoster virus (VZV). The "Bio T" RNA assay (mRT-PCR-EHA) was developed to detect: Ebola virus (Ebola), Lassa fever virus (Lassa), Rift Valley fever (RVF), Hantavirus Sin Nombre species (HSN) and dengue virus (serotypes 1-4). Sensitivity and specificity of the 2 assays were tested by using genomic DNA, recombinant plasmid positive controls, RNA transcripts controls, surrogate (spiked) clinical samples and common respiratory pathogens. The analytical sensitivity (limit of detection (LOD)) of the DNA asssay for genomic DNA was 1x10(0)~1x10(2) copies/mL for BA, FT and YP. The LOD for VZV whole organism was 1x10(-2) TCID(50)/mL. The LOD for recombinant controls ranged from 1x10(2)~1x10(3)copies/mL for BA, FT, YP and VM. The RNA assay demonstrated LOD for RNA transcript controls of 1x10(4)~1x10(6) copies/mL without extraction and 1x10(5)~1x10(6) copies/mL with extraction for Ebola, RVF, Lassa and HSN. The LOD for dengue whole organisms was ~1x10(-4) dilution for dengue 1 and 2, 1x10(4) LD(50)/mL and 1x10(2) LD(50)/mL for dengue 3 and 4. The LOD without extraction for recombinant plasmid DNA controls was ~1x10(3) copies/mL (1.5 input copies/reaction) for Ebola, RVF, Lassa and HSN. No cross-reactivity of primers and probes used in both assays was detected with common respiratory pathogens or between targeted analytes. Clinical sensitivity was estimated using 264 surrogate clinical samples tested with the BioT DNA assay and 549 samples tested with the BioT RNA assay. The clinical specificity is 99.6% and 99.8% for BioT DNA assay and BioT RNA assay, respectively. The surrogate sensitivities of these two assays were 100% (95%CI 83-100) for FT, BA (pX02), YP, VM, VZV, dengue 2,3,4 and 95% (95%CI 75-100) for BA (pX01) and dengue 1 using spiked clinical specimens. The specificity of both BioT multiplex assays on spiked specimens was 100% (95% CI 99-100). Compared to other available assays (culture, serology, PCR, etc.) both the BioT DNA mPCR-EHA and BioT RNA mRT-PCR-EHA are rapid, sensitive and specific assays for detecting many category "A" Bioterrorism agents using a standard thermocycler.
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Genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 39 human parainfluenza virus type 1 strains isolated from 1997-2010.
PLoS ONE
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Thirty-nine human parainfluenza type 1 (HPIV-1) genomes were sequenced from samples collected in Milwaukee, Wisconsin from 1997-2010. Following sequencing, phylogenetic analyses of these sequences plus any publicly available HPIV-1 sequences (from GenBank) were performed. Phylogenetic analysis of the whole genomes, as well as individual genes, revealed that the current HPIV-1 viruses group into three different clades. Previous evolutionary studies of HPIV-1 in Milwaukee revealed that there were two genotypes of HPIV-1 co-circulating in 1991 (previously described as HPIV-1 genotypes C and D). The current study reveals that there are still two different HPIV-1 viruses co-circulating in Milwaukee; however, both groups of HPIV-1 viruses are derived from genotype C indicating that genotype D may no longer be in circulation in Milwaukee. Analyses of genetic diversity indicate that while most of the genome is under purifying selection some regions of the genome are more tolerant of mutation. In the 40 HPIV-1 genomes sequenced in this study, the nucleotide sequence of the L gene is the most conserved while the sequence of the P gene is the most variable. Over the entire protein coding region of the genome, 81 variable amino acid residues were observed and as with nucleotide diversity, the P protein seemed to be the most tolerant of mutation (and contains the greatest proportion of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions) while the M protein appears to be the least tolerant of amino acid substitution.
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Update on influenza diagnostics: lessons from the novel H1N1 influenza A pandemic.
Clin. Microbiol. Rev.
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The menu of diagnostic tools that can be utilized to establish a diagnosis of influenza is extensive and includes classic virology techniques as well as new and emerging methods. This review of how the various existing diagnostic methods have been utilized, first in the context of a rapidly evolving outbreak of novel influenza virus and then during the different subsequent phases and waves of the pandemic, demonstrates the unique roles, advantages, and limitations of each of these methods. Rapid antigen tests were used extensively throughout the pandemic. Recognition of the low negative predictive values of these tests is important. Private laboratories with preexisting expertise, infrastructure, and resources for rapid development, validation, and implementation of laboratory-developed assays played an unprecedented role in helping to meet the diagnostic demands during the pandemic. FDA-cleared assays remain an important element of the diagnostic armamentarium during a pandemic, and a process must be developed with the FDA to allow manufacturers to modify these assays for detection of novel strains in a timely fashion. The need and role for subtyping of influenza viruses and antiviral susceptibility testing will likely depend on qualitative (circulating subtypes and their resistance patterns) and quantitative (relative prevalence) characterization of influenza viruses circulating during future epidemics and pandemics.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.