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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Prolonged Laboratory Interference After Administration of Intravenous Lipid Emulsion Therapy.
J Med Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Pancreatitis and laboratory interference are rarely reported complications of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy. We report a case of significant laboratory interference after ILE administration.
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Operation CeaseFire-New Orleans: an infectious disease model for addressing community recidivism from penetrating trauma.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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CeaseFire, using an infectious disease approach, addresses violence by partnering hospital resources with the community by providing violence interruption and community-based services for an area roughly composed of a single city zip code (70113). Community-based violence interrupters start in the trauma center from the moment penetrating trauma occurs, through hospital stay, and in the community after release. This study interprets statistics from this pilot program, begun May 2012. We hypothesize a decrease in penetrating trauma rates in the target area compared with others after program implementation.
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Longitudinal Association Between BMI at Diagnosis and HIV Disease Progression.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Increased body mass index (BMI) has been associated with adverse health outcomes but the effect of BMI on HIV immune markers over time post-HAART is not clearly established. Data were abstracted from 396 medical records at the Ryan White Clinic in South Carolina. All HIV-infected adults who were ?18 years of age, diagnosed between 1997 and 2010, had weight and height measured within 3 months of diagnosis and had at least one follow-up visit within 6 months of diagnosis, were eligible. The mean CD4 count was calculated for each BMI category and mixed regression analyses was used to determine the association between BMI and CD4 count over time. The overall mean BMI was 27.4 kg/m(2). Longitudinally, the mean CD4 count was 611.2 cells/mm(3) for obese individuals, 598.1 cells/mm(3) for overweight individuals and 550.5 cells/mm(3) for normal weight individuals. When compared to the normal weight category, the obese category had significantly larger increases in CD4 count (5.5 cells/mm(3), P < 0.001) versus the overweight category (-2.1 cells/mm(3), P < 0.001). HIV-infected individuals who were obese at diagnosis had larger increases in CD4 counts over time when compared to overweight individuals at diagnosis. This suggests that providers should pay closer attention to weight at diagnosis to predict the response to treatment and disease trajectory.
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Agreement between ultrasound and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in assessing percentage body fat in college-aged adults.
Clin Physiol Funct Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The BodyMetrix(®) BX-2000 Ultrasound device (ULTRA) shows prowess in being an effective alternative to the expense and technicality of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, this technique has not been investigated using a seven-site methodology.
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Use of leaf litter breakdown and macroinvertebrates to evaluate gradient of recovery in an acid mine impacted stream remediated with an active alkaline doser.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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The spatial congruence of chemical and biological recovery along an 18-km acid mine impaired stream was examined to evaluate the efficacy of treatment with an alkaline doser. Two methods were used to evaluate biological recovery: the biological structure of the benthic macroinvertebrate community and several ecosystem processing measures (leaf litter breakdown, microbial respiration rates) along the gradient of improved water chemistry. We found that the doser successfully reduced the acidity and lowered dissolved metals (Al, Fe, and Mn), but downstream improvements were not linear. Water chemistry was more variable, and precipitated metals were elevated in a 3-5-km "mixing zone" immediately downstream of the doser, then stabilized into a "recovery zone" 10-18 km below the doser. Macroinvertebrate communities exhibited a longitudinal pattern of recovery, but it did not exactly match the water chemistry gradient Taxonomic richness (number of families) recovered about 6.5 km downstream of the doser, while total abundance and % EPT taxa recovery were incomplete except at the most downstream site, 18 km away. The functional measures of ecosystem processes (leaf litter breakdown, microbial respiration of conditioned leaves, and shredder biomass) closely matched the measures of community structure and also showed a more modest longitudinal trend of biological recovery than expected based on pH and alkalinity. The measures of microbial respiration had added diagnostic value and indicated that biological recovery downstream of the doser is limited by factors other than habitat and acidity/alkalinity, perhaps episodes of AMD and/or impaired energy/nutrient inputs. A better understanding of the factors that govern spatial and temporal variations in acid mine contaminants, especially episodic events, will improve our ability to predict biological recovery after remediation.
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Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Angiogenesis in the Regulation of Cutaneous Wound Repair.
Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle)
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Significance: Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from existing vessels, is an important aspect of the repair process. Restoration of blood flow to damaged tissues provides oxygen and nutrients required to support the growth and function of reparative cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most potent proangiogenic growth factors in the skin, and the amount of VEGF present in a wound can significantly impact healing. Recent Advances: The activity of VEGF was once considered to be specific for endothelial cells lining the inside of blood vessels, partly because VEGF receptor (VEGFR) expression was believed to be restricted to endothelial cells. It is now known, however, that VEGFRs can be expressed by a variety of other cell types involved in wound repair. For example, keratinocytes and macrophages, which both carry out important functions during wound healing, express VEGFRs and are capable of responding directly to VEGF. Critical Issues: The mechanisms by which VEGF promotes angiogenesis are well established. Recent studies, however, indicate that VEGF can directly affect the activity of several nonendothelial cell types present in the skin. The implications of these extra-angiogenic effects of VEGF on wound repair are not yet known, but they suggest that this growth factor may play a more complex role during wound healing than previously believed. Future Directions: Despite the large number of studies focusing on VEGF and wound healing, it is clear that the current knowledge of how VEGF contributes to the repair of skin wounds is incomplete. Further research is needed to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of VEGF activities during the wound healing process.
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Comparison of air-displacement plethysmography results using predicted and measured lung volumes over a protracted period of time.
Clin Physiol Funct Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) systems can either measure or predict lung volume (LV) in their test trials. The repeatability of the predicted and the measured value is an important factor in the accuracy of the final test result.
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A comparison of carbon monoxide exposures after snowstorms and power outages.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning occurs frequently after natural disasters. Although the epidemiology of carbon monoxide exposures that occur after power loss storms has been reported, few publications detail the characteristics of carbon monoxide exposures after massive snowstorms.
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Attitudes and knowledge of primary care physicians regarding prostate cancer screening.
J Cancer Educ
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Recently, several prospective randomized prostate cancer screening studies have been reported. We report the results of a questionnaire administered to primary care physicians (PCPs) to determine their attitudes on prostate cancer screening and compared these results to those obtained when the same questionnaire was administered to a different large cohort of PCPs in 2006 prior to the reporting of these randomized studies. A 24-item questionnaire designed to assess prostate cancer knowledge and screening attitudes was administered to PCPs within central Florida and those PCPs attending a state conference. Completed surveys were returned and analyzed. All reported p values were two-sided, and those p values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Seven hundred and eighty PCPs received the study questionnaire, and 168 (22 %) PCPs returned the completed questionnaire. Sixty-eight percent of responders stated that they recommend prostate cancer screening to >75 % of their patients over the age of 50 years, up from 47 % in 2006 (p < 0.001). Seventy-four percent of responders felt screening was effective. The overall mean score of the knowledge survey was 66 %, which was similar to the cohort from 2006. Knowledge scores were not associated with screening attitudes and behaviors. On multivariate analysis, practice setting and percentage of Medicaid patients in the practice were associated with attitude scores. Our current findings imply that despite the recent landmark studies published on prostate cancer screening, PCPs screening attitudes have changed minimally over the past 5 years.
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The role of remediation, natural alkalinity sources and physical stream parameters in stream recovery.
J. Environ. Manage.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Acid mine drainage (AMD) negatively impacts not only stream chemistry, but also aquatic biology. The ultimate goal of AMD treatment is restoration of the biological community, but that goal is rarely explicit in treatment system design. Hewett Fork in Raccoon Creek Watershed, Ohio, has been impacted by historic coal mining and has been treated with a calcium oxide doser in the headwaters of the watershed since 2004. All of the acidic inputs are isolated to a 1.5 km stretch of stream in the headwaters of the Hewett Fork watershed. The macroinvertebrate and fish communities have begun to recover and it is possible to distinguish three zones downstream of the doser: an impaired zone, a transition zone and a recovered zone. Alkalinity from both the doser and natural sources and physical stream parameters play a role in stream restoration. In Hewett Fork, natural alkaline additions downstream are higher than those from the doser. Both, alkaline additions and stream velocity drive sediment and metal deposition. Metal deposition occurs in several patterns; aluminum tends to deposit in regions of low stream velocity, while iron tends to deposit once sufficient alkalinity is added to the system downstream of mining inputs. The majority of metal deposition occurs upstream of the recovered zone. Both the physical stream parameters and natural alkalinity sources influence biological recovery in treated AMD streams and should be considered in remediation plans.
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Endovascular repair of a double-lumen dissecting aneurysm.
J Neurointerv Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Treating dissections and dissecting aneurysms requires maintenance of flow through the true lumen and exclusion of the false lumen from the circulation. A dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery presented with both a true and false lumen within the aneurysmal sac. Stenting of the true lumen followed by coil embolization of both lumens was performed. Management options and decision-making are discussed for this unique situation.
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Endovascular repair of a double-lumen dissecting aneurysm.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Treating dissections and dissecting aneurysms requires maintenance of flow through the true lumen and exclusion of the false lumen from the circulation. A dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery presented with both a true and false lumen within the aneurysmal sac. Stenting of the true lumen followed by coil embolization of both lumens was performed. Management options and decision-making are discussed for this unique situation.
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Pediatric resident perceptions of public health education: learner-based insights into curriculum design and implementation.
Acad Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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The purpose of this research was to evaluate a public health curriculum for pediatric residents from the learners perspective, exploring resident attitudes, insights, and recommendations as to the most effective and learner-centric approaches to curriculum design and implementation in the context of graduate medical education.
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Ultraviolet light exposure stimulates HMGB1 release by keratinocytes.
Arch. Dermatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2013
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The primary cause of non-melanoma skin cancer is ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun. Many studies have demonstrated that cutaneous inflammation resulting from UV exposure is important for the development of skin cancer. In fact, anti-inflammatory drugs have been shown to be effective in preventing skin cancer in animal models and in clinical trials. One new class of inflammatory mediators that could regulate UV-induced inflammation and skin carcinogenesis is alarmins. Alarmins are endogenous molecules that act as potent pro-inflammatory mediators when they are released by cells or accumulate extracellularly. The purpose of the current studies was to examine the expression and release of the alarmin high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) after acute and chronic UV irradiation. Acute UV exposure stimulated the release of HMGB1 in cultured human keratinocytes and epidermal keratinocytes in murine skin. HMGB1 release correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokine production in vitro and inflammatory cell infiltration in vivo. HMGB1 was also examined in tumors arising in chronically irradiated murine skin. HMGB1 protein expression in low grade, benign papillomas was similar to adjacent skin. However, HMGB1 staining was more widespread with a higher number of HMGB1-positive cells observed in high grade papillomas and malignant tumors. Overall, the data suggest that HMGB1 may be an important regulator of UV-induced cutaneous inflammation and tumor formation. Additional studies are needed to assess whether targeting HMGB1 would be a useful strategy to prevent tumors from developing in response to chronic UV exposure.
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Qualitative evaluation of a Positive Prevention training for health care providers in Mozambique.
Eval Program Plann
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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The rapid scale-up of HIV care and treatment in Mozambique has provided an opportunity to reach people living with HIV (PLHIV) with prevention interventions in HIV care and treatment settings. A three-day Positive Prevention (PP) training intervention for health care providers that focused on pressing issues for PLHIV in Mozambique was adapted and delivered at sites in three provinces. In-depth interviews were conducted with 31 providers trained in the PP curriculum. Qualitative data were used to assess the appropriateness of the training materials and approach, which lessons providers learned and were able to implement and which PP messages were still difficult to deliver. Providers reported gaining numerous insights from the training, including how to conduct a risk assessment and client-centered counseling, negotiating disclosure, partner testing, condom use, PMTCT, treatment adherence and approaches for positive living. Training topics not commonly mentioned included discordance counseling, STIs, family planning, alcohol and drug use, and frank sexual risk discussions. While areas for improvement exist, the PP training was useful in transferring skills to providers and is a viable component of HIV care. This evaluation helps identify areas where future PP trainings and specific strategies and messages can be refined for the Mozambican context.
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Trans-sphenoidal Approach to the Supraclinoid Internal Carotid Artery for Endovascular Access in a Cadaver.
Neurointervention
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Sometimes, intracranial pathology in the distal vasculature cannot be accessed by standard endovascular techniques because of occlusion or insurmountable tortuosity of theinternal carotid artery (ICA). A trans-sphenoidal surgical approach can follow a similar trajectory to the course of the supraclinoid ICA. This study evaluates the feasibility of a trans-sphenoidal approach to the supraclinoid ICA for endovascular access.
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Repercussions of occult malignancy - an etiologic basis for rheumatic disease.
Med. Hypotheses
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Paraneoplastic syndromes and infection are known causes of autoimmunity, but the etiology of most autoimmune syndromes remains unknown. If the immune system can effectively fight malignant cell lines, it is likely that many potential tumors are controlled before becoming clinically apparent. This phenomenon is a potential explanation for all non-infectious auto-immunity including many rheumatic diseases. The presented discussion argues that all auto-immune disease is secondary to infection or neoplasia, and occult neoplasia is responsible for rheumatic diseases. Detecting occult neoplasia is inherently not possible, but if this theory bears truth, induced autoimmune disease could become a powerful treatment of malignancy.
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Teaching safety at a summer camp: evaluation of a water safety curriculum in an urban community setting.
Health Promot Pract
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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The purpose of this project was to evaluate a water safety curriculum in a low-income, minority-focused, urban youth summer camp. The curriculum is available to Safe Kids Coalitions across the country; however, it has not previously been evaluated.
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Distinguishing persistent insulin autoantibodies with differential risk: nonradioactive bivalent proinsulin/insulin autoantibody assay.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
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A subset of children develops persistent insulin autoantibodies (IAA; almost always as the only islet autoantibody) without evidence of progression to diabetes. The aim of the current study was the development and characterization of the performance of a nonradioactive fluid phase IAA assay in relation to standard IAA radioassay. We developed a nonradioactive IAA assay where bivalent IAA cross-link two insulin moieties in a fluid phase. The serum samples positive for anti-islet autoantibodies from 150 newly diagnosed patients with diabetes (Barbara Davis Center plus Diabetes Autoantibody Standardization Program [DASP] workshop) and 70 prediabetic subjects who were followed to diabetes were studied. In addition, sequential samples from 64 nondiabetic subjects who were persistently IAA(+) were analyzed. With 99th percentile of specificity, the new assay with the technology from Meso Scale Discovery Company (MSD-IAA) detects as positive 61% (61 of 100) of new-onset patients and 80% (56 of 70) of prediabetic patients compared with our current fluid phase micro-IAA radioassay (mIAA; 44 and 74%, respectively). In addition, MSD-IAA demonstrated better sensitivity than our mIAA from blinded DASP workshop (68 vs. 56% with the same 99% specificity). Of 64 IAA(+) nondiabetic subjects, 25% (8 of 32) who had only IAA and thus the low risk for progression to diabetes were positive with MSD-IAA assay. In contrast, 100% (32 of 32) high-risk children (IAA plus other islet autoantibodies) were positive with MSD-IAA. The IAA detectable by radioassay, but not MSD-IAA, were usually of lower affinity compared with the IAA of the high-risk children. These data suggest that a subset of IAA with current radioassay (not MSD-IAA) represents biologic false positives in terms of autoimmunity leading to diabetes. We hypothesize that factors related to the mechanism of loss of tolerance leading to diabetes determine high affinity and MSD-IAA reactivity.
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Evaluation of cerebral artery perforators and the pipeline embolization device using optical coherence tomography.
J Neurointerv Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides high resolution imaging of tissue; this technology has been validated using intra-arterial catheters in the evaluation of arterial anatomy, pathology and treatments. The perforating cerebral arteries and intracranial stents have not been previously visualized with an OCT catheter.
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Laparoendoscopic single-site varicocele repair in adolescents-initial experience at a single institution.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2011
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Laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) varicocele repair is a modification of standard laparoscopic varicocele repair that uses a single port. We describe our initial experience with LESS varicocele repair.
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Pathological findings following radical prostatectomy in patients who are candidates for active surveillance: impact of varying PSA levels.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
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Active surveillance is an acceptable treatment option in men with a low-risk prostate cancer. In the present study, we have retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of 509 men who fit the criteria for active surveillance but selected radical prostatectomy. Then, the impact of varying prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels on the risk of upstaging and upgrading in these patients was assessed. Pathological characteristics of patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria under three active surveillance criteria--those of the University of California-San Francisco, the National Cancer Institute and the European Association of Urology--were examined. The proportion of men who were deemed candidates for active surveillance but were subsequently upstaged or upgraded was determined. Of 509 patients, 186 (36.5%), 132 (25.9%) and 88 (17.3%) men fulfilled the active surveillance criteria, respectively. Upgrading (Gleason scores 7-10) ranged from 32.8% to 38.6%, while upstaging (?pT3) ranged from 10.2% to 12.5%, depending on the three active surveillance criteria. After a median follow-up of 24 months, three patients developed a biochemical recurrence. When the impact of varying PSA levels was examined using a test for trend analysis in the context of PSA for each protocol, rates of upstaging were lower in men with PSA <4 ng ml(-1). However, there was no impact of varying PSA levels on upgrading. In conclusion, commonly used active surveillance protocols carry the risks of upgrading and upstaging. More reliable and accurate markers are needed to better stratify the risks of men who are appropriate candidates for active surveillance.
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Double wire technique for stenting tortuous cerebral vessels.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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The failure to catheterize distal vessels may preclude optimal endovascular intervention. We present a double wire technique to facilitate the selective placement of catheters into tortuous vasculature when a single wire and catheter technique does not suffice. A wide necked middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm incorporated the origin of the inferior MCA trunk, and despite successful passage of a wire into the distal MCA, the catheter could not be advanced beyond 2 sharp turns at the inferior trunk origin. A second wire was passed through the catheter into the inferior trunk providing adequate stability for advancement of the catheter into the vessel. The distal vessel was successfully catheterized and a stent was placed without complication. The double wire technique may allow the passage of catheters into vessels that are otherwise inaccessible because of tortuosity.
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Linezolid penetration into wound tissue of two diabetic patients before and after hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
Undersea Hyperb Med
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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We describe linezolid tissue penetration in two diabetic patients with lower-extremity ulcers, measured by in vivo microdialysis, before and after hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy.
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Mindfulness-based stress reduction for urban youth.
J Altern Complement Med
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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The objectives of this study were to assess the general acceptability and to assess domains of potential effect of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and at-risk urban youth.
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Impact of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy on health-related quality of life in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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Objective:? Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are a common complaint in patients with prostate cancer. We attempted to elucidate the effect of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) on patients having different preoperative LUTS severity through analysis of postoperative health-related quality of life. Methods:? From 1/2006 to 9/2009, over 500 patients underwent RARP at our institution. Preoperative American Urologic Association Symptom Score (AUA-SS), preoperative Sexual Health Inventory for Men, and postoperative Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite were available in 183 of them. These patients were divided into three subgroups based on their AUA-SS as follows: mild AUA-SS (score 0-7) group, moderate AUA-SS (8-19) group, and severe AUA-SS (20-35) group. Results:? Of the 183 men, 94 (51.4%), 70 (38.2%), and 19 (10.4%) were in the mild, moderate, and severe group, respectively. In the comparison of Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite domain subscales with mean score, only urinary domain had significant differences among subgroups. Patients with high preoperative LUTS persistently showed a statistical trend for decreased urinary function (P?=?0.056) and suffered more from urinary bother postoperatively (P?
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Laparoendoscopic single site orchiopexy.
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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We report a laparoendoscopic single site orchiopexy in a 2-year-old boy with a right nonpalpable testis. Diagnostic laparoscopy using a 5-mm port revealed a right intraabdominal testis. The 5-mm port site was extended to accommodate the smallest commercially available triport, and orchiopexy was performed. The operative time was 55 minutes, and the estimated blood loss was minimal. There were no complications, and surgical and cosmetic results were excellent. Laparoendoscopic single site surgery is a feasible technique for orchiopexy of the nonpalpable testis.
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The effect of stifle angle on cranial tibial translation following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy: an in vitro experimental analysis.
Can. Vet. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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This study was designed to determine the ability of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) to eliminate cranial tibial translation (CTT) through a loaded range of motion. Twenty-four large-breed canine cadaver limbs were compared. Each limb was placed in a custom designed jig at 120° of stifle extension under an axial load of 20% body weight. A force of approximately 10 N/s mimiced the action of the quadriceps muscle and allowed the limb to move from 120° to maximal extension. Positional data were acquired using electromagnetic motion-tracking sensors. Each limb was tested under normal, cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient, and TPLO-treated conditions. Cranial tibial translation significantly increased after transection of the CrCL. The TPLO failed to normalize CTT within the CrCL deficient stifle; however, values trended towards intact values throughout the range of motion. The TPLO was more effective at higher angles of flexion. These altered biomechanics may help explain the continued progression of osteoarthritis in TPLO repaired stifles. This loaded model may serve as a method for future evaluation of other surgical techniques.
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Perceptions, experiences, and shifts in perspective occurring among urban youth participating in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program.
Complement Ther Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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Interest in mindfulness as a tool to improve health and well-being has increased rapidly over the past two decades. Limited qualitative research has been conducted on mindfulness and health. This study utilized in-depth interviews to explore the context, perceptions, and experiences of a sub-set of participants engaged in an acceptability study of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) among urban youth. Content analysis revealed that all in-depth interview participants reported experiencing some form of positive benefit and enhanced self-awareness as a result of MBSR program participation. Significant variation in the types and intensity of changes occurring was identified, ranging from a reframing and reduction of daily stressors to transformational shifts in life orientation and well-being. Variations in perceptions of and experiences with mindfulness should be studied in further depth in the context of prospective intervention research, including their potentially differential influence on mental and physical health outcomes.
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Is directly measured low-density lipoprotein clinically equivalent to calculated low-density lipoprotein?
J Clin Lipidol
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) can either be calculated or measured directly. Clinical guidelines recommend the use of calculated LDL-C (C-LDL-C) to guide therapy because the evidence base for cholesterol management is derived almost exclusively from trials that use C-LDL-C, with direct measurement of LDL-C (D-LDL-C) being reserved for those patients who are nonfasting or with significant hypertriglyceridemia.
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Structural correlates of antibodies associated with acute reversal of amyloid beta-related behavioral deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2009
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Immunotherapy targeting of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer disease (AD) has been widely demonstrated to resolve amyloid deposition as well as associated neuronal, glial, and inflammatory pathologies. These successes have provided the basis for ongoing clinical trials of immunotherapy for treatment of AD in humans. Acute as well as chronic Abeta-targeted immunotherapy has also been demonstrated to reverse Abeta-related behavioral deficits assessing memory in AD transgenic mouse models. We observe that three antibodies targeting the same linear epitope of Abeta, Abeta(3-7), differ in their ability to reverse contextual fear deficits in Tg2576 mice in an acute testing paradigm. Reversal of contextual fear deficit by the antibodies does not correlate with in vitro recognition of Abeta in a consistent or correlative manner. To better define differences in antigen recognition at the atomic level, we determined crystal structures of Fab fragments in complex with Abeta. The conformation of the Abeta peptide recognized by all three antibodies was highly related and is also remarkably similar to that observed in independently reported Abeta:antibody crystal structures. Sequence and structural differences between the antibodies, particularly in CDR3 of the heavy chain variable region, are proposed to account for differing in vivo properties of the antibodies under study. These findings provide a structural basis for immunotherapeutic strategies targeting Abeta species postulated to underlie cognitive deficits in AD.
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SCIRehab Project series: the supplemental nursing taxonomy.
J Spinal Cord Med
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2009
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Spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation nurses document the occurrence of educational and care management efforts in traditional nursing documentation methods but not the intensity (or dose) of such interactions. This article describes a process to capture these nursing interventions.
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Pediatric injuries in Central Texas.
Tex Med
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2009
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In Texas, more children aged from 1 through 14 years die from injury-related causes than from the next 9 causes of death combined. Injuries to children hospitalized in Central Texas during 2003 and 2004 were caused predominantly by falls and motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) and resulted in a large number of fractures and open wounds. Fifty-six Central Texas children died in 2003 and 2004 after reaching the hospital, out of a total of 175 children killed in injury-related events during this period. Most injury-related deaths were due to a traumatic brain injury. Most of the children suffering injury in MVCs were not restrained at the time of the accident. Injury data are invaluable to injury prevention efforts. These data were gathered from the Public Use Data File maintained by the Injury and EMS/Trauma Registry Group at the Department of State Health Services; limitations of the data set are discussed, and implications for injury prevention are highlighted.
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Screening for risky alcohol use among caregivers of pediatric trauma patients: a pilot study.
J Trauma
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2009
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Injury is the leading cause of death for children and has been linked to caregiver drinking. Screening and brief intervention for risky drinking has been successful in adult trauma centers but has not been evaluated in caregivers of pediatric trauma patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate a pilot screening process for risky drinking caregivers, to determine rates of risky alcohol use, and to assess potential relationships between risky drinking and child safety behaviors.
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Screening for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a select sample of injured and uninjured pediatric patients.
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2009
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Injury is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality to children. The purpose of this study is to compare attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) screening results in a select group of injured pediatric patients to noninjured patients.
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Effects of local point source polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination on bone mineral density in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus).
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2009
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A former local source of PCBs has contaminated soil and the terrestrial food web at Saglek, Labrador. The relationship between PCB exposure and bone mineral density as an osteoporosis biomarker in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) was investigated at two sites at Saglek: a contaminated Beach and a reference area. Bone mineral density was measured on the femur of twenty-six deer mice using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technology. Bone mineral density was significantly lower in deer mice from the high exposure site (average whole body summation operatorPCB=5769 ng/g wet weight, n=20) than at the reference site (average whole body summation operatorPCB=79.8 ng/g wet weight, n=7). We used T-scores from the World Health Organization to determine the degree of decreased bone mineral density in exposed mice. Assuming the same biomechanical forces apply as for humans, and using a conservative factor of 1.5 (fracture risk increases 1.5 to 3 fold for every standard deviation decrease in bone mineral density), mice from the contaminated Beach are up to five folds more susceptible to fracture risk than mice from the reference area. Therefore, the PCB concentrations found locally at contaminated military sites such as Saglek are high enough to affect local wildlife.
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Cocaine: history, social implications, and toxicity: a review.
Semin Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2009
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The amount of positive cocaine results in an urban emergency department are staggering. The ages of use are becoming more common in older age groups. Most of these patients have underlying medical conditions, including end-stage renal disease (on hemodialysis) and heart and lung disease. Most of their visits to the emergency department are for cocaine exacerbation of underlying chronic condition, adding exponentially to health care dollars. This article describes the history and pharmacology of illicit cocaine use.
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Application of ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to profiling rat and dog bile.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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Reversed-phase gradient UPLC-ESI-MS, in both positive and negative ionization modes, has been applied to the analysis of untreated bile obtained from bile-cannulated rats and dogs. The use of UPLC provided a high-resolution system that enabled global metabolite profiles of bile from the two species to be obtained that were suitable for metabolomic and metabonomic applications. When these metabolite profiles were analyzed using unsupervised multivariate statistical methods, based on principle components analysis (PCA), they were correctly classified by species of origin. Conventional approaches to characterizing sample components via, for example, mass and retention time compared to authentic standards resulted in the identification of a range of bile acids. In addition, the value of using an "MSE" approach to simplify the problem of classifying and identifying the metabolites present in the sample (as e.g., sulfates or taurine conjugates) was demonstrated.
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Perceived organizational support and extra-role performance: which leads to which?
J Soc Psychol
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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L. Rhoades and R. Eisenberger (2002) reported the meta-analytic finding of a highly statistically significant relation between perceived organizational support (POS) and performance but concluded that the reviewed studies methodology allowed no conclusion concerning the direction of the association. To investigate this issue, the authors assessed POS and extra-role performance 2 times, separated by a 3-year interval, among 199 employees of an electronic and appliance sales organization. Using a cross-lagged panel design, the authors found that POS was positively associated with a temporal change in extra-role performance. In contrast, the relation between extra-role performance and temporal change in POS was not statistically significant. These findings provide evidence that POS leads to extra-role performance.
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Pediatric single-port-access nephrectomy for a multicystic, dysplastic kidney.
J Pediatr Urol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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Major urologic surgery via a single port has emerged as the latest progression in laparoscopy and robotics. While current literature highlights the single-port approach to the surgical treatment of cholecystitis, appendicitis and varicoceles, this technique has never been employed to perform a nephrectomy on a child. We herein report a case of a pediatric patient who underwent nephrectomy via single-port-access.
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Analysis of T cell receptor beta chains that combine with dominant conserved TRAV5D-4*04 anti-insulin B:9-23 alpha chains.
J. Autoimmun.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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The objective of this study was to define the spectrum of TCR beta chains permissive for T cells with alpha chains containing the conserved TRAV5D-4*04 sequence to target the insulin B:9-23 peptide, a major epitope for initiation of diabetes in the NOD mouse.
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Multiple roles for VEGF in non-melanoma skin cancer: angiogenesis and beyond.
J Skin Cancer
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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to play a critical role in the development of non-melanoma skin cancers. VEGF is a potent pro-angiogenic factor and it is elevated in mouse and human skin tumors. The use of transgenic and knockout mice has shown that VEGF is essential for tumor development in multiple models of skin carcinogenesis and, until recently, the mechanism of action has been primarily attributed to the induction of angiogenesis. However, additional roles for VEGF have now been discovered. Keratinocytes can respond directly to VEGF, which could influence skin carcinogenesis by altering proliferation, survival, and stemness. In vivo studies have shown that loss of epidermal VEGFR-1 or neuropillin-1 inhibits carcinogenesis, indicating that VEGF can directly affect tumor cells. Additionally, VEGF has been shown to promote tumor growth by recruiting macrophages to skin tumors, which likely occurs through VEGFR-1. Overall, these new studies show that VEGF carries out functions beyond its well-established effects on angiogenesis and highlight the need to consider these alternative activities when developing new treatments for non-melanoma skin cancer.
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Toilet training method is not related to dysfunctional voiding.
Clin Pediatr (Phila)
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Toilet training is an important marker of physical and psychosocial development, but the best strategy for implementing training is still unknown. The purpose of this study is to compare dysfunctional voiding outcomes for 2 common toilet training strategies: parent-oriented training and child-oriented training.
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Type II decompression sickness in a hyperbaric inside attendant.
Undersea Hyperb Med
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Decompression sickness (DCS) of an inside attendant (IA) is rarely encountered in hyperbarics. This report describes an IA who developed Type II DCS after a routine hyperbaric exposure.
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Stent assisted embolization of 64 anterior communicating artery aneurysms.
J Neurointerv Surg
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Anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms comprised over half of the ruptured aneurysms in the International Subarachnoid Trial. Endovascular treatment of ACoA aneurysms has provided good results, but until the introduction of intracranial stents, many ACoA aneurysms could not be treated without craniotomy. The current study analyzes the results of ACoA aneurysm treatment using stent assisted embolization.
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Venous sinus manometry and intervention using the PrimeWire Prestige pressure guidewire: technique and initial experience.
J Neurointerv Surg
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Cerebral venography and manometry are used for the diagnosis of hemodynamically significant venous sinus stenosis in patients with the syndrome of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Intravenous pressure measurements using the traditional microcatheter technique can be cumbersome, time consuming and potentially unreliable. The PrimeWire Prestige pressure guidewire conducts pressure electrically and can be used as a guidewire for intervention. It has been validated in interventional cardiology procedures.
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rs11203203 is associated with type 1 diabetes risk in population pre-screened for high-risk HLA-DR,DQ genotypes.
Pediatr Diabetes
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To evaluate UBASH3A (rs11203203) as a predictor of persistent islet autoimmunity (IA) and type 1 diabetes (T1D).
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A survey of residential carbon monoxide detector utilization among Connecticut Emergency Department patients.
Clin Toxicol (Phila)
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The use of carbon monoxide detectors may prevent deaths due to unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning. Currently, there is limited data regarding the characteristics of residential carbon monoxide detector use.
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Initial Experience with Neuroform EZ in the Treatment of Wide-neck Cerebral Aneurysms.
Neurointervention
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Stent-assisted coiling allows embolization and parent vessel reconstruction of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms. The Neuroform EZ (Boston Scientific, Fremont, CA, U.S.A.) stent delivery system offers deployment of a Neuroform stent with fewer steps and improved operator control. Initial experience, technical considerations, and treatment outcomes using the Neuroform EZ stent delivery system in combination with coil embolization are reported.
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Effects of non-HLA gene polymorphisms on development of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes in a population with high-risk HLA-DR,DQ genotypes.
Diabetes
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We assessed the effects of non-HLA gene polymorphisms on the risk of islet autoimmunity (IA) and progression to type 1 diabetes in the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young. A total of 1,743 non-Hispanic, white children were included: 861 first-degree relatives and 882 general population children identified as having high-risk HLA-DR/DQ genotypes for type 1 diabetes. Of those, 109 developed IA and 61 progressed to diabetes. Study participants were genotyped for 20 non-HLA polymorphisms, previously confirmed as type 1 diabetes susceptibility loci. PTPN22 and UBASH3A predicted both IA and diabetes in regression models controlling for family history of type 1 diabetes and presence of HLA-DR3/4-DQB1*0302 genotype. In addition, PTPN2 predicted IA whereas INS predicted type 1 diabetes. The final multivariate regression models for both IA and type 1 diabetes included PTPN22, UBASH3A, and INS, in addition to family history of type 1 diabetes and HLA-DR3/4. In general population children, the most frequent combinations including these five significant predictors conferred hazard ratio of up to 13 for IA and >40 for type 1 diabetes. Non-HLA susceptibility alleles may help estimate risk for development of type 1 diabetes in the general population. These findings require replication in different populations.
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Germline TRAV5D-4 T-cell receptor sequence targets a primary insulin peptide of NOD mice.
Diabetes
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There is accumulating evidence that autoimmunity to insulin B chain peptide, amino acids 9-23 (insulin B:9-23), is central to development of autoimmune diabetes of the NOD mouse model. We hypothesized that enhanced susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes is the result of targeting of insulin by a T-cell receptor (TCR) sequence commonly encoded in the germline. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate that a particular V? gene TRAV5D-4 with multiple junction sequences is sufficient to induce anti-islet autoimmunity by studying retrogenic mouse lines expressing ?-chains with different V? TRAV genes. Retrogenic NOD strains expressing V? TRAV5D-4 ?-chains with many different complementarity determining region (CDR) 3 sequences, even those derived from TCRs recognizing islet-irrelevant molecules, developed anti-insulin autoimmunity. Induction of insulin autoantibodies by TRAV5D-4 ?-chains was abrogated by the mutation of insulin peptide B:9-23 or that of two amino acid residues in CDR1 and 2 of the TRAV5D-4. TRAV13-1, the human ortholog of murine TRAV5D-4, was also capable of inducing in vivo anti-insulin autoimmunity when combined with different murine CDR3 sequences. Targeting primary autoantigenic peptides by simple germline-encoded TCR motifs may underlie enhanced susceptibility to the development of autoimmune diabetes.
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Long-Term Radiographic Results of Stent Assisted Embolization of Cerebral Aneurysms.
Neurosurgery
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Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a disabling disease. Endovascular coiling provides minimally invasive, effective, and safe treatment of both ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Intracranial stents have improved the endovascular treatment of complex aneurysms, but the long-term durability of this treatment modality needs clarification.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.