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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Does mortality vary between Asian subgroups in New Zealand: an application of hierarchical Bayesian modelling.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The aim of this paper was to see whether all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates vary between Asian ethnic subgroups, and whether overseas born Asian subgroup mortality rate ratios varied by nativity and duration of residence. We used hierarchical Bayesian methods to allow for sparse data in the analysis of linked census-mortality data for 25-75 year old New Zealanders. We found directly standardised posterior all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates were highest for the Indian ethnic group, significantly so when compared with those of Chinese ethnicity. In contrast, cancer mortality rates were lowest for ethnic Indians. Asian overseas born subgroups have about 70% of the mortality rate of their New Zealand born Asian counterparts, a result that showed little variation by Asian subgroup or cause of death. Within the overseas born population, all-cause mortality rates for migrants living 0-9 years in New Zealand were about 60% of the mortality rate of those living more than 25 years in New Zealand regardless of ethnicity. The corresponding figure for cardiovascular mortality rates was 50%. However, while Chinese cancer mortality rates increased with duration of residence, Indian and Other Asian cancer mortality rates did not. Future research on the mechanisms of worsening of health with increased time spent in the host country is required to improve the understanding of the process, and would assist the policy-makers and health planners.
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Nativity, duration of residence and chronic health conditions in Australia: Do trends converge towards the native-born population?
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Using data from waves 3, 7 and 9 of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, a group-mean-centred multilevel mixed model and self-reported chronic conditions, this study contributes to the limited longitudinal evidence on the nativity health gap in Australia. We investigated whether differences exist in the reporting of any chronic condition (including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), arthritis, diabetes and respiratory disease), and in the total number of chronic conditions, between foreign-born (FB) from English speaking (ES) and non-English speaking (NES) countries and native-born (NB) Australians. We also investigated differences between these groups in the reporting of any chronic condition, and the total number of chronic conditions, by duration of residence. After adjusting for time varying and time invariant covariates, we found a significant difference by nativity status in the reporting of chronic condition, with immigrants from both ES and NES countries less likely to report a chronic condition and having fewer chronic conditions compared with the NB. Immigrants from both ES and NES countries living in Australia for less than 20 years were significantly less likely to report a chronic condition compared with the NB. However, the health of both these groups converged to that of the NB population in terms of reporting a chronic condition after 20 years of stay in Australia.
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Is change in global self-rated health associated with change in affiliation with a primary care provider? Findings from a longitudinal study from New Zealand.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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To investigate the association of self-rated health and affiliation with a primary care provider (PCP) in New Zealand.
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Fixed effects analysis of repeated measures data.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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The analysis of repeated measures or panel data allows control of some of the biases which plague other observational studies, particularly unmeasured confounding. When this bias is suspected, and the research question is: Does a change in an exposure cause a change in the outcome?, a fixed effects approach can reduce the impact of confounding by time-invariant factors, such as the unmeasured characteristics of individuals. Epidemiologists familiar with using mixed models may initially presume that specifying a random effect (intercept) for every individual in the study is an appropriate method. However, this method uses information from both the within-individual/unit exposure-outcome association and the between-individual/unit exposure-outcome association. Variation between individuals may introduce confounding bias into mixed model estimates, if unmeasured time-invariant factors are associated with both the exposure and the outcome. Fixed effects estimators rely only on variation within individuals and hence are not affected by confounding from unmeasured time-invariant factors. The reduction in bias using a fixed effects model may come at the expense of precision, particularly if there is little change in exposures over time. Neither fixed effects nor mixed models control for unmeasured time-varying confounding or reverse causation.
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Do changes in socioeconomic factors lead to changes in mental health? Findings from three waves of a population based panel study.
J Epidemiol Community Health
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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There has been little investigation of changes in socioeconomic measures and mental health (MH)/illness over time within individuals using methods that control for time-invariant unobserved confounders. We investigate whether changes in multiple socioeconomic measures are associated with self-reported MH using fixed effects methods to control for unobserved time-invariant confounding.
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Migration and pacific mortality: estimating migration effects on pacific mortality rates using bayesian models.
Demography
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Pacific people living in New Zealand have higher mortality rates than New Zealand residents of European/Other ethnicity. The aim of this paper is to see whether Pacific mortality rates vary by natality and duration of residence. We used linked census-mortality information for 25- to 74-year-olds in the 2001 census followed for up to three years. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling provided a means of handling sparse data. Posterior mortality rates were directly age-standardized. We found little evidence of mortality differences between the overseas-born and the New Zealand-born for all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. However, we found evidence for lower all-cause (and possibly cancer and CVD) mortality rates for Pacific migrants resident in New Zealand for less than 25 years relative to those resident for more than 25 years. This result may arise from a combination of processes operating over time, including health selection effects from variations in New Zealands immigration policy, the location of Pacific migrants within the social, political, and cultural environment of the host community, and health impacts of the host culture. We could not determine the relative importance of these processes, but identifying the (modifiable) drivers of the inferred long-term decline in health of the overseas-born Pacific population relative to more-recent Pacific migrants is important to Pacific communities and from a national health and policy perspective.
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The evolution of intelligent developmental systems.
Adv Child Dev Behav
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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This chapter aims to understand the relations between the evolution and development of complex cognitive functions by emphasizing the context of complex, changeable environments. What evolves and develops in such contexts cannot be achieved by linear deterministic processes based on stable "codes". Rather, what is needed, even in the molecular ensembles of single-cell organisms, are "intelligent" systems with nonlinear dynamic processing, sensitive to informational structures, not just elements, in environments. This is the view emerging in recent molecular biology. The research is also constructing a new "biologic" of both evolution and development, providing a clearer rationale for transitions into more complex forms, including epigenetic, physiological, nervous, cognitive, and human sociocognitive forms. This chapter explains how these transitions form a nested hierarchical system in which the dynamics within and between levels creates emergent abilities so often underestimated or even demeaned in previous accounts, especially regarding human cognition. The implications of the view for human development in modern societies are also briefly considered.
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Health shocks adversely impact participation in the labour force in a working age population: a longitudinal analysis.
Aust N Z J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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It is well understood that health affects labour force participation (LFP). However, much of the published research has been on older (retiring age) populations and using subjective health measures. This paper aims to assess the impact of an objective measure of health shock (cancer registration or hospitalisation) on LFP in a working age population using longitudinal panel study data and fixed effect regression analyses.
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The relationship between income and health using longitudinal data from New Zealand.
J Epidemiol Community Health
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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Evidence for a cross-sectional relationship between income and health is strong but is probably biased by substantial confounding. Longitudinal data with repeated income and health measures on the same individuals can be analysed to control completely for time-invariant confounding, giving a more accurate estimate of the impact of short-term changes in income on health.
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Continuity of care with general practitioners in New Zealand: results from SoFIE-Primary Care.
N. Z. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2011
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Continuity of care has been defined as seeing the same health care provider over time, and has been shown to be associated with positive health outcomes, high quality care, high patient satisfaction with care and with lowering health care costs. While the benefits of continuity of care with a primary care provider are well documented, relatively little is known about those patients who receive or do not receive continuity of care. Using data from SoFIE-health, which is an add-on to the Statistics New Zealand-led Survey of Family, Income and Employment, this paper aims to construct a summary measure of continuity of care and to contribute to an enhanced understanding of the prevalence of continuity of care in New Zealand. We used the Primary Care Assessment Tools (PCAT) to create a mean score of continuity of care. We found continuity of care is high in New Zealand. Overall, our data provide some support for the hypothesis that people with high health needs have higher mean continuity of care scores (e.g. the elderly, Pacific and Asian ethnic groups, those in the low income tertile, and those with one or more chronic conditions). The authors propose that continued incentives to develop and sustain affiliation with a primary care provider and continuity of care are important for maintaining the quality and cost-effectiveness of primary health care.
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Do ethnic and socio-economic inequalities in mortality vary by region in New Zealand? An application of hierarchical Bayesian modelling.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2009
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We hypothesised that ethnic and socio-economic inequality in mortality might vary by region in New Zealand. Linked 2001-2004 census-mortality data were stratified by region (District Health Boards or DHBs), sex, age and ethnic groups, and income quintiles. To accommodate data sparseness, and to achieve accurate estimates of DHB-specific mortality rates and rate ratios by ethnicity and income, we used hierarchical Bayesian methods. To aid presentation of results, we used posterior mortality rates from the models to calculate directly standardised rates and rate ratios, with credible intervals. M?ori-European/Other mortality rate ratios were often similar across DHBs, but Waitemata and Canterbury DHBs (both predominantly urban areas with low M?ori population) had significantly lower rate ratios. In contrast, Bay of Plenty and Waikato DHBs (heterogeneous by both ethnicity and socio-economic position) had significantly higher rate ratios. There was little variation in mortality inequalities by income across DHBs. Examining the underlying rates for ethnic and income groups separately, there were significant variations across DHBs, but these were often correlated such that the ethnic or income rate ratio was similar across DHBs. The application of hierarchical Bayesian allowed more definitive conclusions than routine empirical methods when comparing small populations such as social groups across regions. The range of hierarchical Bayesian estimates of M?ori mortality and M?ori:European rate ratios across regions was considerably narrower than empirical standardisation estimates.
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Does mortality vary between pacific groups in New Zealand? Estimating Samoan, Cook Island Maori, Tongan, and Niuean mortality rates using hierarchical Bayesian modelling.
N. Z. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
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BACKGROUND Pacific mortality rates are traditionally presented for all Pacific people combined, yet there is likely heterogeneity between separate Pacific ethnic groups. We aimed to determine mortality rates for Samoan, Cook Island M?ori, Tongan, and Niuean ethnic groups (living in New Zealand). METHODS We used New Zealand Census-Mortality Study (NZCMS) data for 2001-04, for 380,000 person years of follow-up of 0-74 year olds in the 2001-04 cohort for which there was complete data on sex, age, ethnicity (total counts), natality, and household income. Given sparse data, we used hierarchical Bayesian (HB) regression modelling, with: a prior covariate structure specified for sex, age, natality (New Zealand/Overseas born), and household income; and smoothing of rates using shrinkage. The posterior mortality rate estimates were then directly standardised.RESULTS Standardising for sex, age, income, and natality, all-cause mortality rate ratios compared to Samoan were: 1.21 (95% credibility interval 1.05 to 1.42) for Cook Island M?ori; 0.93 (0.77 to 1.10) for Tongan; and 1.07 (0.88 to 1.29) for Niuean. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rate ratios showed greater heterogeneity: 1.66 (1.26 to 2.13) for Cook Island M?ori; 1.11 (0.72 to 1.58) for Niuean; and 0.86 (0.58 to 1.20) for Tongan. Results were little different standardising for just sex and age. We conducted a range of sensitivity analyses about a plausible range of (differential) return migration by Pacific people when terminally ill, and a plausible range of census undercounting of Pacific people. Our findings, in particular the elevated CVD mortality among Cook Island M?ori, appeared robust. CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, this project is the first time in New Zealand that clear (and marked in the case of CVD) differences in mortality have been demonstrated between different Pacific ethnic groups. Future health research and policy should, wherever possible and practicable, evaluate and incorporate heterogeneity of health status among Pacific people.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.