The Ryukyu Islands are located to the southwest of the Japanese archipelago. Archaeological evidence has revealed the existence of prehistoric cultural differentiation between the northern Ryukyu islands of Amami and Okinawa, and the southern Ryukyu islands of Miyako and Yaeyama. To examine a genetic subdivision in the Ryukyu Islands, we conducted genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism typing of inhabitants from the Okinawa Islands, the Miyako Islands, and the Yaeyama Islands. Principal component and cluster analyses revealed genetic differentiation among the island groups, especially between Okinawa and Miyako. No genetic affinity was observed between aboriginal Taiwanese and any of the Ryukyu populations. The genetic differentiation observed between the inhabitants of the Okinawa Islands and the Miyako Islands is likely to have arisen due to genetic drift rather than admixture with people from neighboring regions. Based on the observed genetic differences, the divergence time between the inhabitants of Okinawa and Miyako islands was dated to the Holocene. These findings suggest that the Pleistocene inhabitants, whose bones have been found on the southern Ryukyu Islands, did not make a major genetic contribution, if any, to the present-day inhabitants of the southern Ryukyu Islands.
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory, degenerative, and hyperproliferative diseases, including cancer. Previously, we revealed mechanisms of downstream signaling from ligand-activated RAGE, which recruits TIRAP/MyD88. Here, we showed that DNAX-activating protein 10 (DAP10), a transmembrane adaptor protein, also binds to RAGE. By artificial oligomerization of RAGE alone or RAGE-DAP10, we found that RAGE-DAP10 heterodimer formation resulted in a marked enhancement of Akt activation, whereas homomultimeric interaction of RAGE led to activation of caspase 8. Normal human epidermal keratinocytes exposed to S100A8/A9, a ligand for RAGE, at a nanomolar concentration mimicked the pro-survival response of RAGE-DAP10 interaction, although at a micromolar concentration, the cells mimicked the pro-apoptotic response of RAGE-RAGE. In transformed epithelial cell lines, A431 and HaCaT, in which endogenous DAP10 was overexpressed, and S100A8/A9, even at a micromolar concentration, led to cell growth and survival due to RAGE-DAP10 interaction. Functional blocking of DAP10 in the cell lines abrogated the Akt phosphorylation from S100A8/A9-activated RAGE, eventually leading to an increase in apoptosis. Finally, S100A8/A9, RAGE, and DAP10 were overexpressed in the psoriatic epidermis. Our findings indicate that the functional interaction between RAGE and DAP10 coordinately regulates S100A8/A9-mediated survival and/or apoptotic response of keratinocytes.
Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the procedures for efficiently diagnosing Sjögren's syndrome to reduce patient burden. Methods. This study analyzed data from 254 Japanese patients diagnosed with Sjögren's syndrome out of 4967 who visited our clinic complaining of xerostomia. Results. Of the 254 Sjögren's syndrome patients, 140 fulfilled the criteria proposed by the Committee on Sjögren's Syndrome of the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan, 228 fulfilled the criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group, and 69 fulfilled the criteria proposed by the American College of Rheumatology. Numbers of definitive cases varied with each set of criteria. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze useful examination items for definitive diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome, demonstrating that anti-Ro/SSA (odds ratio (OR), 7.165), lip biopsy (OR, 4.273), sialography (OR, 2.402), and ANA (OR, 0.678) correlated significantly with definitive diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome. Conclusions. These results suggest that the following diagnostic procedure for Sjögren's syndrome would reduce burden on patients. When clinicians choose examination items for diagnosing Sjögren's syndrome, they should first select which criteria to use. Then, to minimize the number of examination items, examinations should be performed in order of anti-SSA antibody, lip biopsy, and parotid gland sialography.
Recent genetic association studies have identified 55 genetic loci associated with obesity or body mass index (BMI). The vast majority, 51 loci, however, were identified in European-ancestry populations. We conducted a meta-analysis of associations between BMI and ?2.5 million genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms among 86 757 individuals of Asian ancestry, followed by in silico and de novo replication among 7488-47 352 additional Asian-ancestry individuals. We identified four novel BMI-associated loci near the KCNQ1 (rs2237892, P = 9.29 × 10(-13)), ALDH2/MYL2 (rs671, P = 3.40 × 10(-11); rs12229654, P = 4.56 × 10(-9)), ITIH4 (rs2535633, P = 1.77 × 10(-10)) and NT5C2 (rs11191580, P = 3.83 × 10(-8)) genes. The association of BMI with rs2237892, rs671 and rs12229654 was significantly stronger among men than among women. Of the 51 BMI-associated loci initially identified in European-ancestry populations, we confirmed eight loci at the genome-wide significance level (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)) and an additional 14 at P < 1.0 × 10(-3) with the same direction of effect as reported previously. Findings from this analysis expand our knowledge of the genetic basis of obesity.
The major allergen, Cry j 1, was isolated from Japanese cedar Cryptomeria japonica (Cry j) pollen and was shown to react with immunoglobulin E antibodies in the sera from pollinosis patients. We previously reported that the frequency of HLA-DP5 was significantly higher in pollinosis patients and the immunodominant peptides from Cry j 1 bound to HLA-DP5 to activate Th2 cells. In the present study, we determined the crystal structure of the HLA-DP5 heterodimer in complex with a Cry j 1-derived nine-residue peptide, at 2.4Å resolution. The peptide-binding groove recognizes the minimal peptide with 10 hydrogen bonds, including those between the negatively charged P1 pocket and the Lys side chain at the first position in the peptide sequence. We confirmed that HLA-DP5 exhibits the same Cry j 1-binding mode in solution, through pull-down experiments using structure-based mutations of Cry j 1. We also identified the characteristic residues of HLA-DP5 that are responsible for the distinct properties of the groove, by comparing the structure of HLA-DP5 and the previously reported structures of HLA-DP2 in complexes with pDRA of the self-antigen. The comparison revealed that the HLA-DP5·pCry j 1 complex forms several hydrogen bond/salt bridge networks between the receptor and the antigen that were not observed in the HLA-DP2·pDRA complex. Evolutionary considerations have led us to conclude that HLA-DP5 and HLA-DP2 represent two major groups of the HLA-DP family, in which the properties of the P1 and P4 pockets have evolved and acquired the present ranges of epitope peptide-binding specificities.
We propose a stochastic model of Zipf's law, namely a power-law relation between rank and size, and clarify as to why a specific value of its power-law exponent is quite universal. We focus on the successive total of a multiplicative stochastic process. By employing properties of a well-known stochastic process, we concisely show that the successive total follows a stationary power-law distribution, which is directly related to Zipf's law. The formula of the power-law exponent is also derived. Finally, we conclude that the universality of the rank-size exponent is brought about by symmetry between an increase and a decrease in the random growth rate.
Depressed and flat surface lesions are not easy to identify with routine colonoscopies during screening for colorectal cancer (CRC). Identifying clinically relevant genes that influence tumor shape could be useful when screening for the presence of depressed lesions. Total RNA was extracted from tumor cells collected by laser microdissection from the primary lesions of 146 CRC cases. Microarray analysis was performed to identify genes that were differentially expressed between depressed and elevated tumors. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of genomic DNA from the peripheral blood of 67 CRC patients was then used to associate polymorphisms with the occurrence of depressed tumors. Microarray analysis revealed significantly higher expression of the fibronectin 1 (FN1) gene in 129 depressed-type tumors and lesions compared to 17 elevated-type tumors. FN1-abundant CRC tumors were large with a significantly higher incidence of lymphatic permeation. SNP analysis indicated that 44 tumors with a GG genotype at SNP rs6707530 showed significantly higher FN1 expression than did 23 tumors with GT/TT genotypes (p<0.05). The product of the FN1 gene (located at 2q34) is involved in cell adhesion, migration and metastasis in mesenchymal tumors. Abundant expression of FN1 may allow cancer cells to invade deeper layers, which would eventually define tumor shape. Identification of this SNP in blood samples may facilitate disease diagnosis and allow prediction of the presence of depressed tumors in the colorectal epithelium before a colon fiberscope examination.
Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein belonging to the fasciclin family, has been shown to play a critical role in the process of remodeling during tissue/organ development or repair. Periostin functions as a matricellular protein in cell activation by binding to their receptors on cell surface, thereby exerting its biological activities. After we found that periostin is a downstream molecule of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, signature cytokines of type 2 immune responses, we showed that periostin is a component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma, the first formal proof that periostin is involved in allergic inflammation. Subsequently, a great deal of evidence has accumulated demonstrating the significance of periostin in allergic inflammation. It is of note that in skin tissues, periostin is critical for amplification and persistence of allergic inflammation by communicating between fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Furthermore, periostin has been applied to development of novel diagnostics or therapeutic agents for allergic diseases. Serum periostin can reflect local production of periostin in inflamed lesions induced by Th2-type immune responses and also can predict the efficacy of Th2 antagonists against bronchial asthma. Blocking the interaction between periostin and its receptor, ?v integrin, or down-regulating the periostin expression shows improvement of periostin-induced inflammation in mouse models or in in vitro systems. It is hoped that diagnostics or therapeutic agents targeting periostin will be of practical use in the near future.
Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is used as a measure of glycemic control and also as a diagnostic criterion for diabetes. To discover novel loci harboring common variants associated with HbA1c in East Asians, we conducted a meta-analysis of 13 genome-wide association studies (GWAS; N = 21,026). We replicated our findings in three additional studies comprising 11,576 individuals of East Asian ancestry. Ten variants showed associations that reached genome-wide significance in the discovery data set, of which nine (four novel variants at TMEM79 [P value = 1.3 × 10(-23)], HBS1L/MYB [8.5 × 10(-15)], MYO9B [9.0 × 10(-12)], and CYBA [1.1 × 10(-8)] as well as five variants at loci that had been previously identified [CDKAL1, G6PC2/ABCB11, GCK, ANK1, and FN3KI]) showed consistent evidence of association in replication data sets. These variants explained 1.76% of the variance in HbA1c. Several of these variants (TMEM79, HBS1L/MYB, CYBA, MYO9B, ANK1, and FN3K) showed no association with either blood glucose or type 2 diabetes. Among individuals with nondiabetic levels of fasting glucose (<7.0 mmol/L) but elevated HbA1c (?6.5%), 36.1% had HbA1c <6.5% after adjustment for these six variants. Our East Asian GWAS meta-analysis has identified novel variants associated with HbA1c as well as demonstrated that the effects of known variants are largely transferable across ethnic groups. Variants affecting erythrocyte parameters rather than glucose metabolism may be relevant to the use of HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes in these populations.
Angiogenesis is essential for tumor development and metastasis. Among several angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF) is important for tumor-derived angiogenesis and commonly overexpressed in solid tumors. Thus, many antitumor strategies targeting VEGF have been developed to inhibit cancer angiogenesis, offering insights into the successful treatment of solid cancers. However, there are a number of issues such as harmful effects on normal vascularity in clinical trials. Taking this into consideration, we employed Cordyceps militaris as an antitumor approach due to its biological safety in vivo. The herbal medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris has been reported to show potential anticancer properties including anti-angiogenic capacity; however, its concrete properties have yet to be fully demonstrated. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the biological role of Cordyceps militaris extract in tumor cells, especially in regulating angiogenesis and tumor growth of a human malignant melanoma cell line. We demonstrated that Cordyceps militaris extract remarkably suppressed tumor growth via induction of apoptotic cell death in culture that links to the abrogation of VEGF production in melanoma cells. This was followed by mitigation of Akt1 and GSK-3? activation, while p38? phosphorylation levels were increased. Extract treatment in mouse model xenografted with human melanoma cells resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect with down-regulation of VEGF expression. The results suggest that suppression of tumor growth by Cordyceps militaris extract is, at least, mediated by its anti-angiogenicity and apoptosis induction capacities. Cordyceps militaris extract may be a potent antitumor herbal drug for solid tumors.
Gout is a common disease which results from hyperuricemia. We have reported that the dysfunction of urate exporter ABCG2 is the major cause of renal overload (ROL) hyperuricemia, but its involvement in renal underexcretion (RUE) hyperuricemia, the most prevalent subtype, is not clearly explained so far. In this study, the association analysis with 644 hyperuricemia patients and 1,623 controls in male Japanese revealed that ABCG2 dysfunction significantly increased the risk of RUE hyperuricemia as well as overall and ROL hyperuricemia, according to the severity of impairment. ABCG2 dysfunction caused renal urate underexcretion and induced hyperuricemia even if the renal urate overload was not remarkable. These results show that ABCG2 plays physiologically important roles in both renal and extra-renal urate excretion mechanisms. Our findings indicate the importance of ABCG2 as a promising therapeutic and screening target of hyperuricemia and gout.
To further understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility, we aggregated published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including 26,488 cases and 83,964 controls of European, east Asian, south Asian and Mexican and Mexican American ancestry. We observed a significant excess in the directional consistency of T2D risk alleles across ancestry groups, even at SNPs demonstrating only weak evidence of association. By following up the strongest signals of association from the trans-ethnic meta-analysis in an additional 21,491 cases and 55,647 controls of European ancestry, we identified seven new T2D susceptibility loci. Furthermore, we observed considerable improvements in the fine-mapping resolution of common variant association signals at several T2D susceptibility loci. These observations highlight the benefits of trans-ethnic GWAS for the discovery and characterization of complex trait loci and emphasize an exciting opportunity to extend insight into the genetic architecture and pathogenesis of human diseases across populations of diverse ancestry.
The rs6983267 at 8q24.21 has been established as a significant cancer-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The risk allele showed similarity to the binding site of transcription factor TCF4/LEF1 that activates transcription of MYC. However, little is known about the role of this SNP in increasing MYC activity in colorectal cancers (CRCs).
The 16q12.2 locus in the first intron of FTO has been robustly associated with body mass index (BMI) and type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). To improve the resolution of fine-scale mapping at FTO, we performed a systematic approach consisting of two parts.
Biomarkers are generally important for the treatment of patients from the points of diagnosis of disease, assessment of cure, assessment of prognosis such as metastasis or recurrence, prevention of disease, and prediction of drug efficacy. Currently it is well accepted that allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis are not single diseases, but syndromes encompassing different diseases entities. Therefore, it is important to cluster allergic disease patients to assess prognosis or the choice of therapeutic drugs, and useful biomarkers are required for these purposes. Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein, has recently emerged as a biomarker useful for clustering asthma patients. We further found that periostin plays an important role in allergic inflammation and based on this finding we are now developing therapeutic agents targeting periostin against allergic diseases. Since periostin is involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases in addition to allergic diseases, such diagnostics and therapeutic agents can be applied to many inflammatory diseases. In this article, we describe the history of periostin research and our application of basic research to the development of diagnostics and therapeutic agents against inflammatory diseases.
Background:Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) includes Graves disease (GD) and Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) which partially share immunological features. Determining the genetic basis which distinguishes GD and HT is a key to understanding the differences between these two related diseases.Aim:The aims of this study were to identify HLA antigens which can explain the immunopathological difference between GD and HT, and to elucidate epistatic interactions between protective and susceptible HLA alleles which can delineate the distinct function of HLA in AITD etiology.Design:We genotyped 991 AITD (547 GD and 444 HT patients) and 481 controls at the HLA-A C, B, DRB1, DQB1, DPB1 loci. A direct comparison of HLA antigen frequencies between GD and HT were performed. We further analyzed an epistatic interaction between the susceptible and protective HLA alleles in the development of GD and HT.Results:we identified four and two susceptible HLA molecules primarily associated with GD and HT, respectively, HLA-B*35:01, HLA-B*46:01, HLA-DRB1*14:03 and HLA-DPB1*05:01 for GD and HLA-A*02:07 and HLA-DRB4 for HT. In direct comparison between GD and HT, we identified GD-specific susceptible class II molecules, HLA-DP5 (HLA-DPB1*05:01; Pc = 1.0 × 10(-9)) and HLA-DR14 (HLA-DRB*14:03; Pc = 0.0018). In contrast, HLA components on three common haplotypes in Japanese showed significant protective effect on the development of GD and HT (HLA-A*24:02-C*12:02-B*52:01-DRB1*15:02-DQB1*06:01-DPB1*09:01 and HLA-A*24:02-C*07:02-B*07:02-DRB1*01:01-DQB1*05:01-DPB1*04:02 haplotype for GD, and HLA-A*33:03-C*14:03-B*44:03-DRB1*13:02-DQB1*06:04-DPB1*04:01 haplotype for GD and HT). Interestingly, the representative protective HLA, HLA-DR13 (HLA-DRB1*13:02), was epistatic to susceptible HLA-DP5 in controlling the development of GD.Conclusion:We show that HLA exerts a dual function, susceptibility and resistance, in controlling the development of GD and HT. We also show that protective HLA allele is partially epistatic to susceptible HLA allele in GD.
Background- Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Given that a family history is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease, genetic variants are thought to contribute directly to the development of this condition. The identification of susceptibility genes for coronary artery disease or MI may thus help to identify high-risk individuals and offer the opportunity for disease prevention. Methods and Results- We designed a 5-step protocol, consisting of a genome-wide linkage study followed by association analysis, to identify novel genetic variants that confer susceptibility to coronary artery disease or MI. A genome-wide affected sib-pair linkage study with 221 Japanese families with coronary artery disease yielded a statistically significant logarithm of the odds score of 3.44 for chromosome 2p13 and MI. Further association analysis implicated Alström syndrome 1 gene (ALMS1) as a candidate gene within the linkage region. Validation association analysis revealed that representative single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the ALMS1 promoter region were significantly associated with early-onset MI in both Japanese and Korean populations. Moreover, direct sequencing of the ALMS1 coding region identified a glutamic acid repeat polymorphism in exon 1, which was subsequently found to be associated with early-onset MI. Conclusions- The glutamic acid repeat polymorphism of ALMS1 identified in the present study may provide insight into the pathogenesis of early-onset MI.
Blood levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted protein correlated with metabolic and cardiovascular risks, are highly heritable. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies for adiponectin levels have identified 14 loci harboring variants associated with blood levels of adiponectin. To identify novel adiponectin-associated loci, particularly those of importance in East Asians, we conducted a meta-analysis of GWA studies for adiponectin in 7827 individuals, followed by two stages of replications in 4298 and 5954 additional individuals. We identified a novel adiponectin-associated locus on chromosome 10 near WDR11-FGFR2 (P = 3.0 × 10(-14)) and provided suggestive evidence for a locus on chromosome 12 near OR8S1-LALBA (P = 1.2 × 10(-7)). Of the adiponectin-associated loci previously described, we confirmed the association at CDH13 (P = 6.8 × 10(-165)), ADIPOQ (P = 1.8 × 10(-22)), PEPD (P = 3.6 × 10(-12)), CMIP (P = 2.1 × 10(-10)), ZNF664 (P = 2.3 × 10(-7)) and GPR109A (P = 7.4 × 10(-6)). Conditional analysis at ADIPOQ revealed a second signal with suggestive evidence of association only after conditioning on the lead SNP (Pinitial = 0.020; Pconditional = 7.0 × 10(-7)). We further confirmed the independence of two pairs of closely located loci (<2 Mb) on chromosome 16 at CMIP and CDH13, and on chromosome 12 at GPR109A and ZNF664. In addition, the newly identified signal near WDR11-FGFR2 exhibited evidence of association with triglycerides (P = 3.3 × 10(-4)), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, P = 4.9 × 10(-4)) and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted waist-hip ratio (P = 9.8 × 10(-3)). These findings improve our knowledge of the genetic basis of adiponectin variation, demonstrate the shared allelic architecture for adiponectin with lipids and central obesity and motivate further studies of underlying mechanisms.
What psychiatric symptoms are caused by central noradrenergic dysfunction? The hypothesis considered in this review is that noradrenergic dysfunction causes the abnormalities in arousal level observed in functional psychoses. In this review, the psychiatric symptoms of noradrenergic dysfunction were inferred pathophysiologically from the neuroscience literature. This inference was examined based on the literature on the biology of psychiatric disorders and psychotropics. Additionally, hypotheses were generated as to the cause of the noradrenergic dysfunction. The central noradrenaline system, like the peripheral system, mediates the alarm reaction during stress. Overactivity of the system increases the arousal level and amplifies the emotional reaction to stress, which could manifest as a cluster of symptoms, such as insomnia, anxiety, irritability, emotional instability and exaggerated fear or aggressiveness (hyperarousal symptoms). Underactivity of the system lowers the arousal level and attenuates the alarm reaction, which could result in hypersomnia and insensitivity to stress (hypoarousal symptoms). Clinical data support the hypothesis that, in functional psychoses, the noradrenergic dysfunction is in fact associated with the arousal symptoms described above. The anti-noradrenergic action of anxiolytics and antipsychotics can explain their sedative effects on the hyperarousal symptoms of these disorders. The results of animal experiments suggest that excessive stress can be a cause of long-term noradrenergic dysfunction.
NBS1 is the causative gene product of Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), a recessive genetic disorder resulting in chromosomal instability and immunodeficiency. We isolated DNMT1 cDNA by two-hybrid screening by using NBS1 as bait to study its function in DNA replication and damage checkpoint. DNMT1 encodes DNA methyltransferase 1, which maintains the genomic methylation pattern and also regulates the checkpoint pathway via interactions with various factors, such as CHK1, p53, Rb and ATM. The interaction between NBS1 and DNMT1 was observed under conditions of hydroxyl urea treatment, resulting in replication stall and mitomycin C treatment resulting in DNA damage. Additionally, we mapped their binding regions to the N-terminus of NBS1 (including the forkhead-associated domain) and amino acids 1401-1503 in the target recognition domain in the C-terminus of DNMT1. Under DNA replication stall conditions, DNMT1 was recruited to the survivin promoter by p53, and it repressed survivin expression via hetrochromatin formation; this regulation was dependent on the NBS1 genotype. These results suggest that DNMT1 function in the regulatory response is controlled by NBS1.
Tooth agenesis is the most common developmental anomaly of human dentition, occurring most often in the third molar (wisdom tooth). It is affected by genetic variation, so this study aimed to identify susceptibility genes associated with third molar agenesis. Examination of panoramic radiographs and medical history about third molar extraction were used to diagnose third molar agenesis. We then conducted a genome-wide association study of 149 cases with at least one-third molar agenesis and 338 controls from Japan and Korea using the Illumina HumanOmniExpress BeadChip. After rigorous quality-control filtering, approximately 550?000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed in association tests with the status. We identified three SNPs showing evidence of association at P<1 × 10(-5) and 69 SNPs showing evidence of association at P<1 × 10(-4). SNP rs1469622, which maps to an intron of THSD7B (thrombospondin, type I, domain containing 7B) on chromosome 2, showed the strongest association (combined odds ratio=1.88, 95% confidence interval=1.43-2.47, P=7.5 × 10(-6)). The identified SNPs may be considered candidates for future replication studies in independent samples.
To describe the clinical features of members of a family with acorea, microphthalmia and cataract syndrome. In addition, to perform linkage analysis on family members to determine possible candidate genes.
The functional roles of SNPs within the 8q24 gene desert in the cancer phenotype are not yet well understood. Here, we report that CCAT2, a novel long noncoding RNA transcript (lncRNA) encompassing the rs6983267 SNP, is highly overexpressed in microsatellite-stable colorectal cancer and promotes tumor growth, metastasis, and chromosomal instability. We demonstrate that MYC, miR-17-5p, and miR-20a are up-regulated by CCAT2 through TCF7L2-mediated transcriptional regulation. We further identify the physical interaction between CCAT2 and TCF7L2 resulting in an enhancement of WNT signaling activity. We show that CCAT2 is itself a WNT downstream target, which suggests the existence of a feedback loop. Finally, we demonstrate that the SNP status affects CCAT2 expression and the risk allele G produces more CCAT2 transcript. Our results support a new mechanism of MYC and WNT regulation by the novel lncRNA CCAT2 in colorectal cancer pathogenesis, and provide an alternative explanation of the SNP-conferred cancer risk.
The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene (RB) product has been implicated in epigenetic control of gene expression owing to its ability to physically bind to many chromatin modifiers. However, the biological and clinical significance of this activity was not well elucidated. To address this, we performed genetic and epigenetic analyses in an Rb-deficient mouse thyroid C cell tumor model. Here we report that the genetic interaction of Rb and ATM regulates DNMT1 protein stability and hence controls the DNA methylation status in the promoters of at least the Ink4a, Shc2, FoxO6, and Noggin genes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that inactivation of pRB promotes Tip60 (acetyltransferase)-dependent ATM activation; allows activated ATM to physically bind to DNMT1, forming a complex with Tip60 and UHRF1 (E3 ligase); and consequently accelerates DNMT1 ubiquitination driven by Tip60-dependent acetylation. Our results indicate that inactivation of the pRB pathway in coordination with aberration in the DNA damage response deregulates DNMT1 stability, leading to an abnormal DNA methylation pattern and malignant progression.
Proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes are normally well balanced, but this balance can be perturbed in wound healing and is dysregulated in pathological conditions such as atopic dermatitis. Epithelial-mesenchymal interaction affects this event via the cross-talk of cytokines and growth factors. Periostin, a matricellular protein, has an important role during reepithelialization in wound healing and is critical for hyperproliferation of keratinocytes in atopic dermatitis. Here we investigated how periostin regulates proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes in the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions using a three-dimensional organotypic air-liquid interface coculture system. The release of IL-1? from keratinocytes and subsequent IL-6 production from fibroblasts were critical for keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Periostin secreted from fibroblasts was required for IL-1?-induced IL-6 production and enhanced IL-6 production by activation of the NF-?B pathway synergistically with IL-1?. Thus, the combination of an autocrine loop of periostin and a paracrine loop composed of IL-1? and IL-6 regulates keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation in the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, and periostin tunes the magnitude of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation by interacting with the paracrine IL-1?/IL-6 loop.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 19 December 2013; doi:10.1038/jid.2013.500.
When DNA replication is stalled at sites of DNA damage, a cascade of responses is activated in the cell to halt cell cycle progression and promote DNA repair. A pathway initiated by the kinase Ataxia teleangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR) and its partner ATR interacting protein (ATRIP) plays an important role in this response. The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is also activated following genomic stress, and defects in this pathway cause a cancer-prone hematologic disorder in humans. Little is known about how these two pathways are coordinated. We report here that following cellular exposure to DNA cross-linking damage, the FA core complex enhances binding and localization of ATRIP within damaged chromatin. In cells lacking the core complex, ATR-mediated phosphorylation of two functional response targets, ATRIP and FANCI, is defective. We also provide evidence that the canonical ATR activation pathway involving RAD17 and TOPBP1 is largely dispensable for the FA pathway activation. Indeed DT40 mutant cells lacking both RAD17 and FANCD2 were synergistically more sensitive to cisplatin compared with either single mutant. Collectively, these data reveal new aspects of the interplay between regulation of ATR-ATRIP kinase and activation of the FA pathway.
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multi-ligand cell surface receptor and a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. RAGE is involved in a wide range of inflammatory, degenerative and hyper-proliferative disorders which span over different organs by engaging diverse ligands, including advanced glycation end products, S100 family proteins, high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) and amyloid ?. We previously demonstrated that the cytoplasmic domain of RAGE is phosphorylated upon the binding of ligands, enabling the recruitment of two distinct pairs of adaptor proteins, Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) and myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88). This engagement allows the activation of downstream effector molecules, and thereby mediates a wide variety of cellular processes, such as inflammatory responses, apoptotic cell death, migration and cell growth. Therefore, inhibition of the binding of TIRAP to RAGE may abrogate intracellular signaling from ligand-activated RAGE. In the present study, we developed inhibitor peptides for RAGE signaling (RAGE-I) by mimicking the phosphorylatable cytosolic domain of RAGE. RAGE-I was efficiently delivered into the cells by polyethylenimine (PEI) cationization. We demonstrated that RAGE-I specifically bound to TIRAP and abrogated the activation of Cdc42 induced by ligand-activated RAGE. Furthermore, we were able to reduce neuronal cell death induced by an excess amount of S100B and to inhibit the migration and invasion of glioma cells in vitro. Our results indicate that RAGE-I provides a powerful tool for therapeutics to block RAGE-mediated multiple signaling.
Gout is a common disease which mostly occurs after middle age, but more people nowadays develop it before the age of thirty. We investigated whether common dysfunction of ABCG2, a high-capacity urate transporter which regulates serum uric acid levels, causes early-onset gout. 705 Japanese male gout cases with onset age data and 1,887 male controls were genotyped, and the ABCG2 functions which are estimated by its genotype combination were determined. The onset age was 6.5 years earlier with severe ABCG2 dysfunction than with normal ABCG2 function (P = 6.14 × 10(-3)). Patients with mild to severe ABCG2 dysfunction accounted for 88.2% of early-onset cases (twenties or younger). Severe ABCG2 dysfunction particularly increased the risk of early-onset gout (odds ratio 22.2, P = 4.66 × 10(-6)). Our finding that common dysfunction of ABCG2 is a major cause of early-onset gout will serve to improve earlier prevention and therapy for high-risk individuals.
A 23-year-old man with Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome (KTWS) was scheduled for left lower limb amputation. He had complained of severe lower limb pain. Oral administration of acetaminophen, duloxetine, and morphine did not alleviate the pain. Epidural block was performed preoperatively after confirming there were no abnormal angiomas in the lumbar spinal canal on CT scan. The pain was alleviated by the epidural block. The epidural block was also useful during the operation and postoperative pain management. There were no complications related to the epidural block. KTWS is a rare congenital malformation characterized by the triad of varicose veins, capillary malformations, and bony or soft tissue hypertrophy in affected limbs. Some patients with KTWS have epidural hemangioma and cerebral or spinal cord arteriovenous fistulas. There have been some reports of rupture of epidural hemangioma resulting in progressive paraplegia. When epidural block is scheduled for patients with KTWS, CT scan should be performed to investigate abnormal vessels in the lumbar spinal canal.
Protein-bound toxins are not efficiently removed by conventional hemodialysis techniques. In order to improve the removal of protein-bound toxins, we performed an in vitro study to evaluate the effects of dilution and pH change on the dissociation of protein-bound toxins from albumin. Human plasma harvested by therapeutic apheresis treatment was diluted with saline or isotonic NaHCO3 solution, and the amounts of the free fractions of indoxyl sulfate (IS) and homocysteine were determined. The results suggested that IS was dissociated easily from albumin by dilution and pH change; higher dilution was associated with more effective removal and a greater increase of the free fraction of IS. However, these methods did not facilitate dissociation of homocysteine from albumin. Effective removal of some protein-bound toxins may be achieved by applying dilution and pH change methods to blood purification techniques, such as pre-dilution on-line hemodiafiltration.
To discover susceptibility genes of late-onset Alzheimers disease (LOAD), we conducted a 3-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) using three populations: Japanese from the Japanese Genetic Consortium for Alzheimer Disease (JGSCAD), Koreans, and Caucasians from the Alzheimer Disease Genetic Consortium (ADGC). In Stage 1, we evaluated data for 5,877,918 genotyped and imputed SNPs in Japanese cases (n?=?1,008) and controls (n?=?1,016). Genome-wide significance was observed with 12 SNPs in the APOE region. Seven SNPs from other distinct regions with p-values <2×10(-5) were genotyped in a second Japanese sample (885 cases, 985 controls), and evidence of association was confirmed for one SORL1 SNP (rs3781834, P?=?7.33×10(-7) in the combined sample). Subsequent analysis combining results for several SORL1 SNPs in the Japanese, Korean (339 cases, 1,129 controls) and Caucasians (11,840 AD cases, 10,931 controls) revealed genome wide significance with rs11218343 (P?=?1.77×10(-9)) and rs3781834 (P?=?1.04×10(-8)). SNPs in previously established AD loci in Caucasians showed strong evidence of association in Japanese including rs3851179 near PICALM (P?=?1.71×10(-5)) and rs744373 near BIN1 (P?=?1.39×10(-4)). The associated allele for each of these SNPs was the same as in Caucasians. These data demonstrate for the first time genome-wide significance of LOAD with SORL1 and confirm the role of other known loci for LOAD in Japanese. Our study highlights the importance of examining associations in multiple ethnic populations.
NBS1 plays unique and essential roles in ATM activation in response to DNA double-strand breaks. We found that CHK1 phosphorylation and FANCD2 ubiquitination induced by various DNA replication-stalling agents were abrogated in Nbs1 knockout DT40 cells but not in conditional Mre11 knockout cells, indicating an MRE11-independent role for NBS1 in ATR activation. The results of in vitro ATR kinase assay indicated that the N-terminal region of NBS1 directly activates ATR independently of TOPBP1, consistent with the findings that this region of NBS1 directly interacts with ATR. This conclusion was furthermore supported by the results of in vivo experiments; the expression of the N-terminal region of NBS1 fused to PCNA induces ATR activation in Rad17 knockout cells, and the expression of the ATR activation domain of TOPBP1 fused to PCNA induces ATR activation in Nbs1 knockout cells. These results therefore indicate that NBS1 and TOPBP1 have the potential to activate ATR independently, although both are required for functional activation of ATR in vivo.
Although over 30 common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified to be independently associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), genetic risk variants reported to date explain only a small fraction of heritability. To identify novel susceptibility variants for CAD and confirm those previously identified in European population, GWAS and a replication study were performed in the Koreans and Japanese. In the discovery stage, we genotyped 2123 cases and 3591 controls with 521 786 SNPs using the Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0 chips in Korean. In the replication, direct genotyping was performed using 3052 cases and 4976 controls from the KItaNagoya Genome study of Japan with 14 selected SNPs. To maximize the coverage of the genome, imputation was performed based on 1000 Genome JPT+CHB and 5.1 million SNPs were retained. CAD association was replicated for three GWAS-identified loci (1p13.3/SORT1 (rs599839), 9p21.3/CDKN2A/2B (rs4977574), and 11q22.3/ PDGFD (rs974819)) in Koreans. From GWAS and a replication, SNP rs3782889 showed a strong association (combined P=3.95 × 10(-14)), although the association of SNP rs3782889 doesnt remain statistically significant after adjusting for SNP rs11066015 (proxy SNP with BRAP (r(2)=1)). But new possible CAD-associated variant was observed for rs9508025 (FLT1), even though its statistical significance did marginally reach at the genome-wide a significance level (combined P=6.07 × 10(-7)). This study shows that three CAD susceptibility loci, which were previously identified in European can be directly replicated in Koreans and also provides additional evidences implicating suggestive loci as risk variants for CAD in East Asian.
PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify factors associated with atrophic tongue in patients with dry mouth. METHODS: Discriminant analysis was performed in 1265 patients with dry mouth to identify factors that might influence the risk of developing atrophic tongue. The dependent variable was the presence of atrophic tongue, while patient age, resting saliva flow rate, stimulated saliva flow rate and Candida colony-forming units (CFU) were used as the independent variables. RESULTS: The standardised linear discriminant coefficients showed that Candida CFU, stimulated saliva flow rate and age were significantly associated with the presence of atrophic tongue. The following linear discriminant function was obtained: z = 0.024 × age - 0.63 × (resting saliva flow rate) - 0.81 × (stimulated saliva flow rate) + 0.002 × Candida CFU - 0.611. CONCLUSION: High Candida CFU, low stimulated saliva flow rate and advanced age were identified as closely associated factors for the risk of development of atrophic tongue.
Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) requires a steep Trendelenburg position and CO2 pneumoperitoneum for several hours to secure the surgical visual field. The present study was performed to investigate the influence of each angle of Trendelenburg position during RALP on cardiovascular and respiratory homeostasis.
The familial clustering of multinodular goitres (MNGs) with a dominant mode of inheritance has been repeatedly reported. Linkage studies have revealed several genetic loci responsible for familial MNG; however, most of the causative variants remain unknown.
Peripheral nerve block has many advantages in surgical anesthesia with or without general anesthesia; postoperative analgesia, faster postoperative rehabilitation, and chronic pain management. However, serious adverse complications after peripheral nerve block can happen. Therefore, anesthetists should obtain full informed consent for possible complications, and require scrupulous attention to this procedure. This review focuses on complications of brachial plexus block because it is the most popular peripheral nerve block.
A new understanding of the genetic basis of coronary artery disease (CAD) has recently emerged from genome-wide association (GWA) studies of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), thus far performed mostly in European-descent populations. To identify novel susceptibility gene variants for CAD and confirm those previously identified mostly in populations of European descent, a multistage GWA study was performed in the Japanese. In the discovery phase, we first genotyped 806 cases and 1337 controls with 451?382 SNP markers and subsequently assessed 34 selected SNPs with direct genotyping (541 additional cases) and in silico comparison (964 healthy controls). In the replication phase, involving 3052 cases and 6335 controls, 12 SNPs were tested; CAD association was replicated and/or verified for 4 (of 12) SNPs from 3 loci: near BRAP and ALDH2 on 12q24 (P=1.6 × 10(-34)), HLA-DQB1 on 6p21 (P=4.7 × 10(-7)), and CDKN2A/B on 9p21 (P=6.1 × 10(-16)). On 12q24, we identified the strongest association signal with the strength of association substantially pronounced for a subgroup of myocardial infarction cases (P=1.4 × 10(-40)). On 6p21, an HLA allele, DQB1(*)0604, could show one of the most prominent association signals in an ?8-Mb interval that encompasses the LTA gene, where an association with myocardial infarction had been reported in another Japanese study. CAD association was also identified at CDKN2A/B, as previously reported in different populations of European descent and Asians. Thus, three loci confirmed in the Japanese GWA study highlight the likely presence of risk alleles with two types of genetic effects - population specific and common - on susceptibility to CAD.
A 70-year-old woman (142 cm in height, 75 kg in weight, BMI 37) received right total hip arthroplasty in the left lateral decubitus position. The operation time was 9 and a half hours. The morning after the operation, erythema accompanied with bullae was observed on the skin of the left parotid gland and left shoulder, and left facial nerve palsy developed. The palsy was almost paralysis with marked facial asymmetry and severe blepharoptosis. Ultrasonography showed diffuse swelling of the left parotid gland. The serum amylase level was 642 IU . l-1 (normal range : 40-113). Prolonged parotid gland compression during the operation would have caused acute swelling of the parotid gland and facial nerve palsy. The palsy resolved completely after 5 months.
To identify genetic variants that confer the risk of Graves disease (GD) in the Japanese population, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 1119 Japanese individuals with GD and 2718 unrelated controls, and a subsequent replication study using independent 432 GD cases and 1157 controls. We identified 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to be significantly associated with GD in the GWAS phase. Twenty-two out of 34 SNPs remained positive in the replication study. All 22 SNPs were located within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus on chromosome 6p21. No strong long-range linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed among the 22 SNPs, indicating independent involvement of multiple loci within the MHC with the risk of GD. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis selected rs3893464, rs4313034, rs3132613, rs4248154, rs2273017, rs9394159 and rs4713693, as markers for independent risk loci for GD. The analysis of LD between these seven SNPs and tagging SNPs for GD-associated human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles in the Japanese population (HLA-DPB1(*)0501 and HLA-A(*)0206) demonstrated that all of and five of seven SNPs were not in strong LD with HLA-DPB1(*)0501 and HLA-A(*)0206, respectively. Although causal variants remain to be identified, our results demonstrate the existence of multiple GD susceptibility loci within the MHC region.
Claspin was originally identified as a Check1 (Chk1)-interacting protein. Claspin and Rad17 are reportedly involved in the DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of Chk1, a hallmark of checkpoint activation. To understand the cellular functions of Claspin and the functional relationship between Claspin and Rad17, we generated Claspin(-/-) and Claspin(-/-)/RAD17(-) cells using chicken DT40 cells, which contain an exogenously introduced Claspin that can be suppressed by the addition of doxycycline (Dox). In the presence of Dox, Claspin(-/-) cells ceased growth within 2 days, leading to cell death. In addition, a remarkable reduction in the rate of DNA elongation was observed in Claspin-depleted cells, suggesting that Claspin plays a critical role in DNA replication in the absence of exogenous stress. When cells were exposed to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), a DNA damaging agent, RAD17(-) cells showed a greater defect in checkpoint activation than Claspin(-/-) cells as monitored by progression of cell cycle and phosphorylation of Chk1. Knocking out RAD17 gene showed almost no additive effects on cell death and DNA elongation rates in Claspin-depleted cells.
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) has long been a mainstay antimetabolite chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of major solid tumors, particularly colorectal cancer. 5-FU is processed intracellularly to yield active metabolites that compromise RNA and DNA metabolism. However, the mechanisms responsible for its cytotoxicity are not fully understood. From the phenotypic analysis of mutant chicken B lymphoma DT40 cells, we found that homologous recombinational repair (HRR), involving Rad54 and BRCA2, and the ATR-Chk1 signaling pathway, involving Rad9 and Rad17, significantly contribute to 5-FU tolerance. 5-FU induced ?H2AX nuclear foci, which were colocalized with the key HRR factor Rad51, but not with DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), in a dose-dependent manner as cells accumulated in the S phase. Inhibition of Chk1 kinase by UCN-01 increased 5-FU-induced ?H2AX and enhanced 5-FU cytotoxicity not only in wild-type cells but also in Rad54- or BRCA2-deficient cells, suggesting that HRR and Chk1 kinase have non-overlapping roles in 5-FU tolerance. 5-FU-induced Chk1 phosphorylation was significantly impaired in Rad9- or Rad17-deficient cells, and severe ?H2AX nuclear foci and DSBs were formed, which was followed by apoptosis. Finally, inhibition of Chk1 kinase by UCN-01 increased 5-FU-induced ?H2AX nuclear foci and enhanced 5-FU cytotoxicity in Rad9- or Rad17-deficient cells. These results suggest that Rad9- and Rad17-independent activation of the ATR-Chk1 signaling pathway also significantly contributes to 5-FU tolerance.
The dialyzer housing structure should be designed in such a way that high dialysis performance is achieved. To achieve high dialysis performance, the flow of the dialysis fluid and blood should be uniform, without channeling and dead spaces. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fiber packing density on the flow of dialysis fluid and blood, and on the dialysis performance of a hollow-fiber dialyzer at defined flow rates for blood (Q (B) = 200 mL/min), dialysis fluid (Q (D) = 500 mL/min), and filtrate (Q (F) = 0 mL/min). We measured Q (D), Q (B), and solute clearance for 3 test dialyzers with dialyzer housing different diameters. To evaluate the flow of dialysis fluid and blood, we measured the residence time of the dialysis fluid and blood in the test dialyzers by use of the pulse-response method. We also measured the clearances of urea, creatinine, vitamin B(12), and lysozyme to evaluate the dialysis performance of the test dialyzers. At packing densities ranging from 48 to 67%, higher packing densities and lower housing diameters of the dialyzer resulted in higher dialysis performance because the dialysis fluid and blood entered the hollow-fiber bundle smoothly and, hence, increased contact area between the dialysis fluid and the blood led to better dialysis performance.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a birth defect of the diaphragm associated with pulmonary hypoplasia. Although genetic factors have been suggested to play a role, the etiology of CDH is still largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed copy number variants (CNVs) using a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to examine whether microdeletions contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease.
We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in 19,608 subjects of east Asian ancestry from the AGEN-BP consortium followed up with de novo genotyping (n = 10,518) and further replication (n = 20,247) in east Asian samples. We identified genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10(-8)) associations with SBP or DBP, which included variants at four new loci (ST7L-CAPZA1, FIGN-GRB14, ENPEP and NPR3) and a newly discovered variant near TBX3. Among the five newly discovered variants, we obtained significant replication in the independent samples for all of these loci except NPR3. We also confirmed seven loci previously identified in populations of European descent. Moreover, at 12q24.13 near ALDH2, we observed strong association signals (P = 7.9 × 10(-31) and P = 1.3 × 10(-35) for SBP and DBP, respectively) with ethnic specificity. These findings provide new insights into blood pressure regulation and potential targets for intervention.
We conducted a three-stage genetic study to identify susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in east Asian populations. We followed our stage 1 meta-analysis of eight T2D genome-wide association studies (6,952 cases with T2D and 11,865 controls) with a stage 2 in silico replication analysis (5,843 cases and 4,574 controls) and a stage 3 de novo replication analysis (12,284 cases and 13,172 controls). The combined analysis identified eight new T2D loci reaching genome-wide significance, which mapped in or near GLIS3, PEPD, FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, KCNK16, MAEA, GCC1-PAX4, PSMD6 and ZFAND3. GLIS3, which is involved in pancreatic beta cell development and insulin gene expression, is known for its association with fasting glucose levels. The evidence of an association with T2D for PEPD and HNF4A has been shown in previous studies. KCNK16 may regulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion in the pancreas. These findings, derived from an east Asian population, provide new perspectives on the etiology of T2D.
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of a broad range of inflammatory, degenerative and hyperproliferative diseases. It binds to diverse ligands and activates multiple intracellular signaling pathways. Despite these pivotal functions, molecular events just downstream of ligand-activated RAGE have been surprisingly unknown. Here we show that the cytoplasmic domain of RAGE is phosphorylated at Ser391 by PKC? upon binding of ligands. TIRAP and MyD88, which are known to be adaptor proteins for Toll-like receptor-2 and -4 (TLR2/4), bound to the phosphorylated RAGE and transduced a signal to downstream molecules. Blocking of the function of TIRAP and MyD88 largely abrogated intracellular signaling from ligand-activated RAGE. Our findings indicate that functional interaction between RAGE and TLRs coordinately regulates inflammation, immune response and other cellular functions.
A 74-year-old man was scheduled for laparoscopic low anterior resection of rectal cancer. Preoperative blood coagulation test showed his prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) remarkably prolonged. However, he experienced only slight epistaxis. Further examination suggested the presence of acquired factor V inhibitor. Plasmapheresis was carried out before surgery to eradicate inhibitors, but improvement of PT and APTT was temporary. We prepared platelet transfusion and recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) for acute intraoperative bleeding, but there were no abnormal episodes during the surgery. On postoperative day 15, the patient suddenly passed blood in his stool, and received platelet transfusion. For the majority of patients with acquired factor V inhibitor, bleeding is usually mild, but fatal bleeding complications have also been reported. Platelet transfusion was effective in the patient described here.
REIC/Dkk-3 was first identified as a down-regulated gene in a number of human immortalized cells and human tumor-derived cell lines. Overexpression of the REIC/Dkk-3 gene using an adenovirus vector (Ad-REIC) has showed a potent selective therapeutic effect on various human cancers through induction of ER stress. Furthermore, we recently showed that Ad-REIC has an indirect host-mediated anti-tumor activity by induction of IL-7. However, the physiological function of REIC/Dkk-3 is still unclear. As a first step to study the possible receptor(s) for secreted REIC/Dkk-3, we analyzed the internalization of Cy3-labeled recombinant REIC/Dkk-3 protein. Among the cell lines screened, mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells showed a unique pattern of internalization. The internalization was observed in peripheral cells of spherical colonies formed spontaneously, but not in undifferentiated iPS cells. When we analyzed embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from iPS cells, REIC/Dkk-3 protein was internalized specifically by differentiated cells located at the periphery of EBs. Interestingly, Dkk-1 was internalized by undifferentiated cells at the center of the EBs. When developmental tissue was analyzed, internalization of REIC/Dkk-3 protein was strictly limited to extra-embryonic tissue, such as the trophectoderm layer of 4.5 days post-coitus (dpc) blastocysts and the chorionic membrane at 16.5 dpc. The mechanism of the internalization was confirmed to be endocytosis. These findings will contribute to knowledge on the interaction of REIC/Dkk-3 with a possible receptor(s).
The objective of this study was to determine the optimum dialyzer jacket structure and hollow-fiber dialysis membrane, both of which are indispensable factors for achieving high dialysis performance, by clarifying the relationship between the dialysis performance and the flow of dialysate and blood in a hollow-fiber dialyzer. We evaluated the clearance, dialysate, and blood flow for four commercially available hollow-fiber dialyzers, namely, the APS-15S, APS-15SA, TS-1.6UL, and CX-1.6U. To evaluate dialysate and blood flow, we measured the residence-time distribution of dialysate and blood flow of these dialyzers by the pulse-response method. We also determined the clearances of urea, creatinine, vitamin B(12), and lysozyme to evaluate the dialysis performance of these dialyzers. While the baffle and taper structures allow effective supply of dialysate into the dialyzer jacket, the hollow-fiber shape, inner diameter, and packing density significantly influence the dialysate flow. In dialyzers with long taper-holding slits, the slit area is a key design parameter for achieving optimum dialysate flow. Similarly, the blood flow is significantly influenced by the structure of the inflowing and outflowing blood ports at the header of a dialyzer, and the shape and inner diameter of the hollow fibers. Hollow fibers with smaller inner diameters cause an increase in blood pressure, which causes blood to enter the hollow fibers more easily. The hollow-fiber shape hardly affects the blood flow. While improved dialysate and blood flow cause higher clearance of low molecular-weight substances, higher membrane area and pure-water permeability accelerate internal filtration, thereby causing an increase in the clearance of large molecular-weight substances.
We investigated the effect of attention on the flash-lag effect (FLE) in order to determine whether the FLE can be used to estimate the effect of visual attention. The FLE is the effect that a flash aligned with a moving object is perceived to lag the moving object, and several studies have shown that attention reduces its magnitude. We measured the FLE as a function of the number or speed of moving objects. The results showed that the effect of cueing, which we attributed the effect of attention, on the FLE increased monotonically with the number or the speed of the objects. This suggests that the amount of attention can be estimated by measuring the FLE, assuming that more amount of attention is required for a larger number or faster speed of objects to attend. On the basis of this presumption, we attempted to measure the spatial spread of visual attention by FLE measurements. The estimated spatial spreads were similar to those estimated by other experimental methods.
Current oral contraceptive (OCs) use is associated with a fivefold increased risk of perioperative venous thromboembolism (VTE). Although the absolute number of patient who develops perioperative VTE when taking OCs is small (15-25 per 100,000 person-years), the newer OC contains desogestrel as progestogen (the third generation OC) is found to have slightly greater risk of VTE than the older OCs. "WHO criteria for the use of oral contraceptive, third edition (2004)" classifies only the major surgery with prolonged immobilization as "Category 4" where oral contraceptive is not to be used. On the contrary, Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare prohibits OCs in all kinds of surgery. Although the restraint of perioperative OCs administration is invalid, it would be prudent to halt perioperative OCs in Japan.
An increasing number of preoperative patients are receiving therapy with an oral anticoagulant (warfarin) or antiplatelet drugs to prevent thromboembolic complications. Because of its irreversible inhibition on hepatic synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors, warfarin must be stopped 3 to 4 (ideally 4 to 5) days prior to the planned major operation. Normal PT-INR is mandatory prior for neuraxial block. Rapid reversal of warfarin in emergency settings with FFP rather than vitamin K is advocated. More reliable and prompt reversal is possible with PCCs and rFVIIa, but this approach is off-label use in Japan as well as in the US. Antiplatelet drugs have different mechanisms to suppress platelet aggregation. Ticlopidine and clopidogrel should be stopped 7 days prior to the major surgery because of their irreversible inhibition on ADP receptors of platelets. Although it is recommended to stop aspirin 7 days prior to the planned major surgery in some guidelines, low dose oral aspirin (75-300 mg day(-1)) alone is accepted in another guideline because it does not create a level of risk that will interfere with the performance of neuraxial blocks.
Carvedilol is a nonselective ?-adrenoceptor and selective ?(1)-adrenoceptor blocker and is widely used in the treatment of patients with hypertensive and/or chronic heart failure because, unlike classic ?-blockers, this drug has additional endothelium-dependent vasodilatory effects. We evaluated the effects of oral administration of carvedilol on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in a rat model of cardiac arrest (CA) induced by airway obstruction.
Several growth factors and transcription factors have been reported to play important roles in brown adipocyte differentiation and modulation of thermogenic gene expression, especially the expression of UCP1. In this study, we focused on KLF11 and KLF15, which were expressed highly in brown adipose tissue. Our data demonstrated that KLF11 and KLF15 interacted directly with the UCP1 promoter using GC-box and GT-boxes, respectively. Co-transfection of KLF11 and KLF15 in the mesenchymal stem cell line muBM3.1 during brown adipocyte differentiation enhanced the expression level of UCP1. KLF11, but not KLF15, was essential for UCP1 expression during brown adipocyte differentiation of muBM3.1.
An intracranial aneurysm (IA), which results in a subarachnoid hemorrhage with a high mortality on rupture, is a major public health concern. To identify genetic susceptibility loci for IA, we carried out a multistage association study using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Japanese case-control subjects. In this study, we assessed evidence for association in standard approaches, and additional tests with adjusting sex effects that act between genetic effect and disease. Consequently, five SNPs (P=1.31 × 10(-5) for rs1930095 of intergenic region; P=1.32 × 10(-5) for rs4628172 of TMEM195; P=2.78 × 10(-5) for rs7781293 of TMEM195; P=4.93 × 10(-5) for rs7550260 of ARHGEF11; and P=3.63 × 10(-5) for rs9864101 of IQSEC1) with probabilities of being false positives <0.5 were associated with IA in Japanese population, and the susceptibility genes could have a role in actin remodeling in the ELN/LIMK pathway. This study indicates the presence of several susceptibility loci that deserve further investigation in the Japanese population.
To elucidate the novel and common genetic changes in histopathologic subtype-specific profiles of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), a newly developed high-resolution whole-genome array analysis was applied. Human CNV370-Duo DNA Analysis BeadChip (genotype 370K) was used in a panel of 22 primary clear cell RCCs (ccRCCs), seven papillary RCCs (PRCCs) (six type II and one type I) and eight chromophobe RCCs (ChRCCs). In ccRCC, a chromosome 3p loss was identified in 95% of the carcinomas, suggesting that 3p loss is the first stage in ccRCC carcinogenesis. Other frequent changes included losses of 1p (23%), 3q (46%) and 8p (32%), and gains of 5q (32%), 7p (27%), 7q (27%) and 1q (23%). The most frequent chromosomal losses in PRCC (43%) were noted in 3p and 3q, followed by 29% of losses of 1p, 1q, 11q, 18q, 22p and 22q, and gains of 20q (57%), 20p (43%), 8q (43%) and 12q (43%). Loss of the entire chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 8, 10, 13 or 17 was noted in patients with ChRCC. A high-density single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis confirmed that partial chromosomal changes rarely occur in ChRCC. Additionally, 32 microdeletions and 10 microamplifications of less than 1 Mb were detected, which may represent potential candidate tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, respectively.
Two consortium-based genome-wide association studies have recently identified robust and significant associations of common variants with systolic and diastolic blood pressures in populations of European descent, warranting further investigation in populations of non-European descent.
Zn²(+)-finger proteins comprise one of the largest protein superfamilies with diverse biological functions. The ATM substrate Chk2-interacting Zn²(+)-finger protein (ASCIZ; also known as ATMIN and ZNF822) was originally linked to functions in the DNA base damage response and has also been proposed to be an essential cofactor of the ATM kinase. Here we show that absence of ASCIZ leads to p53-independent late-embryonic lethality in mice. Asciz-deficient primary fibroblasts exhibit increased sensitivity to DNA base damaging agents MMS and H2O2, but Asciz deletion knock-down does not affect ATM levels and activation in mouse, chicken, or human cells. Unexpectedly, Asciz-deficient embryos also exhibit severe respiratory tract defects with complete pulmonary agenesis and severe tracheal atresia. Nkx2.1-expressing respiratory precursors are still specified in the absence of ASCIZ, but fail to segregate properly within the ventral foregut, and as a consequence lung buds never form and separation of the trachea from the oesophagus stalls early. Comparison of phenotypes suggests that ASCIZ functions between Wnt2-2b/ß-catenin and FGF10/FGF-receptor 2b signaling pathways in the mesodermal/endodermal crosstalk regulating early respiratory development. We also find that ASCIZ can activate expression of reporter genes via its SQ/TQ-cluster domain in vitro, suggesting that it may exert its developmental functions as a transcription factor. Altogether, the data indicate that, in addition to its role in the DNA base damage response, ASCIZ has separate developmental functions as an essential regulator of respiratory organogenesis.
Twist1 has been proposed to have oncogenic properties. Although Twist1 was reported to interact with p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) and to inhibit the functions of PCAF, it remains unclear how PCAF affects the functions of Twist1, cell growth, invasive ability, and cellular sensitivity to anticancer agents. We found that PCAF, Twist1, and Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) expressions were elevated in cisplatin- and doxorubicin-resistant cancer cells. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that PCAF manipulation modulated YB-1 transcription in a Twist1-dependent manner. In addition, PCAF regulated the Twist1 intracellular localization and the Twist1 transcriptional activity through its acetylation function to the Twist1. Suppression of PCAF expression reduced YB-1 expression in human urothelial cancer KK47 cells. As a result, the cell growth and invasive ability of KK47 cells was retarded by PCAF knockdown, and PCAF knockdown rendered KK47 cells sensitive to cisplatin and doxorubicin, but not to 5-fluorouracil. The present data suggest that Twist1 and YB-1 as well as PCAF may be promising molecular therapeutic targets.
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare disease of infancy or early childhood. To clarify the incidence and subtypes of FHL in Japan, we performed genetic and functional analyses of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in Japanese patients with FHL.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during hemodialysis treatment cause dialysis complications because of the high reactivity of ROS. To prevent dialysis complications caused by oxidative stress, it is important to evaluate the generation and dismutation of ROS during hemodialysis treatment. In this study, our aim was to develop a device to determine superoxide (O(2)(-)) generated inside a dialysis hollow fiber, and also to examine whether this device could detect O(2)(-) separated from plasma using hollow fibers. Experimental apparatus was set up so that hypoxanthine (HX) solution flowed inside the hollow fibers and 2-methyl-6-p-methoxyphenylethynyl-imidazopyrazinone (MPEC) solution flowed outside the hollow fibers. Then, xanthine oxidase (XOD) solution was added to the HX solution to generate O(2)(-), and chemiluminescence resulting from the reaction of O(2)(-) with MPEC was measured with an optical fiber. Chemiluminescence intensity was measured at different HX concentrations, and the peak area of relative luminescence intensity yielded a first-order correlation with the HX concentration. Based on the relationship between HX and O(2)(-) concentrations determined by the cytochrome c reduction method, the relative luminescence intensity measured by this device was linearly dependent on the O(2)(-) concentration inside the hollow fibers. After modifications were made to the device, XOD solution injection into plasma including HX resulted in an increase in the relative luminescence intensity. We concluded that this novel device based on chemiluminescence is capable of determining aqueous O(2)(-) generated inside a hollow fiber and also of detecting O(2)(-) in plasma.
The majority of complete hydatidiform moles (CHMs) harbor duplicated haploid genomes that originate from sperm. This makes CHMs more advantageous than conventional diploid cells for determining haplotypes of SNPs and copy-number variations (CNVs), because all of the genetic variants in a CHM genome are homozygous. Here we report SNP and CNV haplotype structures determined by analysis of 100 CHMs from Japanese subjects via high-density DNA arrays. The obtained haplotype map should be useful as a reference for the haplotype structure of Asian populations. We resolved common CNV regions (merged CNV segments across the examined samples) into CNV events (clusters of CNV segments) on the basis of mutual overlap and found that the haplotype backgrounds of different CNV events within the same CNV region were predominantly similar, perhaps because of inherent structural instability.
The function and dysfunction of the central noradrenergic system were reviewed together with the implications for the pathophysiological understanding of functional psychosis. Like the peripheral noradrenergic system, the central noradrenergic system plays a pivotal role in fight/flight reactions and stress. Overactivity of the system induces not only a sympathotonic state but also hyperarousal accompanied by insomnia, anxiety, irritability, emotional instability, paranoia, and excitation. On the other hand, its underactivity lowers the sympathetic tone and arousal level, resulting in hypersomnia, blunted responsiveness, or apathy. It has been confirmed in animal experiments that excess stress causes dysfunctions of the central noradrenergic system as a result of compensation, such as the overutilization-induced oversynthesis of noradrenaline. Dysfunction of the system, particularly its overactivity, plays an important role in various functional psychoses such as anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, and mood disorder, as well as behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Pharmacologically, the sedative effect of minor and major tranquilizers on hyperarousal is mediated by their action as noradrenaline antagonists. Some antidepressants potentiate noradrenergic activity, and should be used carefully in hyperaroused depressive patients. Thus, clinical evaluation of the central noradrenergic pathophysiology will provide us with information related to arousal to advance our understanding and treatment of functional psychoses.
Several lines of evidence strongly suggest that accumulation of noradrenaline (NA) in the brain may underlie the hyperarousal symptoms experienced in post-traumatic stress disorder. In animal experiments, however, the effect of stress on NA content appears complex; acute stress reduces the level, while chronic stress tends to increase it. To explain this discrepancy, it is necessary to observe the long-term effects of acute stress on NA metabolism in the brain. In this study, rats were exposed to intermittent intense footshock stress for 1 h, and the brain NA content was measured for 7 days after the stress stimulus. Hypothalamic NA content was immediately reduced and recovered within 24 h. However, a significant NA increase was observed 7 days after the footshock. In the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, an increase in NA content was observed 1 day after the stress and lasted for at least 7 days. The fact that the content of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, a major NA metabolite, only transiently increased in all these regions possibly reflects NA release. These results indicate that increase in the brain NA content can be induced by acute stress, though its emergence is delayed. Importantly, this suggests that both acute and chronic stress may lead to NA accumulation under the same mechanism.
Recent studies have demonstrated that the Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in bone metabolism. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the gene of secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1), a Wnt antagonist, is involved in the etiology of osteoporosis using association study.
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